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(Previous Volumes, "TRANSACTIONS.") 






Addresses at Annual Meetings ; Some Review of Fifty Ye.*-rs ; The 

Withdrawal of the Methodist Church, South, from Kansas; 

Blizzards, Earthquakes and Rainfall; The Kansas School 

Fund; The Route of Coronado; Crossing the Plains; The 

Soldier in Kansas; First Kansas at Wilson's Creek; 

A Beecher Island Diary ; An Indian Fight in Ford 

County; First Capital of Territory; Lost 

Towns and Names; Personal Narrative. 

Edited by GEO. W. MARTIN, Secretary. 



9-7?. I 

.J, IP^ TOPEKA, 1912. 

The word "Transactions" on the title page of this series has 
been changed to "Collections," to conform with the character 
of the publication. Originally the transactions of the Society, 
business and otherwise, were published in the same volume 
with historical papers, but each feature has assumed such im- 
portance as to require a separate volume. The "Transactions" 
of the Society are now all contained in biennial reports, the last 
being the seventeenth, while the "Collections" are the same 
aeries as "Transactions." 



Wm. E. Connelley, Topeka, President. 

David E. Ballard, Washington, First Vice President. 

Samuel J. Crawford, Baxter Springs, Second Vice President. 

Geo. W. Martin, Topeka, Secretary. 

Mrs. Mary Embree, Topeka, Treasurer. 


•Samuel A. Kingman, Topeka 1876 

•George A. Crawford. Fort Scott 1877 

•John A. Martin, Atchison 1878 

'Chas. Robinson. Lawrence 1879, 1880 

•T. D wight Thacher, Lawrence .... 1881. 1882 

•Floyd P. Baker, Topeka 1883, 1884 

•Daniel R. Anthony, Leavenworth . 1885, 1886 

•Daniel W. Wilder, Hiawatha 1887 

•Edward Russell, Lawrence 1888 

•William A. Phillips, Salina 1889 

'Cyrus K. Holliday. Topeka 1890 

•James S. Emery, Lawrence 1891 

•Thomas A. Osborn. Topeka 1892 

•Percival G. Lowe, Leavenworth. 1893 

Vincent J. Lane, Kansas City 1894 

•Solon O. Thacher, Lawrence 1895 

• Deceased. 

•Edmund N. Morrill, Hiawatha 1696 

*Harrison Kelly. Burlington 1897 

•John Speer, Lawrence 1898 

•Eugene F. Ware, Kansas City, Kan 1899 

•John G. Haskell. Lawrence 190O 

John Francis. Colony 1901 

William H. Smith, Marysville 1902; 

William B. Stone, Galena 1903 

John Martin, Topeka 1904 

Robert M. Wright, Dodge City 1905 

Horace L. Moore, Lawrence 1906 

•James R. Mead, Wichita 1907 

George W. Veale, Topeka 1908 

•George W. Click, Atchison 1909 

Albe B. Whiting. Topeka 1910 

Edwin C. Manning, Winfield 1911 



Kansas State Historical Society. 


Beach. J. H.. Hays City. 
Blackmar. Frank W.. Lawrence. 
Boyd, H. N.. Belleville. 
Campbell. J. W.. Plevna. 
Cochrane, Warren B., Columbus. 
Connelley. William E.. Topeka. 
Crawford, Samuel J., Baxter Springs. 
Davis, John W., Gieensburg. 
Fagerberg, Oscar, Olsburg. 
Faxon. Ralph H.. Garden City. 
Feder. W. P., Great Bend. 
Fike, J. N.. Colby. 
Fisher, J. W., Topeka. 
Flenniken, Benjamin F., Topeka. , 
Gleed. Charles S.. Topeka. 
Glenn, W. M., Tribune. 
Gray, John M., Kirwin. 

Ballard. David E.. 'Washington. 
Bonebrake: P. I., Topeka. 
Brougher, Ira D., Great Bend. 
Bumgardner. Edward, Lawrence. 
Burge. N. B., Topeka. 
Clark. Elon S., Topeka. 
Coney, P. H., Topeka. 
Conover, John, Kansas City. Mo. 
Cron, F. H., El Dorado. 
Dawson, John S., Hill City. 
Everhardy, J. L., Leavenworth. 
Fairfield, S. H.. Alma. 
Francis, John, Colony. 
Frost, John E .Topeka. 
Haskell, W. W.." Kansas City. 
Jacobs. John T., Council Grove. 
Jewett, E. B., Wichita. 

Anthony, D. R., jr.. Leavenworth. 
Aplington, Kate A., Council Grove. 
Aten, Henry J.. Hiawatha. 
Benton, Otis L., Oberlin. 
Brewster, S. W.. Chanute. 
Brokaw, C. L , Kansas City. 
Capper. Arthur. Topeka. 
Christiansen, Louis. Smoky Hill. 
Coburn. F. D., Topeka. 
Corey. Charles E., Fort Scott. 
Francis, Clara, Colony. 
Greene, Albert R., Steven.son, Wash. 
Hamilton, Clad. Topeka. 
Harrison, J. N., Ottawa. 
Hodder, F. H., Lawrence. 
Hogin, John C, Belleville. 
Huron, George A., Topeka. 

Hill, Joseph H., Emporia. 
Hyde, Arthur M., Topeka. 
Johnson, Mrs. Elizabeth A., Courtland. 
Little, James H.. La Crosse. 
Mitchell, J. K., Osborne. 
Moore, Horace L., Lawrence. 
Purcell, Elizabeth Huyt, Manhattan. 
Robertson, Fred, Atwood. 
Ruppenthal, J. C. Russell. 
Smith, E. D., Meade. 
Smith, W. H.. Marysville. 
Shields. J. B., Lost Springs. 
Spilman, A. C, McPherson. 
Stubbs, W. R., Lawrence. 
Vandegrift. Fred L.. Kansas City, Mo. 
Wilder, Mrs. Charlotte F., Manhattan. 

Kelley, J. Will, Topeka. 
Kimball. F. M., Topeka. 
Lambertson, W. P., Fairview. 
McCarter, Mrs. Margaret Hill, Topeka. 
Manning, E. C, Winfield. 
Orr, James W., Atchison. 
Price. Ralph R.. Manhattan. 
Quincy. Fred H., Salina. 
Root. Geo. A., Topeka. 
Slonecker, J. G., Topeka. 
Stewart. J. H.. Wichita. 
Toothaker, George W., Kansas City, Kan. 
Valentine, Harry E., Topeka. 
Whiting, Albe B., Topeka. 
Woolard, Samuel F., Wichita. 
Yoxall. George, Stockton. 


Ingalls, Sheffield. Atchison. 

Johnston. Lucy B., Minneapolis. 
1 Keeling, Henry C, Caldwell. 

Kennedy, Thomas B , Junction City. 

Kiner, Rebecca D, Hiawatha. 

Kingman, Lucy D., Topeka. 

Linscott, George S., Holton. 
I Markham, O. G., Baldwin. 

Miller John, Cottonwood Falls. 

Morehouse, George P., Topeka. 

Orr, S. C, Manhattan, 

Potter, Thomas M., Peabody. 

Plumb. George, Emporia. 

Sanders, Frank K.. Topeka. 

Simmons, J. S., Hutchinson. 

Watson. George W.,* Kinsley. 

• Deceased. 

Kansas State Historical Society. 


Adams. J, B., El Dorado. 
Anderson, Theodore W., Chicago. 111. 
Anthony, Daniel R., Leavenworth. 
Anthony. Daniel R., jr., Leavenworth. 
Arnold, Mrs. Louise Campbell, Topeka. 
Bailey, Willis J., Atchison. 
Ballard, Clinton David. Barnes. 

(Born August 10, 1898.) 
Ballard, David E., Washington. 
Banker, Louis, Russell. 
Benton, Otis L.. Oberlin. 
Berryman, J. W., Ashland. 
Bernhardt, Christian, Lincoln. 
Bigger, L A , Hutchinson. 
Bishop. John L., High Grove, Calif. 
Bockemohle, W. Len, Ellinwood. 
Bonebrake. P. I., Toprka. 
Brougher, Ira D., Great Bend. 
Burge. N. B., Topeka. 
Burkholder, E. R.. McPherson. 
Cain, W S., Atchison. 
Campbell, A. M., jr., Salina. 
Campbell, J. W.. Plevna. 
Capper, Arthur, Topeka. 
Capuchins Fathers, Victoria. 
Carson, C. W., Ashland. 
Christiansen. Lewis, Smoky Hill. 
Clark, Elon S.. Topeka. 
Clarke, Frtd B., Seattle, Wash. 
Clarke. Genevieve Slonecker, Blue Mound. 

(Born June 20. 19n8.) 
Colit George E., Topeka. 
Cole. Redmond S., Pawnee, Okla. 
Coleman, Mary Ovanda Denick. Manhattan. 
Conover, John, Kansas City, Mo. 
Cornell, Mrs. Annie M. Speck, Kansas City, Ks. 
Cory, Charles E , Fort Scott. 
Crane, David O., Topeka. 
Crawford, Samuel J.. Baxter Springs. 
Cron, F. H., El Dorado. 
Curtis. Charles, Topeka. 
Davidson, C. L., Wichita. 
De Rigne, Haskell, Kansas City. 

(Born July 11, 1906.) 
Evans, William J., lola. 
Everhardy. J. L . Leavenworth. 
Fairbanks. David Russell. N. Yakima, Wash. 

(Born October 10. 1910.) 
Fairfield, S. H . Alma. 
Pike. J N., Colby. 
Frizell. E. E.. Lamed. 
Frost, John E , Topeka. 
Gardner, Theodore, Lawrence. 
Gilmore. John S., Fredonia. 
Gleed, Charles S , Topeka. 
Goodlander, Ehzabeth C, Fort Scott. 
Gray. John M.. Kirwin. 
Greene. Albert R., Stevenson. Wash. 
Hnld-'rmnn. Jfh-n A . Washington. D. C. 
Hall, John A., Pleasanton. 
Hanna. D. J., Salina. 
Harper. Josephine C, Manhattan. 
Harris. John P., Ottawa. 
Harris. Kos. Wichita. 
Haskell. Jnh^ G.. Lawrence. 
Haskell, William W . Kansas City. 
Haskins Samuel Brush. Olathe. 
Havens. Paul E.. Leavenworth. 
Hobbles, F. A., Dodge City. 
Holliday, Cyrus K.. Topeka. 
Hornaday, Grant, Fort Scott. 
Humphrey, James V.. Junction City. 
Humphrey, Mary Vance. Junction City. 
Hutchison. William E., Garden City. 

Hyer, Charles Henry, Olathe. 

Jacobs, John T.. Council Grove. 

Jewett, Edward B., Wichita. 

Johnson, Elizabeth A.. Courtland. 

Johnson. George. Courtland. 

Johnston. Lucy Brown, Topeka. 

Jones. Lawrence M.. Kansas City, Mo. 

Keeling. Henry C, Caldwell. 

Kellough. Robert W.. Tulsa, Okla. 

Kennedy, Thomas B . Junction City 

Kimball. E. D., Wichita. 

Kimball. F. M., Topeka. 

Lacey, John T.. Sharon Springs. 

Little, Flora W.. La Crosse. 

Little. James H., La Crosse. 

Lininger. W. H., Evanston. 111. 

Locknane. Charles S., Topeka. 

Loomis. Mrs Christie Campbell. Omaha, Neb. 

Loomis, Nelson H.. Omaha, Neb. 

Low. Marcus A., Topeka. 

Lowe, P. G., Leavenworth. 

Lower, George Levi. Republic City. 

(Born October 12. 1902.) 
Lower. Mrs. Mamie L . Republic City. 
Lower. William S.. Republic City. 
McDonald. W. S.. Fort Scott. 
McFai-land. Horace E.. St. Louis. Mo. 
McGonigle. James A , Leavenworth. 
McKercher. F. B., Peabody. 
Mackey, Wm. H.. jr.. Leavenworth. 
Manning, Edwin C. Winfield 
Martin. Amos Cutter, Chicago, 111. 
Martin. Donald Ferguson, t^ ansas City. 

(Born February 19. 1909 ) 
Martin, George Haskell. Kansas City. 

(Born August 1. 1907.) 
Martin, George W.. Topeka. 
Martin. Wm. Haskell, Kansas City. 

(Born May 22. 1911.) 
Mead, James Lucas. Chicago, 111. 
M-nd. James R.. Wichita. 
Metcalf, Wilder S.. Lawrence. 
Miller, John. Cottonwood Falls. 
Miller. William I , Topeka. 
Monroe. Lee. Topeka. 
Morehouse, George P , Topeka. 
Morgan, Isaac B . Kansas City. 
Morgan. W. A.. Cottonwood Falls. 
Morrill. Edmii-rid N . Hiawatha. 
Mulvane. David W.. Topeka. 
Mulvane. John R., Topeka. 
Myers. Frank E.. Whiting. 
Naftzger. M. C. Wichita. 
Nellis. Luther McAfee, Los Angeles. Calif. 
Norton. Jonathan D.. Topeka. 
Orr. James W.. Atchison. 
Orr. Jennie Glick. Atchison. 
Pen well. L. M., Topeka. 
Peterson. C. A.. St Louis. Mo. 
Pierce, Francis L.. Lakin. 
Plumb. A. H.. Emporia. 
Plumb. George, Emporia. 
Plumb. Mrs. Preston B.. Emporia. 
Potter. Thomas M . Peabody. 
Prentis. Caroline E , Topeka. 
Price, Ralph R.. Manhattan. 
Radges, Sam. Topeka 
Ridenovr. Peter D , Kansas City. Mo. 
Rightmire, William F.. Topeka. 
Robinson, A. A., Topeka. 
Rockwell, Bertrand. Kansas City, Mo. 
Roenigk. Adolph, Lincoln. 
Root. George A.. Topeka. 
Ruppenthal. J. C. Russell. 


Kansas State Historical Society. 


Ruppenthal, Sarah Spauldin^, Russell. 
Schmidt, C. B.. Chicago. 111. 
Schoch. William F.. Topeka. 
Seatov, John, Atchison. 
Shields. Mrs. Clara M , Lost Springs. 
Shields. Joseph B.. Lost Springs. 
Simpson, Samuel N.. City. 
Slonecker, J G., Topeka. 
Smith, Ezra Delos. Meade. 
Spilman, A. C. McPherson. 
Stewart, James H., Wichita. 

Stewart. Judd, New York city. 
Stone, Eliza May, Galena. 
Stone, William B,. Galena. 
Stubbs. Walter R., Lawrence. 
Thacher, Solon O.. Lawrence. 
Thatcher, George W.. Great Bend. 
Waggener. Halie P.. Atchison. 
Whitcumb. George H.. Topeka. 
Whiting, Albe B., Topeka. 
Whiting, T. W., Council Grove. 

Total number. 161. 


For the year ending June 30, 1912. 

Abilene— John T. Wilson. 

Alma — Albert Dieball. A. A. Myer. 

Almota-C. L. Wolf. 

Altoona — Francis T. Cheetham. 

Amy — L M. Wolf. 

Arkansas City — Ed F. Green. 

Ashland — Robt C. Mayse 

Atchison— J. W. Fisher, Mrs. John J. Ingalls. 

Sheffield Ingalls. 
Atwood — Fred Robertson. 
Baldwin — Chas. E. Beaks, O. G. Markham. 
Barnes — Reuben B. Briggs. 
Bavaria — Theodore H. Terry. 
Belleville — John C. Hogin. 
Beloit— Wm. H. Mitchell. 
Blakeman — Cyrus Anderson. 
Bonita — Ralph Ainsworth. 
Bucyrus — Isaac Spencer. 
Burlingame— Chas. V. King. 
Caldwell — Mrs. E. X. Glover. 
Cedar Rapids, Iowa— Luther A. Brewer, Wm. 

H. Miner. 
Chanute — S. W. Brewster, J. E. Plummer. 
Clare — J. L. Schaegel. 
Colony — John Francis. 
Columbus— Chas. S. Huffman. 
Cottonwood Falls — Carrie Breese, W. A. 

Morgan, Arch Miller, John Miller, J. B. 

Council Grove— Geo. W. Coffin, Kate A. 

Densmore— Arthur H. Steed. 
Dodge City -Robt. M. Wright. 
Elmdale — Robt. Brash. 
Emporia — Mabel H. Edwards. L. T. Heritage, 

*D. W. Morris, Mrs. G. W. Newman. 
Enterprise - James Frey. 
Erie — L. Still well. 
Eudora — O. G. Richards. 
Eureka— John A. Edwards. 
Evanston, III,— Henry J. Patten. 
Fairview — W. P. Lambertson. 
Fort Scott— Hubert Lardner. D. F. Campbell, 

Ed C. Gates, Dr. Sarah C. Hall, Francis E. 

Hall. W. R. Biddle. 
Fort Stanton, N M. — John L. Osborn. 
Fremont — Rev. J P. Aurelius. 
Gardner — Mary C. Johnson. 
Goodland — Mrs. Eva Morley Murphy. 
Gorham — Ward H. Sullivan. 
Great Bend — Edwin Tyler. 
Haddam — Frank R. Jenkins. 
Hanover — August Jaedicke, jr. 
Hardy, Neb.- W. W. Gunn. 
Hartford. Conn. — Wm. J. Chapman, Edward 

Havensville — Rev. Wm. W. Clawson. 
Kays City — J. H. Beach. James Behan. Mrs. 

W. D. Philip. C. A. Shively. 
Hiawatha — M. G. Ham, Henry J. Aten, Re- 
becca D. Kiner. 

Holton — Geo. S. Linscott, Minnie B. Linscott • 
H. F. Graham. 

Hoxie — J. W. Schlicher. 

Hutchinson — Geo W. Warren, Mrs. Philip D. 
Kreigh, J. S. Simmons. 

Independence — L. U. Humphrey. 

lola — A. H. Campbell. 

Jetmore — Gco. D. Martin. 

Jewell City — Robt. C. Postlethwaite. 

Junction City— Elizabeth Henderson, Robert 
D. Henderson. Rev. A. H. Harshaw. D. D., 
George W. Chase, S. W. Pierce, Geo. A. 
Rockwell, Alfred C. Pierce. 

Kansas City, Kan. — Minnie J. Oliverson. Wal- 
ter G. Phelps, Mark M. Howe, Winfield 
Freeman, * E. F. Ware, Maurice L. Alden, 

C. L. Brokaw. 

Kansas City. Mo. — Darius A Brown, J. F. 
Richards. F. M. Brigham, Chas. H. Moore, 
Mrs. Anna Lane Johnson. Milton Moore, 
F. A. Faxon, Charles H. Rhodes. Willai-d 
R. Douglas. 

Kinsley-* Geo. W. Watson, E. T. Bid well. 

Lawrence — *0. W. McAllaster, John K. Ran- 
kin, Clin Templin, C. H. Tucker, Alex M. 
Wilcox, Edward Bumgardner, Mary P. 
Clarke, G. Grove or, Frank H. Hodder, 
Holland Wheeler, H L Moore, L. L. Dyche. 

Leaven worth — H, C. F. Hackbusch, Mrs. Carrie 
A. Hall. 

Lecompton— E. P. Harris. 

Madison — H. F. Martindale. 

Manhattan — Mrs. Charlotte F. Wilder, Ray- 
mond G. Taylor, Mrs, Anna E. Blackman, 
* John Booth, E. B. Purcell, Mrs. Elizabeth 
H. Purcell. Mrs. Caroline A. Smith, S. E. 
Orr, F. B. Elliott. Mrs. Eusebia M.'Irish. 
Mrs. J. A. Koller, John V. Cortelyou, S. M. 
Fox, Harriet A Parkerson. 

Mankato-D H. Stafford. 

Marion-Alex E. Case, Ferd J. Funk, W. H. 

Marysville-D. V. Reisen, W. H. Smith. J. 
Earll Miller. 

McPherson — G. W. Allison, Alex S. Hendry, 
Sadie L. Champlin, John R. Wright, D. P. 
Lir.dsey, John G. Maxwell, J. A. Spilmai. 
Rev. Gustav A. Dorf. 

Meade — O. R. Stevens, C. K. Sourbeer. 

Miles City. Mont — E. T. Carr. 

Minneapolis— C. O. Smith. 

Minneapolis. Minn. — Rev. Henry F. Burt. 

Moline, III. -J. B. Oakleaf. 

Nappa county, Calif. — ( Veteran's-Home) Her- 
cules H. Price.* 

National Military Home— Joseph S. Phebus. 

D. C. Goodrich. 
Ness City-L. B. Wolf. 

New Orleans. La. — W. O. Hart. 

Newton —John C. Nicholson, R. B. Lynch. 

Kansas State Historical Society. 


New York, N. Y.— Henry F. Watts, E. F. Bur- 

Ogden — Theodore Weichselbaum. 

Olathe-C. R. Greene. E. A. Franke. D. P. 
Hougland, Isaac Fenn. W. A. Mahaffe, J.E. 
McKittrick, Hugh Clarke. J. W. Parker, 
John P. St. John. Mildred Kelley, Daisy 
Kelley. Madeline Millikan, Jonathan Milli- 
kan. Katherine Kelley, Robt. E. Steven- 
son. Geo. H. Timanus, J. T. Twynam. Mrs. 
H. C. Ainsworth. J. B. Bruner. H. L. Bur- 
gess. W. S. Brockway, John W. Breyfogle, 
Iva M. Coke, Isaac Hershey, D. Hubbard. 

Olsburg — Oscar Fagerberg. 

Osage City — Mrs. Ida M. Ferris. 

Osborne — J. K. Mitchell, Duane W. Bliss, 
Robt. R. Hays. 

Ottawa - Rev. Thos. E. Chandler, J. N. Har- 

Parker — Lewis N. McCarty. 

Parsons — Edna E. Fombelle. 

Peabody-Rev. J. M. White. 

Phillipsburg — Mrs. Myrtd B. Haggard. 

Plattsmouth, Neb. — Rev. Michael A. Shine. 

Roxbury — James Muir.* 

Russell — Olive Robbins, Dean O. Smith, F. J. 

St. Louis, Mo.— Wm. H. H. Tainter. 

Salina — J. W. Blundon. Merle C. Slagle, F. W. 
Richards, Luke F. Parsons, Dan R. Wag- 
staff, W. F. Grosser, Victor J. Hadin. 

San Diego, Calif.— Eliza S. Torrey. 

Scott City -Thos. Lamb, L. H. Petit. Geo. 
Arman trout. 

Smith Center— S. R. Boggs. 

Spring Hill — Daniel Ramey, Ed. Blair, Ruth 

Sterling — W Q. Elliott. 

Stilwell — Ola Rose Ainsworth. 

Syracuse— Mrs. Gates Powell, Wm. J. Powell,* 
Caroline E. Barber, Evelin P. Barber. 

Tarkio, Mo.-Mrs. Mary McCahon Breiden 

Topeka-F. D. Coburn, O. M. Chmn, C. C 
Collins, Wm. E. Connelley. Frank S. Crane! 
John S. Dawson, John P. Davis, W. W 
Denison, B. F. Flenniken. N. P. Garretson 
Peter Fisher, T. F. Garver, Mrs. Mary 
Embree, Clad Hamilton. Geo. A. Huron, 
Mrs. Ward Burlingame, Arthur M. Hyde, 
Reese V Hicks. Hiram B. Harrison. Howell 
Jones. Judge W. A. Johnston, J. R. Bur- 
rows, Patrick H. Coney, Geo. W. Crane, 
Chas. D. Nichols, Dr. R. S. Magee, Wm. 
Macferran. Albert T. Reid, W. A. Smith, 
Frank K. Sanders, Geo. W. Veale, Geo. W. 
Weed, Robt. Thompson. A. W. Knowles 
W. W. Mills, Geo. M. Kellam. J. W. Priddy, 
Lucy D. Kingman, H. E. Valentine, J. G. 
Waters, L. D. Whittemore, C. S. Triplett, 
J. G. Wood, O. W. Bronson, Clara Francis. 
W. W. Webb, S. J. Hodgins, J. Will Kelley. 
Mrs. Margaret Hill McCarter. 

Toronto — J. D. Boyd, Arthur Barnard. 

Tribune — C. R. Baer. 

Troy— Chas. E. Brown. 

Wabaunsee— Geo. S. Burt, Chas. L. Burt. 

Wa Keeney— E. D. Wheeler, A. S. Peacock. 

Wallace — Thomas Madigan. 

Washington — August Seller. 

Wellington — M. R. McLean. 

Wichita — Chester I. Long, Eunice Sterling 
Chapter, D. A. R., Mrs. M. W. Himebaugh, 
Mrs. W. H. Isely, J. H. Graham, Samuel F. 
Woolard, Mrs. C. W. Bitting, J. M. Harris. 
W. B. Corhran. 

Wilson — J. W. Somer. 

Winfield — Chas. M. Wallace, Jas. McDermott. 

Winona — M. B. Williams. 

York, Pa.— Dr. I. H. Betz. 

viii Kansas State Historical Society. 



Introduction— Newspaper Accuracy in History, by Sheridan Ploughe, xxix 

In Memoriam : Miss Zu Adams xxi 

Errata xix 

Addenda xii 

I.— Addresses at Annual Meetings. 

Some Western Border Conditions in the Fifties and Sixties, by A. B. 
Whiting, of Topeka 1 

Kansas in History, by Edwin C. Manning, President Kansas State His- 
torical Society, September 26, 1911 10 

The Service of the Army in Civil Life After the War, by William A. 
Calderhead, of Marysville 14 

The West: Its Place in American History, by John Lee Webster, Presi- 
dent Nebraska Historical Society, September 26, 1911. 25 

II. — Some Review of Fifty Years. 

Railroads in Kansas, by O. C. Hull, of Great Bend - 37 

The History of Railroad Building In and Out of Kansas City, by Clay 
Hamilton 47 

The Development of the Milling Industry in Kansas, by Leslie A. Fitz, 
of the Agricultural College 53 

Fifty Years of Kansas Agriculture, by Edwin H. Webster, of the Agri- 
cultural College 60 

Indian Missions in Kansas, by Earl Leon Shoup, of Holton 65 

Progressive Legislation in Kansas, by Charles E. Hill, of the State 
Normal 69 

Universities Fifty Years Ago and the University of Kansas To-day, by 
Arvin S. Olin and W. H. Carruth 77 

The Founding of the Stale Normal School, by Lyman B. Kellogg, of 
Emporia 88 

III.— The Elements. 

Personal Recollections of the Terrible Blizzard of 1886, by 0. P. Byers, 

of Hutchinson 99 

Earthquakes in Kansas, by John D. Parker, of Washburn 121 

Is the Rainfall in Kansas Increasing, by H. P. Cady, of the University 
of Kansas 132 

IV.— Days of the Missionary, 
The Methodist Episcopal Church South in Kansas, 1854 to 1906, by Rev. 

Joab Spencer, of Slater, Mo 135 

Life Among the Delaware Indians, by Miss Clara Cowing, of Reading, 

Mass 183 

v.— Statecraft. 
A History of the Kansas School Fund, by Charles Hanford Landrum, of 
Onaga , 195 

Contents of this Volume. ix 

VI.— Prehistoric Kansas. 


A Study of the Route of Coronado Between the Rio Grande and Missouri 
Rivers, by James Newton Baskett, of Mexico, Mo 219 

Jedediah S. Smith and the Settlement of Kansas, by E. D. Smith, of 
Meade 252 

Crossing the Plains, by George H. Himes, Oregon Historical Society, 
Portland, Ore 261 

VIL— The Soldier in Kansas. 
A Historic Picture— Sketches of D. E. Ballard, Samuel J. Crawford, 

Edwin C. Manning, Horace L. Moore and John K. Rankin 271 

Gen. Thomas Ewing, jr., by Maj. Harrison Hannahs 276 

A Colonel of Kansas, by Capt. Clad Hamilton 282 

First Kansas Infantry in the Battle of Wilson's Creek, by James A. 

McGonigle, of Leavenworth 292 

Diary of Chauncey B. Whitney, a Beecher Island scout 296 

With Albert Sidney Johnston's Expedition to Utah, 1857, by Gen. 

Samuel W. Ferguson, of Biloxi, Miss 303 

Indian Fight in Ford County in 1859, by Joseph B. Thoburn, of Okla- 
homa City, Okla 312 

VIII.— Miscellaneous Papers. 
The First Capital of Kansas, by Henry Shindler, of Fort Leavenworth. . 331 
The Naming of Osawatomie and Some Experiences with John Brown, 

by Ely Moore, jr., of Lawrence 338 

Mother Smith of Ellis, by James H. Beach, of the State Normal, at 

Hays 347 

Pioneer Life in Kansas, by Miss Fannie Cole, of North Topeka 353 

A Chapter from the Archives, by George W. Martin, Secretary 359 

Reminiscences Concerning Fort Leavenworth in 1855-'56, by E. T. Carr, 

of Miles City, Mont 375 

The Conception and Growth of a Kansas Railroad, by 0. P. Byers, of 

Hutchinson 383 

The Exodus to Kansas in 1855, by Capt. DeWitt C. Goodrich, of the 

National Military Home 388 

Some Reminiscences of the Early Days on Deep Creek, Riley County, 

by Francis A. Abbott 392 

Women in Office 396 

Some of the Lost Towns of Kansas 426 

Juniata, 426. 

Old Indianola, 427. 

Moneka, 429. 

Paris, Linn county, 430. 

Oread, Coffey county, 432. 

Historic Town of Minneola, 433. 

Rise ard Fall of Sumner, 434. 

Old Sumner, 437. 

Rome, Ellis county, 438. 

Republican City, Clay county, 440. 

The End of Coronado, 441 . 

Lost Towns of Bourbon County, 447. 

The Story of Ladore, 450. 

Greenwood City, -JSl. 

Life and Death of Coolidge and Kendall. 456. 

X Kansas State Historical Society. 

VIII,— Miscellaneous Papers.— Concluded. 
Some of the Lost Towns of Kansas — 

Travail of Cimarron and Ingalls and Death of Montezuma, 463. 

Reminiscences of Runnymede, 467. 

Town of Sidney, 469. 


Extinct Geographical Locations 471 

"Lost Towns," Post-offices, Overland Stations and Settlements in Kansas, 1852-1912, 



Frontispiece— Memorial and Historical Building, August 1, 1912. 

William A. Calderhead, Marysville 14 

John Lee Webster, President Nebraska Historical Society 25 

The Methodist Church South in Kansas : 

Rev. Joab Spencer, Slater, Mo., 134. 

Thomas J. Greene, Mrs. Mary Greene Henshaw, twins born in Kansas, Septem- 
ber 5, 1840, 137. 

First building erected by the M. E. Church South in Kansas, at Kickapoo. 1856 

Rev. Charles Boles, 141. 

Rev. J. H. Pritchett, 142. 

Church and parsonage at Council Grove, 148. 

Rev. Joseph King, 150. 

Bishop Eugene R. Hendrix and Ann Eliza (Scarritt) Hendrix, 156. 

Rev. Thomas C. Downs. 157. 

Bishop Enoch Mather Marvin, D. D., 159. 

Rev. John W. Faubion, 160. 

Rev. Henry D. Hogan, Hillsdale, 161. 

Rev. William H. Comer, Lee's Summit, Mo., 165. 

Rev. James W. Payne, 166. 

Annual Conference, 1886, at Hillsdale, 176. 

Starting to Cross the Plains 264 

Reaching the End of the Journey. 265 

A Wonderful Historical Group Picture 270 

Thomas Ewing, jr 277 

Henry C. Lindsey 283 

Chauncey B. Whitney 296 

Gen, L. H, Carpenter 300 

Indian Fight in Ford County : 

Col. Manning M. Kimmel, 312. 

Maj. Earl Van Dorn and Capt. Edmund Kirby Smith, 314. 

Lieut. William B. Royal, 316. 

Map showing line of march, 318. 

Lieut. James E. Harrison, 320. 

Lieut. George B. Cosby and Second Lieut. Pitzhugh Lee. 322. 

Gen. Edward M. Hayes, 324. 

Comanche Indian Village in Oklahoma in 1871. 325. 

Map of battle field in Ford county. 327. 

Two Friendly Indians Survivors, 1912, 328. 

Building at Fort Leavenworth, first used as capitol 330 

Ely Moore, jr 338 

Kansas State Historical Society. xi 


"C^VERY two years it is a great pleasure to prepare a volume of 
-■— ^ Kansas Historical Collfctions. And it is an inexpressible 
satisfaction to acknowledge the interest and help which seems to 
come to us from all sides while we are thus engaged. With each 
volume we discover something new, and at the end a suggestion, 
sometimes more than one, comes which is of value in making the 
succeeding volume. The friends of Kansas history, the friends of 
this Society, have been prompt and liberal. The death of Miss Zu 
Adams caused a reorganization of the working force. This vol- 
ume has been most fortunate in reaching her standard of excel- 
lence. Miss Clara Francis is now librarian, and is also mainly re- 
sponsible as active editor of this volume. Too much can not be 
said of her scholarship and interest in historical work. George A. 
Root is a thorough and competent genealogist, and Mrs. Frank P. 
Montgomery is a most efficient person to handle the archives de- 
partment. Miss Ruth Cowgill and Miss Helen McFarland, gradu- 
ate librarians, are very efficient helpers. Mrs. Mary Embree, 
treasurer of the Society, is of great value in the work; and William 
E. Bacon is very ready in handling the newspaper department. 

These employees are very much handicappea by the crowded 
condition of our quarters. In the new building, in another year 
or so, we will have a place for everything and everything will be 
in its place. We will then be very proud to hand our guests into 
a private room for study, instead of placing them, as now, before a 
three by six table, about which three or four people are already 
gathered. Secretary. 

Kansas State Historical Society. 


Page 137. —Not a little research has been put into the matter of early births^ 
in Kansas. In the Fifteenth Biennial Report of this Society, page 
35, will be found a list of births in Kansas, dating from August 22^ 
1828. In that list appears the name of Mrs. Susanna Adams Dillon, 
who was the first child born at the Shawnee mission, the date of her 
birth being January 12, 1830. The finding of the Thomas Johnson 
Bible is of much interest, since it establishes beyond question the- 
birth dates of the Johnson children born at the Shawnee mission. 
The following account of the Bible is from the Wyandotte Daily 
Cricket of July 30, 1912: 

"Col. E. F. Heisler, who knows all there is to know about the 
early history of Wyandotte county, and Kansas, for that matter, has 
dug up the first Bible ever used in this county. Mr. Heisler found 
the big family book in possession of Wm. Johnson, the only surviving 
member of the family of Thomas Johnson, who founded the Shawnee 
Methodist mission in 1829 or 1830, in Wyandotte county. A good 
many people persist in saying that the mission was founded in John- 
son county. That makes Mr. Heisler sore. ... 

"The Bible is a big volume of the old family size, and contains 
many interesting things. It records that Thomas Johnson and Sarah 
T. Davis were married in Missouri in 1830. Their honeymoon trip 
was on horseback to Johnson [Wyandotte] county. . . . The 
births, marriages and deaths of the whole Johnson family, the first 
Wyandotte settlers, are chronicled in the book. . . . " 

The earliest recorded births in the Johnson Bible are: 
Thomas Johnlon, born July 11, 1802 (assassinated January 2, 1865). 
Sarah Title [ Davis] Johnson, born June 22, 1810. 
Alexander McAllister Johnson, born July 18, 1831 (died Aug. 15, 1831)^ 
Alexander Soule Johnson, born July 11, 1832 (died December 9, 1904). 
Sarah Elizabeth Johnson, born August 11. 1834 (died June 8, 1840). 
Eliza Shallcroys Johnson, born Airil 20, 1836 (died July 5, 1865). 
Mary Cummins Johnson, born January 15, 1838 (died March 19, 1838). 
William Thomas Johnson, born June 22, 1839 (died April 2, 1840). 
Andrew Monroe Johnson, born August 16, 1841. 
William McKendra Johnson, born July 6, 1845. 

Mr. Henry Shindler writes us from Fort Leavenworth that he finds 
that Col. S. W. Kearny and Col. Clifton Wharton, commanders of 
that post prior to 1850, had children born there. Also, he had every 
reason to believe that a child was born at Fort Leavenworth in 1827 
or 1828, the daughter of an officer who was there with Colonel Leav- 
enworth; her name he has not yet been able to ascertain positively. 
Page 138 —There has been some misunderstanding as to the exact location 
of the Shawnee Methodist mission founded by Rev. Thomas Johnson 
in 1830. The locations of the mission and the manual- labor school 
were given in volume 9 of Kansas Historical Collections, page 169, 
note 17. We now publish a letter from Mr. William Johnson, a son 

Addenda. xiii 

of Rev. Thomas Johnson, which is added proof and corroborates the 
statement of Rev. Joab Spencer cited above. The site of the manual- 
labor school is the southwest quarter of section 3, township 12, range 
25, Johnson county, while the old mission site is near the town of 
Turner, Wyandotte county. 

"ROSEDALE, Kan., July 29, 1912. 
"Geo. W. Martin, Topeka, Kan.: 

"Friend Martin— In compliance with request from you sometime 
since to locate the site of the old Methodist mission, founded by my 
father in 1829 [1830]: In company with Mr. Heisler, editor of the 
Kansas City, Kan., Sun, Col- Edward Haren and Mr. Luke Babcock, 
we made the trip. We had no trouble in finding the spot. Mr. Bab- 
cock has lived continually in this spot since 1857, and a great portion 
of that time patronized a blacksmith shop located on this same ground. 
I visited the place some thirty years ago with Mr. Steve Perkins (now 
dead), who lived on adjoining land. The location coincides with my 
recollections of the place at that time; the timber was still standing 
and the old foundations could be traced. It is now a wheat field. This 
place, so far as I know, was the beginning of civilization in Kansas, 
and I think should be marked in a suitable manner. 

"Location of Methodist Mission.— Founded in 1829 [1830] by Rev. 
Thomas Johnson, on land owned at this time by G. Partumer, north- 
" east quarter of southwest quarter, 24-11-24, Wyandotte county, Kan- 
sas, 185 steps north of Partumer's southline. A line drawn from the 
Glasscock sanitarium, running between the Turner elevator and its 
smoke stack, would pass over the site, marked by a pile of rocks with 
an iron rod driven down in the center. This rod is about three quar- 
ter inch thick and about five feet long, about three feet in the ground. 

"Hoping this will prove satisfactory to you, I remain yours, etc., 

Wm. Johnson." 

Page 149, note 10. — Regarding the ordination of Rev. A. W. Pitzer to the 
Presbyterian ministry on January 15, 1858, the statement is made 
that this was "the first ordination of a minister of that order, and 
possibly of any other, west of the Missouri river." Comparison with 
the statement made on page 184, note 4, relative to the ordination of 
Rev. J. G. Pratt to tlie Baptist ministry, at the Delaware Baptist 
mission on November 19. 1843, shows that Mr. Pratt's ordination pre- 
ceded that of Mr. Pitzer by fifteen years. 

Page 201, note 30. — Mrs. Sarah Gilmore Thacher, wife of Solon Otis 
Thacher, died at her home in Lawrence, July 8, 1912. 

Page 257.— Passing mention is made of Jedediah S. Smith's California expe- 
dition of 1826. Even in those days news traveled far, as the contents 
of the following letter shows: 

"Portland. Ore., July 29, 1912. 
"Mr. Geo. W. Martin, Sec. Kansas Historical Society, Topeka: 

"Dear Martin- Accept my thanks for the advance pages of the 
Kansas Historical Society's Annual. In this connection I want to ask 
if you have any of the leaflets left over containing description of the 
gavel. You sent me several copies, for which I thank you, but would 
like a few more if you have any to spare 

"I noticed in the advance pages, already alluded to, reference to 
Jedediah Smith, trapper. In that connection the following may be of 
interest * 

"'Jan. 27, 1827 —News at the Islands that Jedediah Smith has 
crossed the Rocky Mountains and arrived at San Gabriel ; had left 
and gone to the Columbia river; that posts have been established all 

xiv Kansas State Historical Society. 

the way from St. Louis to the Columbia. This news brought by the 
brig Waveriy, fifteen days from Santa Barbara; cargo, horses, sheep 
and a calf. ' 

•'This was copied by Mrs. Eva Emery Dye from manuscript diary 
of Capt. Stephen Reynolds, an old sandal wood merchant of early days 
in Honolulu Each day he kept a record of Honolulu happenings. 
Mrs. Dye. who lives in Oregon City, was in Honolulu about two years 
ago, searching for items to be used in her forthcommg book, which 
will soon be in press, found the reference to Smith as indicated and 
.sent it to me. Yours truly, Geo. H. Himes." 

Page 259. — "The Melancholy Fate of Jedediah S. Smith" : 

"Of all the tragedies of the Santa Fe trail the most deplorable is 
that m which this christian hero of the wilderness met an untimely 
death on the banks of the thirsty Cimarron. In the spring of 1831 
Smith, Jackson and Sublette, having sold their business in the moun- 
tains to the Rocky Mountain Fur Company, entered the Santa Fe 
trade. With a large and costly expedition of some twenty wagons 
and eighty men, said to have been the finest outfit ever yet sent to 
Santa Fe, these veteran traders set out, never doubting that their 
long experience would enable them to cope with the dangers of the 
rnute. Everything went well to the ford of the Arkansas, for there 
was a plain track all the way. But it was very different on the des- 
ert waste between the Arkansas and the Cimarron. There was not a 
person with them who had been over the route before, and they now 
found themselves in a featureless country with no track of any kind 
except buffalo trails which crossed each other in the most confusing 
directions The alluring mirage deceived and exasperated the men, 
and after two days of fruitless wanderings, with animals dying and 
men frantic for water, the condition of things seemed well nigh des- 
perate. In this emergency Smith declared that he would find water 
or perish in the attempt. He was a bold and fearless man and un- 
hesitatingly sallied forth alone for the salvation of the caravan. Fol- 
lowing a buffalo trail for several miles he came upon the valley of the 
Cimarron, but only to find it destitute of water. He knew enough of 
the character of these streams, however, to believe there was water 
near the surface, and he accordingly scooped out a little hollow into 
which, indeed, the water began to collect. Meanwhile some stealthy 
Comanches, whom Smith had not observed, were stealing upon him 
and while he was in the act of stooping down to drink, mortally 
wounded him with several arrows. He arose and displayed his un- 
daunted spirit in resisting his savage foes to the last, and killed two 
of them before he expired. The spot where he fell was never pre- 
cisely known and no grave protects the earthly remains of this 
Christian and knightly adventurer. A sadder fate or a more heroic 
victim the parched wastes of the desert never knew. "—Chittenden's 
History of the American Fur Trade of the Far West, vol. 2, p. 552. 

"Jedediah S. Smith was one of the most remarkable men ever en- 
gaged in the commerce of the mountains and prairies. He was born 
in the state of New York, was well educated, and went to St. Louis 
in 1823. He traveled all over the west from the British boundary to 
the Mexican provinces and from the Mississippi to the Pacific coast. 
On several occasions his escape from the Indians, grizzly bears and 
from starvation bordered on the miraculous. In 1826 he became senior 
partner of the firm of Smith. Jackson & Sublette, and in 1831 em- 
barked in the Santa Fe trade, but lost his life in the first expedition. 

"Mr. William Waldo, Ms. No 135. Missouri Historical Society, 
says of Smith: 'He was a bold, outspoken, professing and consistent 
' Christian, the first and only one known among the early Rocky Moun- 
tain trappers and hunters No one who knew him well doubted the 
sincerity of his piety. He had become a communicant of the Method- 
ist church before leaving his home in New York, and in St. Louis he 
never failed to occupy a place in the church of his choice, while he 



gave generously to all objects connected with religion which he pro- 
fessed and loved. Besides being an adventurer and a hero, a trader 
and a Christian, he was himself inclined to literary pursuits and had 
prepared a geography and atlas of the Rocky Mountain region ex- 
tending, perhaps, to the Pacific, but his death occurred before its 
pubhcation.'"— Twitchell's Leading Facts of New Mexican Historv 
vol. 2, p. 124, note 89. ^' 

Page 283.— Attention is called to the fact that Henry C. Lindsey served as 
an officer in three wars— in the Civil War as second lieutenant of com- 
pany M, Eleventh Kansas ; in the Indian war of 1867 as captain of 
company A, Eighteenth Kansas ; in the Spanish- American War as 
colonel of the Twenty-second Kansas. 

There is one other Kansan who had the same distinction— James 
Graham, of St. Marys, father of the late L. D. Graham, supreme 
court reporter. Colonel Graham served in the Civil War as second 
lieutenant of company L, Sixth Kansas ; in the Indian war of 1868 as 
first lieutenant of company M, Nineteenth Kansas, and in the Spanish- 
American War as lieutenant colonel of the Twenty-second Kansas, 
Colonel Lindsey 's regiment. 

Page 323, note 14. —Gen. Edward M. Hayes died at Morganton, N. C, Au- 
gust 16, 1912. 

Page 375, note 1.— Mr. E. T. Carr writes as follows: 

"My father was of the Carrs from the north of Ireland, who set- 
tled in Connecticut, and whose mother was a King, and sister of Ru- 
fus King, an old-time wholesale dry-goods merchant of Albany, N. 
Y. If the distinguished New York statesman is or was a son of the 
old merchant, then the legend is correct. I worked at mason's work 
until I was twenty, and then took up woodwork, general building and 
architecture. Went from the country to Syracuse, N. Y., in 1850, 
and not 1852 as stated. Left there in May, 1855, for the West. Re- 
mained in St. Paul till September 1, when I accepted an engagement 
and went to Fort Leavenworth, Kan., since when I have been very 
well known. 

"Several years ago, and while living at Miles City, I saw in the 
Leavenworth Times an article concerning the National Cemetery at 
Fort Leavenworth, in which the author gave much credit to the offi- 
cer for having located it so beautifully at that early date— 1827. 
Knowing something of the early history of the cemetery, how the 
head stones got there, etc., I wrote an article on the subject, which 
was published in the Leavenworth Times. 1 inclose you a somewhat 
faded copy of that article, and which possibly may be of use to 
you. I lately came across it. I was employed as superintendent of 
Leavenworth arsenal during the war and had the bodies removed." 

Mr. Carr's statement relative to the cemeteries at Fort Leavenworth, 
addressed to the Leavenworth Times, and dated April 5, 1897, follows: 

"In looking over a copy of your valuable paper dated May 31, 1896, 
I find under the heading ' Their Historic Resting Place, ' what pur- 
ports to be a history of the National Cemetery at Fort Leavenworth, 
some portions of which are at variance with its true history, es- 
pecially as to the dates of its location. While the dates are probably 
matters of record in the archives of the government and may easily 
be verified, some other matters connected with the same may not 
have been recorded. 

"Having been connected with much of the early history of this 
cemetery, permit me through the columns of the Times to make the 

jcvi Kansas State Historical Society. 

following statement, correcting some portions of the article referred 

"Originally there were two cemeteries at Fort Leavenworth. 
The firdt, or what was later known as the 'soldiers' burying ground,' 
was established, as I have been told, in 1827, and was located in the 
north half of what is now the enclosure of the commanding officers 
m the old arsenal grounds. In this were buried the soldiers and many 
citizens who in its early history had died in the vicinity, some having 
been brought in from the plains, and even from New Mexico. This 
cemetery continued to be used until 1859, when so many had been 
buried there that it was almost impossible to find place for a body 
without uncovering another, which was often done. Some were 
buried in that manner, as was afterwards discovered. In 1859 this 
enclosure was enlarged to the south and a few bodies buried there 
during that and the following year. 

"About this time, in view of the fact that the land in the imme- 
diate vicinity had been assigned to the ordnance departnient, the sub- 
ject of discontinuing the use of this cemetery was being discussed, 
and late in 1860, I believe, the order came to establish the post ceme- 
tery at the present site and bury no more at the old place. At that 
time the site of the present cemetery was a thicket of hazel brush 
and grapevines. 

"The second cemetery, then known as the 'officers' burying 
ground,' was established later, and was located on the brow of the 
hill, once known as Rattlesnake hill, just east of the large brick build- 
ing and the frame cottage of the old arsenal, and at present covered 
by officers' quarters. Here were buried many of the officers who died 
at this and the neighboring posts, and also many citizens. 

"I was employed by the government in the capacity of superin- 
tendent of construction of buildings as early as 1855, and thus became 
familiar with the general surroundings of the post at that time. I 
was engaged in the erection of the first permanent ordnance buildings, 
in 1859, near these cemeteries, and upon the establishment of the ar- 
senal, in 1860, was made master mechanic and superintendent. 

"Soon after the establishment of the arsenal came the order to 
remove the bodies from the old 'soldiers' burying ground' to the pres- 
ent site, in order to make room for the commanding officers' quarters. 
In the early spring of 1861, by direction of Capt. J. L. Reno, then in 
charge of the arsenal, I made a contract with R. V Flora to remove 
the bodies. The work was performed by him under my supervision, 
and all the bodies taken up where the appearance of a grave could be 
found. About two hundred were thus removed. These were placed 
in rows in trenches along the upper side of the new cemetery, nearest 
the main road, all headstones or other means of identification being 
carefully preserved and placed over each body. How many were left 
in the old ground will probably never be known. 

"The bodies from the 'officers' burying ground' were not removed 
until two or three years later, and I had charge of their remo al also. 
This was a small enclosure and contained a number of monuments, 
headstones, etc., but there were many graves with nothing to mark 
them. Before removing any of these bodies I made a measured dia- 
gram of the inclosure, locating all visible graves and giving names of 
all I could, and where the names were not known, the distance and 
direction from other graves or fixed objects, such as trees, etc. Some 
graves had probably become entirely obliterated This diagram I 
left with the depot quartermaster for future reference. Whether or 
not it was preserved I can not say. These bodies with their head- 
stones, inclosure, etc., were placed in the northeast corner of the new 
grounds, and as in the other case the original resting place devoted to 
other uses. Probably here, as in the other cemetery, there are bodies 
still remaining, time having destroyed all visible marks. One body 
in particular I have no recollection of removing— that of Captain 
Brent, who was buried there in 1857. 

Addenda. xvii 

"I have no recollection of the present cemetery having been known 
as a 'National Cemetery' until such places were established after the 
war, and any dates appearing over graves in the present cemetery 
earlier than 1860 are for.bodies brought therefrom other cemeteries.'' 

We take pleasure in reprinting here the following article by Henry 


Out in the Fort Leavenworth National Cemetery a small white 
marble pyramid monument bears this inscription: 

"To the memory of Sergant Theodore Papier and Pri- 
vate Robert Theims, Troop H, Sixth Cavalry, killed in 
engagement with hostile Indians, April 23, 1875." 

There is nothing about the monument to attract the attention of 
the visitor to the cemetery, as there are many others in this city of 
the dead to the memory of those who have fallen in engagements 
with Indians. Yet these two soldiers have made history for Kansas, 
in that they are the last of the rank and file of the United States 
army whose blood drenched its soil as the result of battle with the 
hostiles which had been carried on in the defense of settlements and 
trade since 1829. They have also helped to make further history for 
Kansas, in that they participated in what has become known as the 
bloodiest Indian engagement within its borders. 

The writer knew both men intimately, and this accounts for his 
efforts to give them a place in history. It was in April, 1875, the com- 
manding officer of Fort Lyon, Colo., was instructed to dispatch with- 
out delay a detachment of forty cavalry, under Lieut. Austin Heneiy, 
Sixth cavalry, to Fort Wallace, Kan. There the troops were to take 
the field and intercept, if possible, a band of Northern Cheyenne Indiana 
who had escaped from the Fort Reno agency, and were making their 
way across Kansas to their old homes in the vicinity of the Black Hills 
of Dakota. The detachment was on the trail within twenty-four 
hours, and on April 23 overtook the band in the Sappa valley, in what 
is now Clinton township, Rawlins county. They were taken com- 
pletely by surprise, in the dawn of the day, and so fierce was the 
attack, so determined were the soldiers to square accounts, that when 
stock was taken after the finish the dead among the hostiles numbered 
more than forty, of which eight were squaws and children. The loss 
on the side of the soldiers was Papier and Theims, both killed instantly. 
None were wounded. The camp was totally destroyed and the plunder 
secured required several wagons to carry, not counting a herd of nearly 
400 ponies which the troops rounded up. The shibboleth of the troopers 
was "Remember the Germaine Family," four members of which had 
been massacred in 1874 by a band of Southern Cheyenne Indians under 
Stone Calf, and four of the girls of the family taken into captivity. 
These girls were rescued during the Miles campaign of 1874-'75, in 
which these very troopers had participated. 

When the detachment returned to Fort Lyon, flushed with victory 
and the spoils of war, pandemonium reigned for joy. They were 
feasted to their hearts' content. And yet, in all this jubilation, the 
two comrades who lost their lives were not forgotten. A subscription 
was taken up and the monument referred to placed over their graves 
at Wallace. When the post was abandoned, some years ago, the dead 
in the cemetery were disinterred and brought to Fort Leavenworth 
and reinterred. Papier and Theims were both Germans, and, it goes 
without saying, splendid soldiers. Both were popular in the troop. 

It was here where Homer W. Wheeler, now a colonel of cavalry 
on the retired list of the army, won his spurs as an officer of the 
army. At that time he was the trader at Fort Wallace. He possessed 
a thorough knowledge of that section of the country, and volunteered 
his services to act as guide. The successful outcome, largely due to 

xviii Kansas State Historical Society. 

this volunteer guide, led General Pope to recommend him for appoint- 
ment in the army — a recommendation on which the War Department 
acted with promptness, so that by October IB, 1875, he wore the 
shoulder straps of a second lieutenant in the Fifth cavalry. 

A word for brave Austin Heneiy is due Henely came to the 
United States from Ireland during the Civil War when only a boy. 
He enlisted in the Eleventh infantry, and at the close of the war, 
through intercession of friends, was sent to West Point, where he 
graduated in 1872. His career in the army was cut short by an un- 
timely accident. While serving in Arizona with his regiment, in an 
attempt to cross a stream, ordinarily shallow, at flood tide, he was 
carried off by the current, and in an attempt to save him Lieutenant 
Rucker, a brilliant young officer of the same regiment, also lost his 

While to Papier and Theims belongs the distinction of being the 
last of the rank and file to lose their lives on Kansas soil in combat 
with hostile Indians, a similar distinction belongs for the commissioned 
ranks to Lieut. Col. W. H. Lewis, Nineteenth infantry. This officer 
was killed in an attempt to overtake some fleeing Cheyennes across 
the plains, near Fort Dodge, in October, 1878, the last efforts of the 
Cheyennes to depredate the settlements in the state. 

In volume 10 of the Kansas Historical Collections, page 368, is 
an account of the above-described Cheyenne Indian massacre on the 
middle fork of the Sappa, written for the Historical Society by the 
late William D. Street. Mr. Street was an old plainsman and skill- 
ful Indian scout and very familiar with the Indian raids in western 
Kansas. He was commissioned by Major Mauck, of the Fourth U. S. 
cavalry, who was pursuing Dull Knife and his band after the raid 
of September, 1878, to carry dispatches from the Holstein and McCoy 
ranches, near the site of Atwood, to Ogallala, Neb., a distance of 
135 miles. Mr. Street was in the saddle twenty-two hours, riding 
alone, and although he was followed by Indians who attempted to 
intercept him, he delivered his messages to the officers at Fort 
Ogallala in safety, enabling them to cut off the retreat of the In- 
dians and capture them. In his paper will be found biographical 
sketches of Lieut. Austin Henely and Col. Homer Webster Wheeler. 
We quote from the last paragraph of Mr. Street's article : 

"The annihilation of this band was a seveie and bitter blow to the 
Cheyennes. Whether they deserved such a fate I am not prepared to 
judge; but three years later, on September 30 and October 1, 1878, a 
band of Northern Cheyennes, under the leadership of Chief Dull 
Knife . . . swung eastward . . . and wreaked fearful re- 
venge on the innocent white people who had pushed their settlements 
out onto the Sappa and Beaver creeks, in Decatur and Rawlins coun- 
ties, where nearly forty unsuspectin ■ men were killed, women out- 
raged, and a vast amount of property destroyed. . . . The mas- 
sacre of the Cheyennes by Lieutenant Henely. of the Sixth cavalry, 
and the massacre of the white settlers by the Dull Knife band of 
Cheyennes, always appeared to me to be closely connected in the 
annals of border warfare, now a closed book forever." 

Page 388, note 1.— Capt. D. C. Goodrich, who for more than a quarter of a 
century has been connected with the Soldiers' Home at Leavenworth, 
has received notification of the acceptance of his resignation, which 
was tendered to the board of directors August 1. The resignation 
will take effect October 1, upon which date Captain Goodrich will 
have rounded out twenty-seven years of active service. Captain 



Goodrich came to the Home in 1887, when the total population was 
only twenty veterans. Since then more than 20,000 have come and 
gone, and 4600 have died there. In giving his- reasons for his resig- 
nation, Captain Goodrich said: "I have been in the employ of the 
department for twenty-seven years, which is three years longer than 
any other man in any of the ten National Homes, and I think it is 
time to step out and make room for some one else. Furthermore, 
there is a great deal of responsibility attached to the position and I 
feel I am getting too old to attend to the work properly." 


Page 14. — Under cut of William A. Calderhead, read "fourteen years in 
Congress" instead of '"twelve years in Congress." 

Page 137. —Under cut of Thomas J. Greene and Mrs. Mary (Greene) Cren- 
shaw, read "First twins" instead of "First children." 

Page 139. —Under cut of the Kickapoo church, read "in 1856" instead of 
"in 1854." 

Page 152. —Line 3 from top of page, read "Thomas Wallace" instead of 
"William Wallace." 

Page 155. — Line 6 from bottom of text, read "probably not less" instead 
of "probably less." 

Page 159. — Under cut of Bishop Enoch Mather Marvin, read "Presided at 
the second" instead of "Presided at the first." 

Page 274 —Line 20 from bottom of text, read "Eclectic" instead of 

Page 276. — Line 8 from bottom of note 1, read "John Ritchie" instead of 
"John Richey. " 

Page 324 —Under cut of General Hayes, read "Gen. Edward" ipstead of 
"Gen. Edwin." 

Page 332 —Line 13 from bottom of text, read "Andrew H. Reeder" in- 
stead of "Andrew J. Reeder." 

Page 3::5.— Line 3 from bottom of note, read "Tefft House" instead of 
"Teft House." 

Page 339 et spq.— In paper by Ely Moore, jr., read "Orville C. Brown" in- 
stead of "Orval C. Brown." 

Page 439. -Read "W. F. Cody" instead of "W. E. Cody." 




WHEN we met in our annual session two years ago, for the first time in 
many years we missed the familiar face of our Hbrarian, Miss Zu 
Adams. Never physically strong, she had broken down from overwork. 
Some months of rest and intermittent work seemed to restore her health, 
and in 1910 she was steadily at her post again. In January of this year she 
was stricken with what proved to be her last sickness. Her strong will 
power fought for life many weeks, but in vain, and she passed away on 
April 12, 1911. 

She was the second child of Frankin G. and Harriet Adams, Kansas pio- 
neers, and was born at Atchison, Kan., in the stirring days of 1859. Her 
father was prominent in the work to make Kansas a free state, and from 
both parents she inherited an almost morbid trait of conscientious and fear- 
less devotion to duty, as well as mental ability of a high order. Judge 
Adams was the first secretary of this Historical Society, to which he devoted 
his life for nearly a quarter of a century. 

As a child. Miss Zu, as she liked to be called, was an industrious scholar. 
Her early training was under her parents at home; later at the public 
schools at Waterville and in Topeka high school. When still in her teens 
she mastered stenography, an accomplishment quite rare in those days. 
She was a fine story-teller, and her mates and the school children were en- 
tranced by the charm of her word pictures. Whatever she attempted in all 
her life was done so ably and conscientiously, and withal so quietly and 
sweetly, as to win the admiration of all who knew her. 

In the early days of this Historical Society it keenly felt the pinch of 
poverty. It had no funds from which to pay for the necessary work in the 
oflftce. An so it came about that Miss Zu for several years helped her 
father, out of school hours, without compensation, receiving her first salary 
in 1880. During his later life she was made librarian, and when, during his 
last year, he became too feeble for office duty, she carried the burden both 
of his and her own work. 

Growing up in the work as the Society grew, through her labor she be- 
came familiar with all its details ; her life was builded into every room and 
nook and cranny of its collections, and no one knew better than she every 
turn of its affairs. So it came about that she was often called on for work 
outside of her regular duties, and, as the days were too short, she took 
it home with her and spent many hours, that should have been given to 
rest and sleep, in labors that often overtaxed her strength, and, no doubt, 
hurried her to a premature grave. 

As a loyal Daughter of the American Revolution, in a position to be of 
great service to the order, she gave freely of time and strength in its ser- 
vice. That organization will do itself an honor when it places in our new 
Memorial Building some permanent and beautiful memorial in recognition 
of her services. 


xxii Kansas State Historical Society. 

During the pastorate of Rev. L. Blakesly she united with the First Con- 
gregational Church of this city, and later became a charter member of the 
Central Congregational Church, and was ever a faithful and consistent 

In all her life, as a student, as eldest daughter, taking a mother's place 
when her mother was called away from a large family, as the stay and com- 
fort of her father in his last years, as well as his efficient helper in the 
work of this Society, in all her long years in our service, she showed a 
spirit of devotion and self-sacrifice rarely seen. To see her father's plans 
and hopes realized and to continue his work was her ambition. 

Among the works of her pen we note the following : 

"Catalogue of Kansas Territorial and State Documents," which was 
published by the Historical Society in 1900. 

"Chronology of Kansas," for Harper's Encyclopedia of United States 
History, printed in 1902. 

"Report on the Marking of the Santa Fe Trail," published in the reports 
of the American Historical Association for 1906. 

"List of Kansas State Publications," under the direction of R. R. 
Bowker, published in New York, 1906. 

She had made a close study of and was recognized as an authority on Kan- 
sas history, and knew more about the aborigines of Kansas than anyone living 
in the state. In J une, 1909, Baker University conferred upon her the honorary 
degree of Master of Arts. This academic recognition was given because of 
her competent and scholarly work along the 1 ne of Kansas history. Almost 
the last work she did was on the eleventh volume of Kansas Historical 

No cloistered devotee was ever more consecrated to work or brought to it 
more of zealous service than came to the Kansas State Historical Society 
with Miss Adams. She rests from her labors, but her works, seen in this 
Society, in all it is to-day, or all it may become tomorrow, will ever be to 
those who knew her a reminder of a most useful, faithful life. 

The Executive Committee of the Kansas State Historical Society deplore 
the death of Miss Zu Adams, the librarian of the Society, as a public loss. 
She had been in the service of the state in her line of work for thirty-five 
years, and in addition to an unbroken record of duty faithfully, conscien- 
tiously and most intelligently performed, she had accumulated an experience 
and knowledge, always in demand, but gone with her, beyond the power of 
words to measure. Her work was the love of her life, and her associates 
bear witness that her zeal shortened her days. She was a frail woman, of 
exceeding modesty, and while there are hosts of Kansas people who know of 
and have enjoyed her services, she will be known to scholars and students, 
for all the time that Kansas history will endure, for her patient, painstaking 
labor as a librarian, a collector of historical material, and for cautious and 
accurate work on the publications of the Society. 

Resolved, That the secretary is hereby ordered to secure an oil painting 
of Miss Adams, to be added to the collections of the Society, and that the 
sum of one hundred dollars is hereby appropriated out of the membership- 
ee fund to pay for the same. w. R. Stubbs. J. G. Slonecker. 

H. E. Valentine. P. I. Bonebrake. 
Clad Hamilton. 

In Memoriam. 

XX1 11 

The funeral service, conducted by Dr. Charles M. Sheldon, was held at 
Miss Adams' late home, on Friday, April 14, 1911. 

Sun of My Soul. 

Sung by Mrs. B. B. Smyth. 

Sun of my soul! thou Saviour dear, 
It is not night if Thou be near: 
On, may no earth-born cloud arise 
To hide Thee from thy servant's eyes! 

When the soft dews of kindly sleep 
My weary eyelids gently steep. 
Be my last thought— how sweet to rest 
Forever on my Saviour's breast! 

Abide with me from morn till eve. 
For without Thee I can not live; 
Abide with me when night is nigh. 
For without Thee I dare not die. 

Scripture Reading. 

"The Lord hear thee in the day of trouble; the name of the God of Jacob 
defend thee. Send thee help from the sanctuary, and strengthen thee out 
of Zion. Remember all thy offerings, and accept thy burnt sacrifices. 
Grant thee according to thy own heart, and fulfill all thy counsel. 

"Peace be to this house. Grace be to you, and peace, from God our 
Father, and from the Lord Jesus Christ. Blessed be God, even the Father 
of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of mercies, and the God of all com- 
fort; who comforteth us in all our tribulation, that we may be able to 
comfort them which are in any trouble, by the comfort wherewith we our- 
selves are comforted of God. 

"For a small moment have I forsaken thee; but with great mercies will 
I gather thee. In a little wrath I hid my face from thee for a moment: 
but with everlasting kindness will I have mercy on thee, saith the Lord thy 
Redeemer. For this is as the waters of Noah unto me: for as I have 
sworn that the waters of Noah shall no more go over the earth; so have I 
sworn that I would not be wroth with thee, nor rebuke thee. For the 
mountains shall depart, and the hills be removed; but my kindness shall not 
depart from thee, neither shall the covenant of my peace be removed, saith 
the Lord that hath mercy on thee. 

"0 thou afflicted, tossed with tempest, and not comforted, behold I will 
lay thy stones with fair colours, and lay thy foundations with sapphires. 
And I will make thy windows of agate, and thy gates of carbuncles, and all 
thy borders of pleasant stones. And all thy children shall be taught of the 
Lord; and great shall be the peace of thy children. 

"God is our refuge and strength, a very present help in trouble. There- 
fore will we not fear, though the earth be removed, and though the moun- 
tains be carried into the midst of the sea. Though the waters thereof roar 
and be troubled, though the mountains shake with the swelling thereof. 

"Hear my cry, God; attend unto my prayer. From the end of the earth 
will I cry unto thee when my heart is overwhelmed. Lead me to the Rock 
that is higher than I. For thou hast been a shelter for me, and a strong 
tower from the enemy. I will abide in thy tabernacle forever; I will trust 
in the covert of thy wings. 

"These things have I spoken unto you, that in me ye might have peace. 

xxiv Kansas State HistorHcal Society. 

In the world ye shall have tribulation: but be of good cheer; I have over- 
come the world. 

"The Lord is my shepherd; I shall not want. He maketh me to lie down 
in green pastures: he leadeth me besides the still waters. He restoreth 
my soul; he leadeth me in the paths of righteousness for his name's sake. 
Yea, though I walk through the valley of the shadow of death, I will fear 
no evil: for thou art with me; thy rod and thy staff they comfort me. Thou 
preparest a table before me in the presence of mine enemies: thou anointest 
my head with oil; my cup runneth over. Surely goodness and mercy shall 
follow me all the days of my life; and I will dwell in the house of the Lord 

"And I saw a new heaven and a new earth ; for the first heaven and the 
first earth were passed away ; and there was no more sea. And I, John, 
saw the holy city, new Jerusalem, coming down from God out of heaven, 
prepared as a bride adorned for her husband. And I heard a great voice 
out of heaven saying, Behold the tabernacle of God is with men, and he will 
dwell with them, and they shall be his people, and God himself shall be with 
them, and be their God. And God shall wipe away all tears from their eyes; 
and there shall be no more death, neither sorrow, nor crying, neither shall 
there be any more pain, for the former things are passed away. And he 
that sat upon the throne said. Behold I make all things new. 

"The Lord bless thee and keep thee; the Lord make his face to shine 
upon thee, and be gracious unto thee ; the Lord lift up his countenance upon 
thee and give thee peace. 

"Now, the God of peace that brought again from the dead our Lord Jesus, 
that great shepherd of the sheep, through the blood of the everlasting cove- 
nant make you perfect in every good work to do his will, working in you 
that which is well pleasing in his sight, through Jesus Christ, to whom be 
glory, forever. Amen." 

Doctor Sheldon then spoke as follows: 

"Death has always brought trouble and sorrow into the world from the 
very beginning. In spite of the fact that it is universal, we never get used 
to it. I think we might perhaps accustom ourselves a little more to it, and 
we ought, by more familiarity with it. I see no reason why we should not 
accustom ourselves to it in the family circle, and talk about it as we talk 
about anything else. Dying is just as natural as being born; it is a part of 
life, and the Christian does accustom himself in many ways to it— and he 
may add this fact to the great universal fact of our humanity. But it al- 
ways brings sorrow. It would be a strange death that did not bring any 
grief. Sometimes we hear it said, or read it, 'There was not a tear shed 
by anyone. ' and we wonder who that person was. The more useful, the 
more strength of character, the more beloved the person was, the more 
grief, the more sorrow on that account. And if it were not for our Chris- 
tian faith we could not bear it. Philosophy has nothing to say in the pres- 
ence of death; science has nothing to say, except sometimes to assert, in 
the proud fashion which it has no right to assume, that there is no life 
after death. Wealth has nothing to say at its coming; it has no healing 
for this wound. Fame, ambition, honor, success in the marketplace, are 
all doomed in the presence of death. 

"But that makes no difference, for there is one voice that speaks clear 

In Memoriam. 


and strong and assuringly, and that is the voice of our Christian faith. 
While all others, philosophy, science, are silent— they have nothing to say, 
they have nothing to offer in the way of consolation or hope-the Christian 
faith steps boldly forward in the crisis and says all we need to know. So 
there is comfort in this home to-day. These friends whose faith has been 
tried are going to take up their burden and carry on their work and live 
their life, not as if this had never occurred, but stronger and better and 
richer because it occurred. The comfort of a Christian faith reminds us of 
so many things. Any life well lived is a heritage. We ought to be rich 
people after so many friends have passed on and left us their memories. 
We are often careless of them while living, but we treasure their memories. 
Death has done that for us. 

"Then we have great comfort in the thought of the universal friendship 
which exists in the world. We had thought it hard and cruel and selfish 
and bitter. On the contrary, we find that when a great trouble comes the 
world is full of people that feel for us, of great-hearted friends; the world 
is full of sympathy, it is pulsing with love for us. And it is because we be- 
long to the great family of those who sorrow. We have all sorrowed in the 
same way. 

"And Christian faith reminds us of the great future. Philosophy has 
not a word to say, science has nothing to speak about the great comforting 
thought of the other world. What we need to remember, what any of 
these friends here to-day need to remember, is the fact that this dear one 
is safe and happy and well in the land where there is no pain nor sickness 
nor death any more. They need to remember what she would like to have 
them do. She would like to have them go on with their day's work, and do 
it faithfully. If they want to revere her memory and please her they will 
simply go on with their work, doing it better than they have ever done be- 
fore, and grow busy with the tasks that will help others. Pass on the leg- 
acy of her faithfulness, her gentleness and good will--her faithfulness to 
duty and to those about her. The great thing that sustains in the time of 
death is the Christian faith in the other world, and the knowledge of the 
fact that life has not ceased going on, growing stronger and doing better 
things, and that some day we shall meet again. That is the one great sus- 
taining thing. 

"There is nothing our friends can say. It all falls on dull ears. Of all 
we have ready to offer, there is nothing to help except the words of promise. 
These come fresh and strong and true, and remind us of the great fact of 
our many broken plans — nothing ever finished in this world; it is all incom- 
plete. At the best we are playing at little tasks, but we are getting ready 
for the great world where we shall do something better, for we shall have 
time and room and opportunity to do it. 

"Let the friends comfort themselves in the legacy of a life that has left 
more than any wealth can ever purchase; in the thought that some one is 
dependent upon you; some little child, perhaps, looking to you for help. 
You are still needed in the world. God needs you, friends need you, and so 
you are surely called upon by the Blessed Master to take up the work and 
carry it on— ever with the memory of the just and the thought of the one 
who has gone a little way on, to meet her in the land beyond the storms 
and the pain." 

xxvi Karisas State Historical Society. 

Why Should I Fear? 

Sung by MRS. B. B. Smyth. 

Why should 1 fear to pass the gate 
That opens into Heaven? 

The mansions, where my friends await 
My coming, morn or even. 

Are bright with everlasting bloom 

Of flowers, that grow in every room. 

Why should I fear to hear Him say 
"Come child of mine and rest! 

Come to the place of endless day. 
The mansions of the blest; 

There is no night nor tempest here, 

No pain nor sorrow, care or fear." 

Why should I falter in my faith, 
When He who made me keeps 

And guards His own and daily saith, 
"The earth with sorrow weeps. 

But Heaven is glad witli songs that bear 

A harmony beyond compare." 

Why should I shrink at thought of death 
When none of His can die? 

God breathes on them His loving breath. 
And gives eternity ; 

He wipes away all tears from eyes 

That open into Paradise. 

Loved one of mine, I part with thee 
A moment only, here; 

I would not call thee back to me, 
But make my vision clear 

Of that dear country so divine, 

When I shall clasp thy hand in mine. 

And there shall be no parting there, 

No going out again ; 
No storms shall beat upon the fair, 

No anguish bring them pain ; 
My friend is not beneath the sod. 
But happy, strong and free with God. 

-C. M. S. 

"Grant, our Father, to come into this house and give it a blessing, and 
bring Thy peace and Thy good cheer, even as Thy sun has done many a time 
after the racking storm has passed over the earth, and has restored that 
which was rent and torn; even so come, Thou Son of Righteousness, and 
heal these hearts that have been broken and are sorrowing here to-day. We 
thank Thee for what Thou hast done for Thy people in all the ages; that 
death has not been able to tear out of the world its joy, nor take from the 
heart of the little child its happiness, nor to cover the earth with gloom. 
We thank Thee that the flowers still bloom, that the sun still shines, and 
that the earth still rolls into the light. We thank Thee that men and women 
still go about their daily work and accomplish their tasks, as if death had 
never come. We thank Thee for his little power, and that the greater 
power is the power of life— that which can not be broken and destroyed. 

In Memoriam. 


We thank Thee that, though the seed lies long in the ground, in the dark- 
ness and cold, that it breaks into life when spring comes. 

"We pray to-day for all those who mourn, for all men everywhere who 
sorrow. We thank Thee that we belong to the common family of those 
who sympathize with one another. Deepen our experience and enrich our 
lives by the influences that come to us in the daily course of humanity's 
life. We brought nothing into the world, neither can we carry anything 
out, but we bless Thee that we can leave as we go a heritage of a good life, 
a holy life. 

"Hear us in our prayer, and abide with us. Bless the members of this 
household. Be with those who are absent; heal the sick, comfort the sor- 
rowing, bless all who mourn, and give us Thy peace. And when we have 
done our work here may we be ready to enter Thine other world and take 
up Thine other work in a place where we shall not be hindered and cramped, 
and where we shall ever sing songs of praise to Thee. 

"Our Father which art in heaven : hallowed be Thy name. Thy king- 
dom come ; Thy will be done on earth as it is in heaven. Give us this day 
our daily bread, and forgive us our trespasses as we forgive them that 
trespass against us. And lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from 
evil ; for Thine is the kingdom, and the power, and the glory, forever and 
• ever. Amen." 

There is a Land. 

Sung by Mrs. B. B. Smyth. 

There is a land my eye hath seen 

In visions of enraptur. d thought. 
So bright that all that spreads between 

Is with its radiant glory fraught. 
A land upon whose blissful shore 

There rests no shadow, falls no stain, 
■• • There those who meet shall part no more, 

And those long parted meet again. 

Its skies are not like earthly skies. 

With varying hues of shade and light ; 
It hath no need of sun to rise 

To dissipate the gloom of night. 
There sweeps no desolating wind 

Across the calm, serene abode. 
The wanderer there a home may find 

Within the Paradise of God. 



Re&d before the Kansas Editorial Association at Lawrence, April 8, 1912, by 
Sheridan Ploughe," of Hutchinson. 

IN THE DAILY GRIND of newspaper work, it perhaps has not occurred 
to the newspaper makers that the facts they set down in their columns 
will be used as the information from which the future history of Kansas will 
be written. In their daily rounds in search of news they have not always 
thought of the high value that will be put upon the files of their papers in 
after years. Events of seemingly small importance are recorded, with no 
thought that those events may have a decided worth in the future. It is 
impossible to estimate at the time it is recorded, the exact value of any in- 
formation that comes under the observation of the careful news gatherer. 
It may seem insignificant and unimportant, but the future may give it a 
worth apparently not possessed at the present time. 

The function of a newspaper is to record correctly and accurately the 
events in its field of labor. But it frequently occurs— perhaps, to be more 
definite, it happens everyday with the newspaper maker— that in his efforts 
to get rush jobs off the press, to round up belated advertising, to get the 
type set, the forms locked up and the paper out on time, details which make 
for accuracy are disregarded, and this most important function is overlooked. 

The newspaper maker should never forget that the daily life of his com- 
munity can only be made known to the future through the files of his paper. 
Without considering the immediate advantage accruing to a newspaper that 
has built up a reputation for accuracy; a reputation that leads the reader 
to believe the matter contained in its columns is an accurate statement of 
facts that can be relied upon— outside of the direct and immediate value to 
the paper itself of such a reputation, it is worth all it costs in effort to know 
that the paper may be looked upon with confidence by its readers a half cen- 
tury from now as well as by its readers to-day. 

As authority in historical work newspapers are accorded the second place. 
All public records, such as the oflScial acts of public officers, probate court 
proceedings, minutes of county commissioners' sessions, judicial acts of trial 
courts, as well as decisions of supreme courts, and all records of plats and 
deeds, stand first, because the official seal gives authenticity, and they are 
accordingly regarded as the highest source of information. While this class 
of matter fills a large place in the history of any community, newspapers. 

Note 1.- -Sheridan Ploughe was born in Howard county, Indiana, June 1, 1868. He 
removed to Hutchinson with his parents in February of 1876, where he lived on a farm 
adjoining the city and attended the city schools. He graduated from the high school in 
the class of 1884, and entered the Kansas State University in the fall of 1886 and finished 
the Freshman year. He attended Garfield University, at Wichita, during the rest of his 
college course, graduating with the degree of A. B. in June, 1890. He then entered the 
law office of L. M. Fall, and was admitted to the Reno county bar in October of 1892, 
when he entered on the practice of his chosen profession. Mr. Ploughe afterward took up 
newspaper work, and was for a time publisher of the Hutchinson Independent. 


XXX Kansas State Historical Society. 

as a matter of fact, are far more prolific an 1 resourceful because of the 
larger scope of their work. They deal not only with these records them- 
selves, but likewise with a great variety of subjects; with the living men 
and women who make the records, write the commissioners' proceedings 
and the court decisions. They deal daily with the entire country instead of 
with the few individuals, and because of this close daily contact newspapers 
become the most valuable source of material that goes to make up the 
history of a community. We maintain an agency on an average of eight 
newspapers in every county in the state for recording daily events and pre- 
serving records for future use. How carefully, or how carelessly, is their 
work being done? The Stdte Historical Society's secretary says that "No 
one, not personally conversant with a particular set of facts, ever questions 
a newspaper statement contained in the files of the State Historical Society. ' ' 
If the ordinary observer to-day accepts statements made in newspapers as 
accurate, and only those question them who have personal knowledge of the 
matters treated, how much higher place will be accorded the files of your 
papers when there are none left to question, none to dispute their accuracy? 
With this added importance, the work of every newspaper maker should be 
the work of the history writer, and every effort made to turn out a better 
paper with each issue. 

While the man who does not know the inside of newspaper making may 
be willing to accept their statements unquestioned, yet the newspaper 
maker himself realizes the shortcomings of the trade. If he is on a daily 
and directs others in gathering news, he knows his reporters, knows the 
lack of ability in too many instances; he sees too often their shiftlessness 
and their heartbreaking carelessness, their failure to comprehend the value 
of details. He knows that often imagination and guesswork take the place 
of leg work, and that gossip is frequently given the credence of gospel. 
Deliberate faking of news is the exception on small dailies, but the mang- 
ling and disfiguring of news items beyond recognition is common, and calls 
for heroic action, and a continuation of it should result in putting the guilty 
reporter into outer darkness, in spite of his weeping and wailing and gnash- 
ing of teeth. 

On the smaller papers, where the man who writes the articles also sets 
the type, greater reliability is attained. George W. Martin, secretary of 
the State Historical Society, says that the facts gathered from county 
weeklies are far more reliable than those obtained from the big dailies. 
These smaller papers are consulted continually in transacting the business 
of the state, and they are generally relied upon; but newspaper makers 
who turn out the great dailies are confronted with mechanical activities 
that cannot be decreased, and the tendency is to get a few facts, guess at 
the rest, pjt the mixture together and go to press, and a generation from 
now that mixture will be regarded as a statement of facts, whether it be a 
county-seat contest or a bond election. 

The worst sinners in the matter of making unreliable the sources of 
future information, however, are the correspondents of metropolitan dailies. 
Much of the matter they write is never read in their own communities, and 
hence no check is put on their exaggerations. Some of these wild state- 
ments are made because the papers for which they write want exaggera- 
tions. Sensations must be made, if they do not exist. The "yellow 
journals" have dealt in wild statements so long that calm narrations of 

Historical Accuracy in Newspapers. 


ordinarily good news items are not to their purpose, and every one who has 
ever done any work for sensational newspapers of this class can testify to 
the request for greatly exaggerated stories. The form of the query sent 
the correspondents shows that the paper does not want facts but a highly 
colored story, and if the correspondent can not furnish it, the newspaper 
will go elsewhere for its news. Then, again, knowing the paper's weak-^ 
ness, the correspondent deliberately fakes it, and the bigger the fake the 
blacker the headlines the next morning. During the high waters that 
covered a part of the town site of Hutchinson in 1903 a newspaper corre- 
spondent of that place drew on his imagination to such an extent that he 
wired an eastern daily that the water was so high in Hutchinson that 
corpses were floating out of the second story windows of an undertaking 
establishment. That fake still lives. It will doubtless be remembered long 
after the flood itself is forgotten. And I have thought that the conclusion 
which the distinguished Kansan who presides over this session of the Edi- 
torial Association gave to the world two years later, at remote but fair 
Bingen on the Rhine, was largely reached through the success of that fake 
telegram. The conclusion, you will remember, was "that it is the romancer 
and the singer who make a country great and interesting, and not any special 
merit of the place itself. " And straightway (to make his country "great and 
interesting," I suppose) from his fertile imagination was conjured the "Le- 
gend of Cow Creek, ' ' that classic in which a pair of lovers are portrayed cross- 
ing the raging torrent of Cow creek at the flood, hanging on to the tail of an 
old cow, while an irate father stands "on the bank cursing a blue streak. "^ 
But what I desire to impress upon this honorable body is that its present 
president would not have needed anything more than a pair of hip boots to 
have gotten through the deepest water that covered our town site of Hutch- 
inson in 1903, and I submit that in this particular case, he not being a very 
tall man, it is a long way from hips to second-story windows. 

Another distinguished gentleman, who was once a newspaper man, but 
has now degenerated into successfully filling a responsible position as 
"advisor" to the government of Kansas, wrote some telegrams years ago 
that set the standard for news fakirs, and will always remain a source of 
inspiration for those who would follow in his footsteps. The Rosa White- 
face stories not only put the Indian Peace Society up in arms and aroused 
the activities of the W. C. T. U. and the ministerial associations, but so 
stirred up the Interior Department of the United States that the Secretary 
kept the wires hot commanding the Indian agent to stop the s^le of the girl 
to "Black Coyote," an Indian buck who already had seven wives. Later 
this same newspaper gentleman started a fake story of a baby that had 
fallen into a well, and his story was so clearly faked that he was flooded 
with requests from "yellow journals" for more news of the baby in the 
well. The "advisor," realizing he had started something good and desir- 
ing to continue in well doing, let down into the well every day a bottle of 
milk to the baby, who was sinking slowly downward. After keeping the 
fake going as long as he thought advisable, he pulled up the well pipe and 
rescued the baby from the lower end. 

But aside from these enterprising stories, Kansas newspapers will afford 
years hence a fairly good basis upon which to write a history of the state. 
Gathered together in the State Historical Society's rooms, where they are 
carefully arranged and bound in permanent form, are the files of the eight 

xxxii Kansas State Historical Society. 

hundred or more newspapers published over the state. This collection is 
unique and unequaled anywhere else in the land. Kansas may well be proud 
of her great newspaper collection. There is not a state in the Union that 
can approach the Sunflower state in this respect, and it is the duty of every 
newspaper maker in Kansas to see that no issue of his paper ever fails to 
be sent there, so that the files may be kept complete. When the new 
Memorial building, wherein the collections of the Historical Society are to 
be housed, is finished, the Kansas editors will have a clearing house for 
their wares which will be a central attraction for all newspaper men. The 
Historical Society is presided over by the noblest Roman of them all— Geo. 
W. Martin— entitled to the deanship of Kansas editors. The newspaper 
makers should keep in close touch with him, and should ascertain what is 
needed to complete the Memorial Building, and then labor— diligently and 
personally with their senators and representatives, to the end that this 
splendid structure be finished at once. Kansas editors should never forget 
that the Historical Society is a child of the Editorial Association. 

The newspaper maker is doing what no other craft or calling is accom- 
plishing. His work is not ended with to-day's reading of his paper. Years 
hence, when the compositor has laid down his stick, when the machine 
operator has quit his Union, when the proofreader has ceased to worry over 
copy, when, indeed, the subscriber has ended his days, there will come 
a time when some one will drag out the dusty files of the old paper and 
read again the daily happenings of the community— read of the men and 
women who laid the foundations of the prosperity of the neighborhood. 
The name of the paper may be changed, other workers may gather about 
the presses and the machines, but in the old files will be set down truth- 
fully the story of the "first things." The name of the man who planted 
the first apple tree cannot be wholly without interest when the reader has 
but to turn and look away across fair orchards to see boughs bending under 
their loads of fruit. The establishment of the first road over the trackless 
waste of unbroken sod is full of romance to the reader of a later day as he 
looks at the noble highways of his own time. He may read of the laying 
out of the village cemetery, remembering that none live who were active 
then. But the newspaper still lives and tells the story of the first grave. 

Truly, the newspaper maker is the history writer of his community. 
Well should he write it, carefully should he set it down, remembering that 
when it will be of most value there may be none left to criticise and none 
to correct it. If his work is well done, high indeed will be the praise of the 
one whose pen shall write again the stories that he is writing now. Twice 
told will be the tale, and all the veneration that after days can furnish, all 
the praise that future generations can bestow, and all the gratitude of the 
children and the children's children will be to him who truthfully, carefully 
and accurately tells the daily story of the fathers. No other trade or call- 
ing holds out the opportunities, the open ports that are given to the news- 
paper maker. Honored be the newspaper maker who is faithful to his call- 
ing in his daily work. 


Addresses at Annual Meetings. 


AND 60'S. 

Address by the President, Albe B. Whiting, '- Topeka, before the Kansas State Historical So- 
ciety, at its thirty-fifth annual meeting, Decembers, 1910. 

"T^ORT RILEY 2 was located in 1853, and in 1855 a large amount of build- 
J- ing was done to make it a five-troop cavalry post. It was an outpost 
west of all the Indian reservations, and a buffer to the savages of the 
plains, holding them away from the somewhat civilized treaty Indians and 
the settlers who were soon to fill the valleys of the Kaw and its tributaries. 
The old Mormon trail, said to have been made in 1846, left the Santa Fe 
trail at 110 Creek, in Osage county, and bearing northwest crossed the 

Note 1. — Albe B. Whiting was born at Johnson, Lamoille county, Vermont, Novem- 
ber 10, 1835. He is the son of Harris Whiting and Mary (Dodge) Whiting, who were 
born in Massachusetts and New Hampshire, of English and Scotch ancestry, connected 
with Cromwell and Bloody Mary, one of whom, an old Covenanter, fled to America to save 
his head from the English queen's axe. His parents were early settlers in northern 
Vermont, and he was educated in the common schools and in the academy of the town 
where he was born. Mr. Whiting came to Kansas in April, 1856, and located beyond the 
surveys in the Republican valley, a few miles northwest of Fort Riley, about where is 
now Milford, Geary county. He removed to Topeka in 1877, where he has resided ever 
since. He has been a farmer, freighter, miller and merchant. He indulged in office 
holding but little, having been drafted once as a postmaster, and served as police com- 
missioner under Governor Lewelling. He followed or drove oxen from the Missouri river 
to the Rockies, opened roads, built bridges and ferries, a sawmill, a flouring mill and 
houses and stores on the frontier. He has also been especially active in establishing 
schools and churches. He is now, and has been for many years, a very liberal friend and 
trustee of Washburn College, Topeka. He was married in November, 1858, to Kate A. 
Whitney, of Vermont. They have had six children, four living, with eight grandchildren 
and one great-grandchild. Mr. Whiting determined to leave some permanent endowment 
for Washburn College, the Young Women's Christian Association and the Young Men's 
Christian Association of Topeka. He selected $25,000 as the beginning -of his endow- 
ment, and then began casting about for some plan of investment which would actually 
net the greatest income to the three institutions to which he desired to contribute. He 
investigated all kinds of business ventures, bond and stock returns and real-estate invest- 
ments, and finally decided upon a cemetery as the best possible investment for the college 
and Christian associations. Mr. Whiting bought the Mt. Hope cemetery grounds, 160 
acres, one and one-half miles west of Topeka. The land alone cost $16,000, and that left 
$9000 to begin the improvement work. This was four years ago, and the permanent im- 
provement work of the cemetery has been going on ever since and will go on forever. 
The property has been deeded to a board of trustees, of which Mr. Whiting is president 
and also general superintendent of the cemetery. This board has been incorporated for 
one thousand years, and it is bound to maintain the cemetery forever. No grave can 
ever be neglected, as under the terms of the charter the board is compelled to set aside a 
certain part of its revenue to go into a perpetual care fund, the interest on this fund 
being sufficient to care for the property. The college and the Christian associations 
receive two-thirds of the entire sum obtained from the sale of lots m the cemetery- An 
estimate of the amount to be received from this source shows that the three institutions 
should receive more than a million dollars in a comparatively short time if the sale of lots 
continues in the same proportion as at present. No one except the actual workers in the 
cemetery receives a salary, and no dividends except to the college and Christian associa- 
tions are ever declared. The college receives about one-half of the total amount received 
from the sale of lots; the Young Women's Christian Association receives the next largest 
share, and the Young Men's Christian Association the next division. 

Note 2. Bennet Riley was born in Alexandria, Va., in 1787, and entered the army 
from Maryland as an ensign in 1813. He attained a captaincy in 1818, and for long and 
efficient service was breveted major in 1828. He was an adept at campaigning on the 


2 Kansas State Historical Society. 

Kaw at a ferry on the site of Pawnee City, perhaps eighty rods down the 
river from the building put up for the first territorial legislature. Thence 
the trail ran nearly due north till it met the trails from Leavenworth and 
up-river towns on the Little Blue, a hundred miles away. In 1856 a gov- 
ernment train made a trail up the Republican to the big bend near the Ne- 
braska line, thence over to the old trail on the Little Blue, and recom- 
mended this route to overland emigrants as shorter, better watered and 
more desirable for emigrant trains and their herds. 

In 1855 a few employees at Fort Riley took claims a little way up the 
Republican valley, although the land had not yet been surveyed. In the spring 
of 1856 the writer was one of some twenty, mostly single, men who took 
claims on this extreme frontier. 

In the spring of 1857 more settlers came, a few with families, and scat- 
tered along the valley of the river and tributary creeks. Within twenty 
miles of the fort were now about fifty persons, counting women and chil- 
dren. The army officers at the fort were mostly from the South, born aris- 
tocrats, as thoroughly convinced of their divine right to hold human beings 
in slavery as that the sun would rise in the morning. Despising labor, they 
had no use for the ragged frontiersmen who were trying to make homes in 
the wilderness, holding in especial contempt those of free-state convictions. 

While the fort was supposed to be a protection to the settlers, the In- 
dians of some treaty tribes, notably the Kaws and Pawnees, and the hostiles 
from further west, stole our horses so regularly that we were compelled to 
do most of our work with oxen. And if a horse stolen by Indians from our 
settlement was ever recovered by the aid of the army I never knew of it. 

About the 20th of May, 1857, I was turning long furrows of prairie sod 
with four yoke of oxen, when a neighbor, Moses Younkin, from three miles 
away, came to me hurriedly and reported that an hour before two men, 
more dead than alive, had come to his cabin asking for help. These men 
had walked one hundred miles without food in something less than three 
days and two nights, to find relief for the survivors of an emigrant train 
robbed by Indians at Pawnee Bend, in the Republican valley. Eight wagon- 
loads of Arkansas travelers, each drawn by three yoke of oxen, counting 
twenty-five men, women and children, well provisioned for a six months' 
trip, en route to Oregon with a herd of 400 cattle and a few horses, com- 
prised the outfit. They moved leisurely, traveling about fifteen miles daily, 
and the Indians had, no doubt, dogged the train for some days, until satis- 
fied they could capture it with small hazard to themselves. 

One morning just as the train was starting out of camp the Indians 
charged them furiously, riding through the herd and among the wagons, 
yelling like the demons they were, shooting arrows and bullets, stampeding 
the stock, killing the captain of the train, a man by the name of Smith, and 

plains, leading a wing of the Arikara expedition in 1823, under Lieut. Col. Henry Leaven- 
worth, Fifth infantry. He commanded the first Santa Fe trail escort, a duty for which 
he was sent from Jefferson Barracks to Fort Leavenworth in 1829 with a battalion of the 
Sixth infantry, and in which Lieut. Philip St. George Cooke served as a subaltern, and 
was distinguished for bravery in the Seminole war. At Fort Leavenworth he succeeded 
Col. Henry Leavenworth in command. In the Mexican war he was a trusted lieutenant 
of Gen. Winfield Scott, who publicly attributed much of his success at Monterey and Cerro 
Gordo to Colonel Riley's prowess. In 1847 he became brigadier general, and the next year 
was sent in command of the Division of the West to California, where he acted as last 
territorial governor and aided in forming the state constitution. On his departure from 
California (1858) his popularity was signalized by testimonials of popular respect. He 
died at Buffalo, June 9, 1853. The post of Fort Riley, Kan., was named in his honor. — 
Henry Shindler. 

Border Conditions, 1850-1860. 3 

three other men, wounding several others, and driving the living away from 
the wagons with but the scant clothing they happened to wear on a warm 
summer morning, and the few antiquated guns with which the men had 
made a feeble defense. ^ A hundred miles from food and shelter, the sur- 
vivors largely women and children, some of them sick, others severely 
wounded, were in sore need of help. The only horse team we could muster 
was capable of little more speed than oxen. In fact, one of the team had 
been stolen by the Indians twice and abandoned after a few hours, before 
reaching their reservations, because he was so slow. As soon as we could 
mold some bullets, fill powder flasks, and from our scant stores provision 
the wagon with flour and meal, a side of bacon, jug of molasses, water keg, 
frying pans, coffee pot, lariat ropes, blankets and a few things indispensa- 
ble for the relief of the sufferers, three of us hurried off on our mission.* 
I had a saddle horse. We took along in the wagon for a guide the stronger 
one of the two men who had come for help. We sent a man to Fort Riley, 
fifteen miles away, to report the facts to the commanding officer and ask 
for a squad of soldiers to follow us and to help us out. By ten o'clock that 
night a thunderstorm drove us to camp. In a few hours the sky cleared so 
we could follow the dim trail, and we were on our way again. After day 
came we got our breakfast by the river and plodded on as fast as we dare 
crowd our crippled horses. 

Crossing Huntress creek ^ just north of where Clay Center now is, we 

Note 3. — "The train camped for the last time in the valley at that point in Republic 
county where the old military road left the Republican and struck across the prairie for 
the Little Blue, more than one hundred miles from Fort Riley. This point was at or 
near the present site of Republic City. Just as the train was hitching up to roll out of 
camp in the early morning the Indians charged, shouting, through the train, and shooting 
in every direction, to stampede the stock and drive the owners from the train. All was 
disorder and confusion, and little resistance was made. They fled from the train, many of 
them just as they arose from their beds. Smith, the captain and largest owner, in at- 
tempting to escape on a horse, was shot, his body stripped of valuables and mutilated in 
a shocking manner. 

"Four of the men in the train were killed, others wounded, one young woman very 
seriously. But plunder, not blood, was the object of the Indians, and as soon as the 
whites left the train they left them to their fate and ransacked the wagons. A keg of 
whisky found among the loading soon had the whole band engaged in a drunken revel ; 
but, while the emigrants saw from the hills the Indians drunk to helplessness, they dared 
not attempt to recapture the train. 

"Their drunken orgies over, the Indians loaded their ponies from the train. The wagon 
covers were stripped off, sacks of flour, meal and dried fruit were poured on the ground, 
that the bags might be carried away, the clothing packed on the ponies, and, driving the 
herd of stock, they started for their camp — wherever that might be. 

"The events of after years satisfied the settlers in the Republican valley that this 
robbery was committed by the Pawnees, nominally friendly, but ever ready to rob and 
murder when they thought it would be charged up to the Sioux, Cheyennes and other 
hostile tribes on the plains. 

"Meanwhile the emigrants turned away from the train without food or the means of 
procuring it. With half the men in the party killed, including the captain ; with several 
children, the wounded woman to care for, and ninety miles from the settlement, they were 
in danger of starvation." — History of Republic County, I.' O. Savage, 1901, p. 45. 

See, also, an account of this massacre in F. G. Adams' Homestead Guide, 1873, p. 219. 

Note 4. — Moses and William Younkin. Moses Younkin, the man who brought the 
account of the massacre, was an early settler in Kansas, coming from Pennsylvania. He 
was one of the men who located the town site of Milford, in what is now Geary county, 
in 1855. He remained there but a short time, and in April, 1856, he with his brothers, 
William and Jerome, located near the mouth of Timber creek, being the first white man 
to settle within the present limits of Clay county. Mrs. Moses Younkin was the first 
white woman in that locality, and their son, Edward L., born December 2, 1858, was the 
first white child born in the county. — Cutler's History of Kansas, 1883, p. 1312. 

William Younkin was born in Pennsylvania in 1832, and was twenty-two years of age 
when he came to Kansas with his brothers. He was a resident of Grant township, Clay 
county, until about 1897, when he moved to Wakefield. He married Ruth Howard in 
1863. who died in 1880 ; five children were born to them. In 1888 he married Ehca 

Note 5.— Huntress creek was named for Orville Huntress, who in 1861 opened a hotel 
and a store at the point where the military road crossed the creek.— Cutler s History of 
Kansas, 1883, p. 1312. 

4 Kansas State Historical Society. 

came to a long stretch of river bottom, level as a floor, where the trail 
made by a government train in 1856 ran for nearly ten miles in a straight 
iine. No more beautiful prairie scene ever met the eye than this great, 
broad valley on that morning. It was like a sea of the brightest living 
green, dotted with flowers, the winding river fringed with groves in their 
spring dress, the uplands in the background rich in their covering of new 
grass, and no sign for many miles that the foot of man had ever passed 
that way before, save the trail we were following. To our eyes the far 
■end of that trail ended in a lake. A mirage covered it. And presently a 
fast-moving body of colors surprised us, looming in the distance. Mose 
Younkin, old hunter and scout, was sure a body of mounted Indians was 
coming upon us on the run. We could not escape by retreat ; our horses 
were too slow. We looked our guns over, shifted our ammunition to the 
handiest pockets, drove off the trail to get rifle-shot distance from a ravine 
which ran parallel with it and might afford cover to an attacking party, 
and went forward. A mile further on and the mirage, that was the cause 
of our fright, lifted, and the band of Indians dwindled to a couple of men 
and women— the stronger ones of the party we were in search of. Shawls 
worn by the women, blown by the high wind, magnified a hundred fold and 
distorted by the mirage," had given us a good scare. 

We fed these famishing survivors and went on. At the mouth of Pete's 
creek we found Pete Dobbin, from whom the creek took its name. He had 
built a shack here a few weeks before, twenty-five miles from his nearest 
neighbor. He was glad to go along with us. Crossing Parson's creek, 
near where the town of Clifton was built in later years, we began to find 
signs of the recent presence of Indians, and were anxious for the expected 
reinforcements from Fort Riley, as four men were a small crowd to meet 
the band of Indians that had plundered the train, variously estimated by 
the survivors at from 40 to 400. But we drove as far as our tired team 
•could go, and camped about sundown by Elk creek, where now is the city 
-of Clyde. 

Indian signs had multiplied. Darkness came on. Mose and myself 
-agreed to take turns on guard, and mine was the first watch. Pete, too 
-excited to sleep, got out of his blanket and insisted on staying with me. 
An hour later and the deep quiet of the wilderness was with us. Suddenly 
the stillness was broken by jast a note of a human voice from the bushes 
along the stream close by. Our dog sprang from under the wagon with a 
fierce bark. Our horses pulled at their lariats and seemed to sniff trouble. 
Pete whispered to me: "It's Indians. Let's rouse the boys." 1 replied: 
"You go through the bushes to the right; I will go to the left. If you see 
an Indian, shoot and shoot to kill." We made the beat and found nothing. 

Two hours later the clatter of horses' hoofs reached our ears, and we 
wakened the boys and made ready for an attack. Again a pleasant sur- 
prise. Our appeal for help to Fort Riley was flatly refused, and three of 
our neighbors had come on to our relief. A mile back a dog barked at them 
from near the trail. Feeling insecure so near the cover of the bushes, we 

Note 6.- — See Robert M. Wright's description of a mirage, page 66, volume 7, Kansas 
Historical Collections. Mr. Wright has always believed that in a mirage once, near 
Lamed, he saw the greatest city in the world — London, St. Petersburg or Paris, he 
judged, by the domes, spires and minarets and style of buildings. Philip St. George 
Cooke, in his Scenes and Adventures in the Army, 1857, pp. 318-321, gives a most inter- 
esting account of a mirage on the plains of Nebraska. 

Border Conditions, 1850-1860. 5 

harnessed up and moved camp one hundred rods out on the smooth prairie. 
Mose now stood guard while I rolled in a blanket, pillowed my head on a 
saddle, and tried to sleep. Perhaps an hour went by; sleep failed to come. 
Mose whispered to me that a bunch of stock could be dimly seen coming out 
of the woods and grazing quietly a half-mile away; the light was too dim to 
tell if Indian ponies or cattle. We reconnoitered and found thirty or forty 
head of cattle, part of the herd of the plundered train. 

Morning was not far away, and as daybreak was the usual hour for the 
Indians to attack, we made ready and ate our simple breakfast. Sunrise 
brought no Indians, and we moved out on the trail. Some ten miles along 
we forded Salt creek. A mile away in the river bottom a band of Indians 
were frantically running their ponies, urging a herd of cattle into cover of 
the timber. Our four horsemen rode toward them on a gallop. By the time 
we were within a half-mile of them the cattle were out of sight and the 
Indians parted in two squads, one taking cover in the timber along the river, 
the other by the creek, inviting us to ride into their ambush, the open 
prairie between them some sixty rods wide. Reluctantly we left them and 
hurried on west. 

An hour later we met the last of the emigrant party, the mother and 
brother of its murdered captain. The larger number had slipped past our 
camp in the night, and while confident we were a relief party in search of 
them, the women were so terrorized they would not allow the men to show 
themselves to us. The scantily clad old lady of nearly seventy years, lean- 
ing heavily on her son, a man of forty, his head tied in a red cotton hand- 
kerchief, on his shoulder a couple of guns, and in his hand a firebrand, keeping 
a coal alive to light a fire at their next night's resting place, hardly able to 
drag their feet along, were a pitiful sight. So crazed by fear were these 
poor sufferers that it seemed probable the man would fire on us. At request 
of the others I dismounted, left my gun, and went to meet them alone. 
Such joy as came into their faces when certain relief had come I never saw 
before. The old lady had dropped exhausted on the grass. Taking a handful 
of sorrel from her mouth she told me it had been her only food for five 
days. But they were too overjoyed to eat, and cared little for the food in 
my haversack. The man was suffering from an arrow wound that caused 
his death a few months later. '^ 

Making them as comfortable as possible in our wagon, we turned home- 
ward. Recrossing Salt creek, we rested for dinner, and now that the sur- 
vivors were being cared for, we itched to avenge the massacre of the emi- 
grant train and to beat the Indians out of the herd of stock they had 
corralled in the woods three hours before. Up the Republican from the 

Note 7. — "The sixth day after the attack the relieving party found the last of the 
emigrants about thirty miles from the scene of the butchery. An old white-headed woman, 
her long hair streaming in the wind, almost borne on the shoulder of her son, he fainting 
from the wound of a poisoned arrow that afterwards caused his death, having on his other 
arm a couple of old muskets, and a firebrand in his hand — both haggard, dirty, bloody 
and wild — they presented a spectacle once seen never to be forgotten. And when the 
certainty of help and relief came to them their utter prostration and helplessness told, as 
words could not, the sufferings they had endured. 

"It is a sufficient commentary on the administration of James Buchanan that in a 
case like this, with six companies of cavalry at Fort Riley, not a man nor a gun nor a 
ration could be had for the relief of this unfortunate party till after a handful of poor 
frontier settlers had gone out, gathered them up and brought them to the fort. And this^ 
is only one of many instances where frontier settlers in Kansas, and notably in Republic 
county, 'stood picket' for the United States troops, who were placed near the frontier, 
ostensibly for its protection. 

"The survivors of these emigrants mostly returned to Arkansas, a few, however, re- 
maining in Kansas." — History of Republic County, by I. O. Savage, 1901, p. 44. 

6 Kansas State Historical Society. 

junction of Salt creek the river describes a big curve. For a half-mile 
from its mouth Salt creek follows a curve with a shorter radius, and so the 
point of land between the two is like the points of a new moon, and at that 
time was covered with a fine growth of cottonwood and thick underbrush. 
In this tangle an unknown number of Indians and cattle were hidden. It 
was a reckless venture, but six of us were ready for it. We planned to 
cross the creek at its mouth, gain the cover of the timber, and make our 
fight. Coming to the creek, we found the banks impassable and the stream 
deep and miry. Following it up as far as the timber went, there was no 
show for us to cross, and we had to abandon our plan. Providence surely 
interfered to keep us from a foolhardy fight, else the probabilities are 
strong that this story would never have been written. 

Going homeward, within a few miles we picked up a dozen or more of 
the emigrant party who had slipped by us in the darkness of the previous 
night. They were in a pitiful plight; women and children now for nearly a 
week without food, some suffering from wounds. One young woman was 
shot through the body with a rifle ball, and another bullet, striking her in 
the back, had passed up through her shoulder and lodged in her neck. Every 
moment since the massacre they had lived in dread of the savages return- 
ing and butchering them, and, famished as they were, they could not eat. 
At nightfall we camped at Pete Dobbin's cabin, and felt quite secure and 
safe from attack. Hunger came with the feeling of security, and until near 
midnight our frying pans were kept busy baking cakes for the crowd. After 
satisfying our appetites, all save two guards lay down to sleep. So worn 
out were both rescued and rescuers that a good shower falling as we lay 
under the open sky failed to awaken one of us. Even Mose slept through 
it all, and when he fired his good old rifle in the morning to make sure it was 
in order he was surprised at the jet of water that came from its muzzle. 

Near noon that day, east of the present site of Clay Center, we met a 
United States exploring party, 130 wagons with two companies of dragoons 
for escort. They had left Fort Riley two days before for a summer trip. 
The commanding officer interviewed the rescued parties, inquiring into the 
details of the attack on the wagon train. "Didn't you know that you 
were in the Indian country and that the Indians were hostile?" "No." 
"Didn't you keep guard nights?" "No." "When you saw prowlers 
around the camp, as you say, and your lariat ropes were cut at night, 
did n't you know it was the work of Indians? " To all these questions the 
innocent Arkansas travelers gave negative answers. "Blank you, you 
ought to have been robbed ! " was the commander's disgusted exclamation 
as they told of the ignorance and folly that had cost them so dear. That 
night we reached the settlements, and the next day took the party to Fort 
Riley, where the wounded were cared for in the hospital and all were pro- 
vided with food and clothing. 

As the officers in command at Fort Riley refused to take any steps to 
recover the property stolen from the train by the Indians, the survivors ap- 
pealed to their rescuers to make an effort in their behalf, as they had lost 
their earthly all and were in sore need, offering us any portion of the stock 
we saw fit tn ask, as an inducement to again risk our lives for them. Re- 
lying on the vicinity of the exploring expedition to make the trip more safe, 
we at once got together every available man and horse in the region, and 
mustered fourteen men. Just as we were starting from our rendezvous. 

Border Conditions, 1850-1860. 7 

twenty miles from Fort Riley, one of our men had an arm nearly torn off 
by the accidental discharge of a rifle, the flattened bullet cutting a track a 
foot long across his abdomen. The materials for "first aid" in that party 
were confined to shirts and handkerchiefs in use, but we did what we could, 
and his special friend, Mose Younkin, was detailed to get him home, while 
the writer, as best acquainted at Fort Riley, was to ride there and secure 
surgical help for the terribly wounded man. It was late in the afternoon, 
and the day was very hot for a day in May. 

By an unexpected chance to change horses about midway on my route, I 
got a fresh mount and made the twenty miles in two hours. Going at once 
to the quarters of the commanding officer and stating my errand, I was 
astounded by a flat refusal on his part to do one thing to help our wounded 
friend. He, at best, would only refer me to the post surgeon, who could 
have his consent to do as he pleased in the matter. The post surgeon was 
worse than indifferent to my pleadings for help for the father of a family 
of young children, sorely wounded in a service that rightly belonged to the 
army. He was as sympathetic as an iceberg, and warmly assured me that 
to go to his relief would be such a violation of orders as would subject him 
to court martial and severe penalty. For once in my life I was fast losing 
faith in the government, as represented by such brutes wearing its uniform. 
I was reared to be strictly orthodox and to avoid profanity, but never in a 
long life have so burned to express in the strongest language my contempt 
for any one as at that moment; and I should have done it had I thought it 
would have accomplished my end. 

What could I do? It was growing dark, and twenty miles to the next 
place where surgical aid could be hoped for. The chances were all against 
the wounded man surviving the time it would require for me to ride fur- 
ther. Devoutly I prayed, "God help me!" Then it came to my mind that 
my friend was a Mason, and that somewhere in the post was an ordnance 
sergeant, likewise a Mason, and a personal friend of the wounded man. I 
found him ; I gave him the facts quickly. I had found the key to all the 
doors in Fort Riley ! That commanding oflficer and that post surgeon were 
Masons. As soon as an ambulance could be harnessed and supplies put on 
board, the hospital steward, who was a competent surgeon, with an assist- 
ant and a driver, followed me out for seventeen miles in the darkness over 
a dim trail to the home of the wounded man. His wounds were dressed, 
and the next day the post surgeon went out in his carriage and took him 
to the hospital at Fort Riley, where he was given the best of care until he 
fully recovered. As a man and a good and useful citizen he might suffer 
and die for lack of care and attention, those officers as indifferent as if he 
had been a yellow dog; but as a Mason they would give him the full 
measure of the Golden Rule. More than half a century has rolled by since 
that day of strenuous work and excitement. I hope I have forgiven those 
army officers. I am not quite sure of it, for, as I recall that anxious hour 
when I pleaded for help, my blood warms, and none will wonder that it 
took many years and an acquaintance with another type of Masons to re- 
move my prejudice against the order. 

The next day, having done what we could for our wounded friend, Mose 
and I again took the trail, following our party up the river. Thirty miles 
from home we began to find straggling bunches of cattle, quite contented 
to stay along the river and creeks where the pasturage was so rich and 

8 Kansas State Historical Society. 

abundant. We drove them out of the pockets where they were hidden and 
started them down the valley. We camped one night on Pete's creek some 
ten miles from the river, and never in my life did I see such swarms of 
hungry mosquitoes We dared not build a fire, as we were hiding from the 
Indians, and tethered our horses some distance from where we tried in vain 
to sleep. The next day we started homeward, taking with us a beautiful 
young fawn we caught on the prairie, A week later our party came in with 
about two-thirds of the cattle stolen from the train. They reported reach- 
ing the place of massacre at the same time as the United States exploring 
expedition, whose officers were satisfied, after examining conditions there, 
that the robbing was the work of Pawnees— a tribe supposed to be at peace 
with the whites, and not hostile. It was not an uncommon thing in those 
times for treaty Indians to rob trains and frontier settlers, hoping to have 
their deviltry charged up to the hostile tribes. The robbers had taken the 
covers off the wagons, looted them of all clothing and bedding, emptied 
flour, meal and dried fruit on the ground, and carried off the sacks. One 
wounded man had crawled into a wagon loaded with bacon and died there. 
The remains of the other three lay on the ground near by, where they had 
fallen, and were a horrible sight. They buried the dead and fired the wagon 
of bacon. Later, a trip was made by some of our party to bring in the re- 
maining wagons. 

The result of our work secured to the survivors of the massacre quite a 
portion of their stock and was a great relief to them. To me it seemed an 
outrage that the army officers of the United States, with ample men and 
material at hand, would do absolutely nothing to help us in rescuing the 
survivors of the plundered train, but left it to a handful of frontiersmen to 
go out on these errands of mercy. 

Later developments made it clear to us that these army officers, with 
their Southern proclivities, would have been pleased had the Indians scalped 
every free-state man on the frontier. The robbery of this emigrant train 
was the first murderous outbreak of the Indians on the whites in the Re- 
publican valley. As the settlements in the next few years extended farther 
up the river, the outlying farms were often raided by hostile bands, and all 
the horrors of savage brutality were visited on the helpless frontiersmen. 
Hunting parties out for buffalo meat were killed and their bodies left to 
bleach on the prairies. My friend, Walter Haynes,^ with two Collins boys 
and a couple of neighbors from near Clifton, went out for meat and never 
came back. A party in search of them found their remains around their 
overturned wagon, their dead oxen stuck full of arrows, and evidences of a 
desperate running fight for several miles. 

Andy Thompson, a Dane, of prominent Copenhagen connections, for two 
years a member of my family, was visiting in the Solomon valley. He 

Note 8. — "In 1865 immigrants and buffalo hunters often penetrated within the Indian 
hunting grounds. In the summer (May) of 1866 Lewis Cassel, Walter Haynes and two 
sons of William Collins started out with three wagons — two horse teams and one ox team 
— from near Clifton, six miles east of Clyde, on a hunt. They did not return. Two 
weeks after they left home a party of thirty settlers, under the command of Capt. G. D, 
Brooks, went in search, but returned without finding the men. A second party, however. 
under the same leader, made a more successful search, and found the dead bodies of all 
the hunters on Cheyenne creek, about ten miles west of where Concordia now is. Traces 
showed that there had been a desperate running fight of some eight miles, the Indians 
driving the white men till the creek was reached, where they were ambushed and all 
killed, scalped and horribly mutilated. The bodies were taken to Clifton and buried."- — 
Homestead Guide, F. G. Adams, 1873, p. 245. (See, also. Cutler's History of Kansas, 
1883, pp. 1015, 1313.) 

Border Conditions, 1850-1860. 9. 

joined the settlers in defending their homes during an Indian raid, was en- 
ticed away from the stockade, shot and scalped. 

Nelson Beeman, a neighbor, went out on the buffalo range to kill wolves 
for their pelts. He made one successful trip; from the next no word ever 
came back. The Great Plains were as remorseless as the ocean, swallowing 
up many who ventured out upon them, and the savage nomads roaming over 
them were as merciless as sharks. In the decade from '60 to '70 scores of 
men fell victims to the Indian lust for blood and plunder, and the friends of 
the lost never knew when or how they met their fate. In after years the 
rusty irons of a wagon or ox yoke, that fire would not burn, found here and 
there on the Great Plains told of an unwritten tragedy. 

Houses were plundered and burned, stock killed or driven away, women 
outraged and carried off captive to a life compared with which death would 
have been sweet. Men, women and children were butchered and their bod- 
ies savagely mutilated. The government at Washington, engaged in the 
great Civil War, could not respond to appeals for protection sent in from 
the frontier. Even after the close of the war, in 1867 I think it was, Gen- 
eral Sherman, on a tour of inspection of western military posts, came down 
the RepubHcan valley, and in reply to appeals for protection by the army 
bluntly told the settlers to move back s — they were too far out; the govern- 
ment could not afford to protect such scattered settlements. A plan was 
devised on the frontier, and urged on the War Department, to protect it 
with a small force stationed on the larger streams to the west of the settle- 
ment—the Platte, Republican, Solomon and Saline; to keep a daily patrol 
across the country, and in readiness, in case a band of hostiles should cross 
their line, to follow them at once. 

Finally, in 1870,'^ two companies of cavalry, under command of Colonel 
Montgomery, were ordered to this duty, and the frontier breathed freer. 
Two weeks later the writer, on an exploring tour, found this command in 
camp at Lake Sibley, forty miles inside the outmost settlement. Colonel 
Montgomery admitted to me privately that he was doing no good, but must 
obey orders and could not criticise the plans of his superiors. Exasperated 
by this trifling of the War Department, I wrote our senator, Hon. E. G. 
Ross," at Washington, detailing conditions and urging him to go to the 
Secretary of War and ask him if he was depending on the frontier settlers^ 
of Kansas to protect themselves, and to stand picket guard for his soldiers 

Note 9. — "Lieutenant General Sherman, . . . who has repeatedly said that the- 
settlers have 'no business on these lands.' " — Report Adjutant General, 1868, p. 8. 

Note 10. — "United States troops were stationed through 1870 in the Republican, Solo- 
mon and Saline valleys, scouting parties patrolling the line of exposure." — Cutler's His- 
tory of Kansas, 1883, p. 211. 

Note 11. — Edward Gibson Ross was appointed United States senator July 25, 1866, by 
Gov. Samuel J. Crawford, to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Gen. James H. Lane, 
and elected January 23, 1867, serving until March, 1871. He was born in Ashland, Ohio, 
December 7, 1826. He became a journeyman printer. In 1848, at Sandusky, Ohio, he was 
married to Fannie M. Lathrop. He engaged in newspaper work in Milwaukee, Wis. In 
March, 1856, he left Milwaukee with a party of emigrants for Kansas, where he became 
an active free-state leader. In connection with his broher, W. W. Ross, he engaged in 
the newspaper business in Topeka. He was a member of the Wyandotte constitutional 
convention, 1859. In 1862 he assisted in raising the Eleventh Kansas regiment. His 
action while senator, in the matter of the impeachment of President Johnson, caused 
very bitter feeling against him in Kansas, but time has done much to vindicate him. 
Upon his retirement from the senate he published a newspaper at Coffeyville, and subse- 
quently at Lawrence and Leavenworth. He went to New Mexico in 1882, and for a time- 
edited a paper at Albuquerque. He was appointed go's er nor of the territory of New 
Mexico by President Cleveland, which place he filled for four years. He died at Albu- 
querque May 8, 1907, aged eighty-one years. 

10 Kansas State Historical Society. 

besides. Mr. Ross read this letter on the floor of the senate. An immediate 
order was issued to Colonel Montgomery to move out and establish a patrol 
line beyond the settlements. This done, Indian raids in the Republican, 
Solomon, Saline and Smoky Hill valleys were at an end, so far as the hos- 
tiles from the west were concerned, for all time. 

A sentimental regard for the wrongs of "Lo, the poor Indian," in the 
then predominant eastern states, arising from an utter miscomprehension 
of conditions on the frontier, long overshadowed the rights of the settlers, 
and resulted in subjecting them for a dozen years to a life of terror only 
paralleled in annals of unrestrained savage warfare. The settlers on the 
border were accused of dealing unfairly with the Indians, driving them off 
their hunting grounds, overreaching them in trade, and taking their homes 
from them. Nothing could be more untrue of conditions on the Kansas 
frontier. These raids were on lands where the Indian title was extin- 
guished by treaty, and which had been surveyed and thrown open for pre- 
emption by the government. The raiders, for the most part, were roving 
bands of hostile tribes. Their victims rarely saw them, except when, as 
unexpected as thunderbolts out of clear skies, they rode through the set- 
tlements and left death and desolation along their trails. 


Address by Edwin C. Manning/ President of the Kansas State Historical Society, at the Audi- 
torium, Topeka, September 26, 1911. on the occasion of the celebration of the laying of the 
corner stone of Memorial Hall by President William H. Taft. 

IF IT were possible to obliterate the history of Kansas there would be little 
found within its boundaries to make it distinguished among the states 
of this Union. Other states have higher mountains, deeper rivers, broader 
lakes, more extensive forests, richer minerals, as fertile soil, as salubrious a 
clime, larger cities, more lofty spires and greater universities. What, then 
is there that at the mention of the name of Kansas spurs the youth, quickens 
the blood, inspires the muses and thrills the patriot? It is the spirit of its 

Kansas was born in the wilderness and reared in tumult. Its prairies 
throbbed with the passions and prayers of two antagonistic civilizations. 
It was the Bladensburg of Puritan and Cavalier. Its prenatal human sacri- 
fices were the prelude to a deluge of bloodshed as the atonement for a na- 
tional sin. The undeveloped germs of a liberty that floated to the rock-bound 
coast of New England and the sandy beaches of Virginia in the seventeenth 
century, smoldering in a social atmosphere that permitted the hanging of 
women charged with witchcraft, the banishment of Quakers, the selling of 
captive Indians into slavery in the West Indies, the persecution of Roger 
Williams, the purchase of imported negroes as slaves, the hanging of Drum- 
mond. Pate, Davis and others for having revolted against the petty tyrants 
who dispensed a government in which they had no voice, and all done in the 
name of religion and liberty— never found full fruition until nurtured on the 

Note 1. — For sketch of Edwin C. Manning, see Kansas Historical Collections, vol- 
ume 7, page 202. At the annual meeting December 5, 1911, Mr. Manning did not make an 
address, but presented the Society with an autobiography which he has published and 
which shows a most active and useful life since first seeing Kansas in 1859. See article, 
"An Historic Picture," this volume. 

Kansas in History. H 

soil of Kansas, deve oped by a versatile population sprung from a crossing 
of the virile races. 

Are you looking for a cross lifted up in the wilderness ? You will find it 
here. Are you looking for the graves of missionaries? You will find them 
here. Are you looking for the graves of savages? You will find them here. 
Are you looking for the graves of bondmen ? You will find them here. 
Are you looking for the graves of martyrs? You will find them here. Are 
you looking for the graves of patriots ? You will find them here. Are you 
looking for the graves of heroes and heroines? You will find them here. 
Are you looking for the graves of men who died that the nation might live? 
You will find them here, buried where they fell. Are you looking for the 
graves of famous generals in the military profession ? You will find them 
here. Are you looking for the graves of statesmen? You will find them 
here. Are you looking for the graves of devoted and exalted teachers and 
preachers ? You will find them here. Are you looking for the graves of 
learned jurists? You will find them here. Are you looking for the graves 
of noted authors? You will find them here. , Are you looking for the graves 
of poets ? You will find them here. Are you looking for the graves of em- 
pire builders ? You will find them here. Are you looking for the graves of 
the wives, mothers and daughters whose faith, patience and endurance 
helped to put the stone that was thrice rejected by the builders into the 
Union archway as its keystone, cementing it with their prayers, blood and 
tears? You will find them here. Are you looking for some of the men who 
as boys carried the flag to victory against the legions of disunion? They 
are here to-day to participate in the ceremonies of dedicating a monument 
to an imperishable Union and as a safety vault for a story stranger than the 
Arabian Nights. Are you looking for the blood of the silent host which 
made this history? You will find it in the splendid sons and daughters who 
are standing by your side to-day. And, of those writers whose independ- 
ent, untainted, unrecompensed pens, through the weekly and daily press, 
kept aflame the star of hope and liberty along the flight of years, and whose 
silent dust mingles with our valleys and hilltops, we who have been here 
from the beginning can lift our spiritual eyes and see their familiar faces 
looking down upon this great gathering and almost hear their voices say- 
ing: "Lo, I am with you alway ! " 

When the last Kansas survivor of the conflict of '61 to '65 shall have 
passed into the unknown his descendants will find in this historical building 
a record of his patriotic service and many honorable emblems and memen- 
tos of a struggle which engaged the attention of all the civilized nations of 
the world. 

The Egyptian kings erected pyramids as tombs for their own individual 
remains. The sovereigns of Kansas are erecting a mausoleum for the 
preservation of a history of more import to humanity than the story of 
Alexander the Great, and which will not depend upon the versatile imagina- 
tion of a Plutarch for its authenticity. Egypt had her seven dry years in 
succession, at a time when, according to history, the Lord was taking a 
personal supervision of the affairs of mankind. In some respects, what 
Egypt was to ancient times Kansas is to modern, except that the Lord has 
allowed the elements to frolic at will upon her broad domain. She has ex- 
perienced war, famine, locusts, floods, tornadoes, and irritating and indi- 

12 Kansas State Historical Society. 

gestible isms. But under each despairing condition she has taken an upward 
look, and with locks floating in the breeze, her face turned forward, has 
pressed steadily and surely on, transforming impediments into achieve- 
ments. True, in her five decades she has halted occasionally and side- 
stepped at times, but she has never turned back. 

Her history is a catalogue of paradoxes and cHmaxes. She was pound- 
ing for admission into the Union while other states were withdrawing from 
it. She furnished more volunteers for the Union army in the Civil War 
than she had legal voters when- Sumter was fired upon. Every emotion 
known to humanity, suffered by saints and attributed to sinners, has been 
hers. She has in turn been proud of and been humiliated by her statesmen. 
In some degree the four "W's" that pervade the poems and legends of the 
ancients— "War," "Woe," "Women" and "Wine"— have been woven 
into the warp and woof of the fabric of her record. Greece had a Helen, 
Kansas had a Mary Ellen. Each was conspicuous in her respective role. 
Each had a numerous and devoted following. Mary Ellen arose from her 
wash tub to raise recruits for General Coxey's army, which marched across 
the continent to invade Washington city and hurl the "Great Octopus" 
from the high seat of power at the national capitol; and her grief was in- 
consolable when she learned that General Coxey and his staff had been 
thrown into a dungeon for having walked upon the sacred grass at the foot 
of the throne, before a shot was fired. Notwithstanding Mary Ellen's 
battle cry— "Raise less corn and more hell" — the toilers, this year of 1911, 
in one Kansas county, next door to Mary Ellen's washtub, have raised over 
one million dollars' worth of Kafir corn instead of raising hell. 

The fame of her crusaders down the long line of the quick and the dead, 
from John Brown and Jim Lane to William Allen White and Victor Mur- 
dock, extends beyond the nation's tidal shores. In her willingness to heal 
the wounds of a fratricidal war, Kansas was the first and only loyal state 
to choose a confederate soldier as a representative in the United States 

Kansas ! First in war and first in peace. 

Hostility to oppression was the inspiration of her birth. Equal oppor- 
tunity for all was blood-born ; hence special privilege finds little favor in 
the Kansas eye or at the Kansas ear. Its devotees are falling by the way- 
side "as we go marching on." 

Here is a lineage sprung from the loins of men and hearts of women 
pioneers; schooled in experiments and experiences, illusions and demonstra- 
tions, romance and realities. To them may safely be left the duty of 
demonstrating that "civilized society" is not "organized larceny." 

Her native-born children are found in all the higher walks of life, in- 
cluding the national senate and house of representatives, the missionary 
fields of the Orient and the fields of mechanics and research throughout the 

While science and sentiment have been handmaids in her development, 
the heroic and material which have been admired of all the ages are not 
wanting in her story. Her citizen soldiers were the star actors in the far-off 
Philippines. A Kansan was the first to place a foreign flag, our national 
emblem, on the walls of ancient Peking, when the combined armies of Eng- 
land, Germany, France and the United States invaded China on a mission 

Kansas in History. 13 

of mercy. A Kansas boy, without a West Point education, wears the stars 
of a general in the regular army. Another Kansas boy is the chief of the 
nation's artillery service. 

Kansas must be a fair field for the lowly. A Kansas boy started as a 
jockey in the races and arrived as a statesman in the United States senate. 
A young man, first known as a hack driver at one of our railroad stations, 
rose by his own efforts to be the general manager of the great Santa Fe 
railroad, and when he dropped his burden and they laid him down to his last 
sleep every wheel in the eight thousand miles of that wonderful system in 
mute respect stood still. 

Kansas puts no hobbles on the feet of plodding endeavor nor shackles on 
the willing hands of toil. 

A Kansas Rhodes' scholarship pupil is the champion hammer thrower at 
Oxford University, England. A Kansan is the captain of the "Pirates," 
one of the nation's champion baseball teams. Kansas gave to the nation 
the fastest pacing stallion of the ages. A Kansas shop has built the largest 
locomotive that ever traversed the paths of commerce. 

The founding of our State Historical Society had its origin in the fertile 
mind of that genius, the author of Wilder's Annals. Noiselessly as the 
rising of the moon, it has grown to be one of the most extensive and inter- 
esting collection of the historical evidences of a people with a mission to be 
found in the national commonwealth. 

What wonder that the President of the United States should leave his 
perch on the rocks of Beverly by the sea and travel fifteen hundred miles 
to lay the corner stone of a memorial temple erected in this semicentennial 
year as a storehouse for the mute evidences of our struggle to a broader 
nationalism, built while we are still groping in the morning twilight of a 
better day. 


Kansas State Historical Society. 



Address delivered by Hon. William A. Calderhead' before the Kansas State Historical 
Society, at its thirty-sixth annual meeting. December 5, 1911. 

THE only time I ever spoke in this hall was from that high place up 
there; and the hall and the gallery were packed full of people trying to 
see how those of us who were defeated for the United States senate were 

taking our medicine. We had to stand 
up there one at a time. 

I did not come to make an oration, 
but to say a few things to you con- 
cerning the work of the soldier in civil 
life after the war. When we came 
in Comrade Smith took a look over the 
room. He knows most of you ; and 
he said, "They look like the makers 
of history." When I look at you I 
realize how much there is in what he 
said. Your faces look like the men 
and women who have made history, 
who have lived during the time when 
great history was made, and in a very 
recent time, too. I will not attempt 
to recite much history to you— I mean 
much of the history of Kansas and of 
Kansas soldiers. Much of it has 
already been compiled, especially since 
the time of the librarian and secre- 
tary, Mr. Martin. I have some fa- 
miliarity with the work of historical 
societies in different parts of the coun- 
try, and I have taken a great deal of 
satisfaction in the fact that the last few volumes of the Kansas Historical 
Society are among the best published in the United States. 

When the war was over, when its work was done, and the surrender 
made at Appomattox, and Meade started on his day's march toward Wash- 
ington, General Grant hastened up to the capital, starting the same day 
the surrender took place, for the purpose of attending to the closing up of 
the war, f urnishin .- supplies and beginning the work of mustering out the 

Note 1. — William Alexander Calderhead, of Marysville, was born in Perry county, 
Ohio, September 26, 1844 ; received his education in the common schools and from his 
father, the Rev. E. B. Calderhead, a minister of the United Presbyterian church ; spent 
the winter of 1861-'G2 in the preparatory department of Franklin College, New Athens, 
Ohio ; enlisted in August, 1862, as a private in company H, One Hundred and Twenty- 
sixth Ohio infantry ; was transferred to company D, Ninth Veteran Reserves for disa- 
bility incurred in the service, and discharged June 27, 1865 ; spent two years recovering 
health, then one session at school ; came to Kansas in the fall of 1868 and engaged in 
farming ; in 1872 settled on a homestead near Newton, Harvey county ; taught school one 
year in Newton ; read law in the office of Hon. J. W. Ady, and was admitted before 
Hon. S. R. Peters in 1875 ; went to Atchison during that year and spent four years there, 
reading law and teaching country schools during the winters ; settled in Marysville in 

William A. Calderhead, 
who served twelve years in Congress. 

The Army in Civil Life After the War. 15 

army. He spent that night on the way, and the next day in the War De- 
partment issuing his orders. In the afternoon he and his wife started to 
visit their children, who were at school at Burlington, N. J., and that night 
the assassination of Abraham Lincoln occurred. Within a short time after 
that Sheridan, stopping only forty-eight hours in Washington, was on his 
way to Texas to take command of the department and of the troops that 
were down there, but chiefly for the purpose of seeing that the French in- 
vasion of Mexico did not go any further. 

Almost immediately after the inauguration of Andrew Johnson the prob- 
lem of reconstruction came on, and within a very brief time military gov- 
ernors were appointed over the military districts of the South for the purpose 
of obtaining order and the establishment of civil government in true rela- 
tion to the United States. It is worth while to recall for a moment the 
condition of the states that had been in rebellion. The soldiers that had 
served the Confederacy were returning to their homes; the men who had 
led them were going back, sullen and ugly in temper, feeling the bitterness 
of defeat, going to their ruined plantations, wondering what was to become 
of them. Some of them, conscious of their relation to the Confederacy, 
were wondering how far punishment might follow them. Some of them 
were hunting their way out of the United States to escape any punishment 
that might be attempted. The emancipated negroes still living about the 
old plantations— nobody knew what they might attempt to do. The loyal 
people in the Confederate states did not know how to begin the organization 
of their states, and waited for the government of the United States. It 
was the volunteer soldier who had served during the Civil War who took 
charge of these military districts and began to show the way to order and to 

Not long after that the great army came to Washington for the grand 
review and to be mustered out and hurried home. The world has never 
witnessed another scene like it— a million victorious men, with guns on their 
shoulders, with commanders they loved, who had given the best years of 
their youth to the hardest service, who had in four years fought on two 
thousand, two hundred and sixty-five battle fields; who never stopped to in- 
quire whether there was to be any reward, whether there was to be any 
bounty, or even a pension, for those who were injured in such a service. 
They hurried home to the hearthstones that they had left, to the farms and 
the firesides, to the stores where they had toiled, where they had com- 
menced life before they enlisted— to all the occupations they had been 
engaged in — expecting to take them up where they had left off. Now this 
was almost impossible. It is difficult for us now, with all the great ma- 
chinery of business that we have around us, to understand the isolated life 

November, 1879, and engaged in general practice of law ; was elected county attorney in 
the fall of 1888, and served two years ; was for several years clerk of the board of educa- 
tion of the city. In 1894 he was elected to Congress from the fifth district over John 
Davis, and reelected until 1910, when insurgency beat him, thus serving sixteen years in 
Congress. He was for many years a prominent member of the ways and means com- 
mittee. Jay E. House, the noted newspaper correspondent, said of Calderhead : "The fact 
is, no matter whether one agrees with Congressman Calderhead in his present attitude on 
the tariff and other vital issues or not, he has got to admire the man. Calderhead not 
only has courage, but he does all his own thinking. He may be old-fashioned politically, 
but he never dodged an issue in his life, and his knowledge regarding the location of the 
gallery is confined to hearsay. Due to the fact that he lives in a country district, and is 
not overfree in conversation, Calderhead has never had the advantage of much press- 
agenting The newspapers have probably printed less about Calderhead than any other 
Kansas statesman. It seems to me that after sixteen years in Congress the old man 
should have due credit for the homely virtues that are his." 

16 Kansas State Historical Society. 

of each community at that time. I do not know of any way to show you 
just what I mean except to refer to the neighborhood from which I went. 

When I was a boy, from the time I was eight or nine years old until I 
was sixteen, my father was a country preacher with a congregation wor- 
shipping in a country church, and we lived on a little farm. A Scotch-Irish 
congregation lived around it. Much of the business in our district, which 
was made up of nearly all that Scotch-Irish congregation and was called 
Ireland, was carried on only with one another, and we believed in ourselves, 
and we did not believe in any other district. 

Right across the ridge, two or three miles south of us, was a district 
composed of Pennsylvania Dutch, from Berks county; and we thought they 
were aliens and heathen, and we had very little intercourse with them. In 
the fall of the year, when the winter school opened, when the day came for 
the big boys to go to shool, it was our duty to go to the other side of the 
■ridge and whip every Dutchman we could find; and sometimes we got 
whipped. They were born in this country, they lived on their own domain, 
and knew we had no right to molest them. But we did not go over to their 
side for any other business; we did not go there for any other purpose. We 
traded with the people who belonged to our church. Why, I never heard a 
Methodist minister preach until I had been in the army several months. I 
never was in any other church except our own Scotch Presbyterian church 
until after the war. It would not have been right. They might be very 
good people, those who worshipped in other churches, but if was very 
doubtful what would become of them hereafter, and it was not worth while 
to be familiar. 

Up to that time all the shoes that were worn in the family were made 
in the town close by. Nobody thought of buying the shoes that were made 
in the factory, and there were none except now and then in the big stores 
in the larger towns. This was not far from Lancaster, Ohio. But it was 
so all over the country ; in every state the communities lived to themselves. 
Most of the boys who enlisted with the United States were from a school 
district or from a little country congregation, and their own community 
was their United States. They went for the preservation of its constitu- 
tion and the enforcement of its laws and the integrity of all the history 
they had studied in their school books or that they had learned at their 
firesides. The first fight in the army, when you touched elbows with each 
other, made you see that all your idea that the Catholics could not be good 
men, or that a Methodist or a Baptist could not be a good man— just as 
good a man as a Presbyterian— was wrong. When we came back from the 
first encounter we knew that it didn't make much difl'erence what church 
a man belonged to if he had the heart and the soul to do his duty. When 
we came back home we were thinking about a great country, not this 
country nor that country, but the country we had marched over from the 
Mississippi to the sea, from the Potomac to the Atlantic. We had meas- 
ured it; we knew something about it. 

We came back to our neighborhoods and began to look around for em- 
ployment. It was only a short time until we found that life at home set a 
little bit close, and we wanted room. We wanted an opportunity to do 
things, and we started for it. In five years after the war closed I think 
seventy-five thousand old soldiers came to Kansas. They filled the state; 
they occupied her homesteads; they built her schools and her churches; built 

The Army in Civil Life After the War. 17 

her county seats and courthouses. The old soldiers began building the state 
without thinking about what a great state it should be. They were simply 
doing the thing that lay before them. 

Now, another thing; these boys had learned without knowing it the value 
of organization; they had learned its force and its power. Their captains 
and their lieutenants and their sergeants were with them, men who had 
commanded and directed them on the most arduous fields of duty, and they 
were their neighbors. Naturally they began to associate together for the 
purposes of their social life and government. The same thing happened not 
merely in Kansas, but in Nebraska— in fact, in all the states west of the 
Missouri river. The states east of the Missouri river— Iowa, Illinois, In- 
diana, Ohio, and the rest — began to remodel their ideas, began to admit in 
their public affairs the force which the army had in its organization every- 

For forty years after the war closed the men who fought the battles for 
the preservation of the Union did the work of its civil life. In every school 
district the school board were old soldiers; in every township the township 
board was composed of old soldiers; in every county the county commission- 
ers, and most of the other officers, were old soldiers. Every legislature 
that met was filled with old soldiers. Down, I think, to the time of Gov- 
ernor Stanley, nearly every governor of Kansas was an old soldier. 2 In 
Congress and in the national life the same thing went on; the old soldier 
directed the work of Congress for thirty-four years. Except one four years 
of time, Andrew Johnson's administration, every president of the United 
States from the close of the Civil War down to the election of Roosevelt, 
except Cleveland, had been a soldier. They guided the political life of the 

Note 2. -^Samuel J. Crawford, captain company E, Second Kansas infantry ; enlisted 
June 20, 1861 ; on reorganization of regiment was retained in service and transferred to 
company A, Second Kansas cavalry ; promoted colonel of the Second regiment colored 
volunteers, later known as the Eighty-third U. S. infantry, December 6, 1863. 

Nehemiah Green, mustered into the Eighty-ninth Ohio infantry August 8, 1862, and 
appointed first lieutenant of company B August 21, same year. From overexertion and 
exposure hemorrhages were brought on, and he was forced to resign January 27, 1863. 
He enlisted in the One Hundred and Fifty-third Ohio infantry, company G, May 2, 1864, 
and was appointed sergeant major May 10, serving until September 9, 1864, when he was 
mustered out with his regiment. 

James M. Harvey, mustered in August 7, 1861, as captain of company G, Tenth Kan- 
sas infanti-y ; mustered out with regiment August 19, 1864. 

Edmund N. Morrill, mustered in October 5, 1861, as private in company C, Seventh 
Kansas cavalry ; promoted sergeant October 10, 1861 ; promoted captain and commissary 
of subsistence U. S. V. August 27, 1862; brevetted major October 21, 1865; (Edward N. 
Morrill) mustered out August 26, 1865. 

Geo. T. Anthony, captain of the Seventeenth New York battery ; mustered in August 
26, 1862 ; served till close of war. 

John P. St. John, served as captain of company C, Sixty-eighth Illinois volunteer 
infantry ; mustered in June 20, 1862 ; mustered out September 20, 1862. 

John A. Martin, colonel of the Eighth Kansas volunteer infantry ; mustered in No- 
vember 1, 1861 ; mustered out November 15, 1864. 

Lyman U. Humphrey, private, company I, Seventy-sixth regiment Ohio volunteer in- 
fantry ; enlisted October 7, 1861 ; promoted to second lieutenant company D May 25, 1864 ; 
transferred to company E October 25, 1864 ; promoted to first lieutenant company I 
January 6, 1865 ; acting adjutant since July 1, 1865 ; mustered out with company July 
15, 1865. 

John W. Leedy. — "In 1864, at age of fifteen, he attempted to enlist in the Federal 
service in a company of volunteers then leaving Richland county, Ohio, for the Army of 
the Potomac, but on account of his age and the protest of his mother he was not ac- 
cepted. He remained with the company, however, and participated in the campaigns and 
battles of the regiment to which it was assigned until the close of the war. —National 
Cyclopedia of American Biography, vol. 8, p. 347. 

George W. Click, first corporal of company B, Eighteenth regiment of infanti-y, Kan- 
sas state militia ; called out October 8, 1864, by Gov. Thomas Carney ; relieved from duty 
October 29, 1864. 


18 Kansas State Historical Society. 

country during that time. And they did a great deal more. They rebuilt the 
civil life of the nation, for it was the civil engineers of the Army of the Poto- 
mac who found the path for the railways across the mountains. It was the 
same civil engineers who planned the line of battle at Chickamauga, who 
later found the way for the Union Pacific over the desert and the mountains. 
It was these men who had commanded, the captains, the lieutenants and 
others, who were the directors, and it was the men who had shouldered 
muskets and obeyed orders that carried on this great work of building the 
railroads to the Pacific. They tore open the wilderness from the Atlantic 
to the Pacific as they tore open the Confederacy to the sea. 

In the older parts of the United States captains and lieutenants and pri- 
vate soldiers began the work of organization for the business of the country. 
Nearly every manufacturing establishment in this country had at its head 
some man who had commanded men in the field. It is surprising how much 
of the great work of the crucial life of the country was organized by the 
soldiers, by the men who learned discipline during the Civil War. It is 
rather difficult to recall, just from memory, but if I can I will mention a few 
names. Charles Du Par was a Massachusetts soldier. I watched him as hour 
after hour he worked with tiny little strips of leather, and finally made the 
welt that goes in the welt shoes. Arthur Bumpas was another soldier from 
the same regiment, and he was very busy tinkering with the model of the 
machine that drove brass tacks into the soles of shoes. These two men be- 
came manufacturers after the war and leaders of the shoe industry. Allen 
Goodyear was a private soldier in the ranks. Twenty years afterwards he 
was at the head of the great Goodyear Rubber Company. David Reed, a 
soldier from Pennsylvania, invented the buckle that is used on Arctic over- 
shoes. Almost immediately after he was mustered out he was taken into 
an establishment in Philadelphia that began the manufacture of the Arctic 
overshoe. The industry grew just because of the invention. 

A veteran, who I think was David Braun, a captain in one of the Penn- 
sylvania regiments, was the man who came home and showed the Carnegie 
people some improvement in one of their great iron works that enabled 
them to begin the casting of great pieces of steel. Up to that time I think 
that the largest piece of steel that had been cast at one time weighed ten 
thousand pounds, and the governor of the state and the representatives of 
newspapers were invited to come to see that great piece cast into a gun. 
Since this invention by the captain whom I have mentioned I have seen a 
piece of artillery fifty-three feet long that will shoot a shot weighing 1080 
pounds thirteen miles. And in the shop where he set up his machinery is a 
hydraulic hammer that will strike a blow of 187,000 pounds to the square 
inch. In that same shop a trip hammer that weighed 280,000 pounds was 
thrown into the scrap heap because it was no longer good enough to use. 
This was the result of the work of the inventors in the army who had been 
dreaming about these things while serving in the field. This picture I have 
been giving you shows some instances of what the soldier did after the war* 

Turn a little now to the public life of the country. The personal press 
and the bitternees of party politics havt- so often maligned our public men 
that there is very little correct understanding of the work of the great 
men who have guided the legislation of this country through its most diffi- 
cult period. Probably no man has been more abused during his lifetime than 
Senator Quay of Pennsylvania. During his time as a soldier he commanded 

The Army in Civil Life After the War. 19 

the One Hundred Thirty-fourth Pennsylvania. On account of sickness he re- 
signed just before the army moved out to Fredericksburg, but when he learned 
that the battle was to take place he was so unwilling for his regiment to 
go into the fight without him that, sick man though he was, he volunteered 
as an aid and served through the battle. ^ He led the regiment in the 
charge up Marye's Heights that day, but nobody tells that story when they 
are talking about the great Pennsylvania senator. No, the press was very 
busy telling the country what a corrupt political rule he had established in 
his state. And yet all of his neighbors, and his friends, and the whole 
state, knew that the only rule he ever sent to his friends at home prepar- 
ing for a political contest was this: "Send nobody but your best men to 
the conventions." It was not during his time that the wicked capitol was 
built at Harrisburg. 

Steve Elkins, was another man whose name was never kindly mentioned 
in the papers. Nobody said anything about when he stood face to face with 
the enemy as a soldier.'* It is worth while to remember that it was after 
that time he went west and served as attorney-general and United States 
district attorney of New Mexico, and he so conducted his department that 
every man in it was his friend. He was sent to Congress, and afterwards, 
when his term was up, he hurried east and began the work of the organi- 
zation of business. He went into West Virginia and developed the wilder- 
ness, filled it with Httle manufacturing establishments, coal mines and 
lumber yards, and every man who ever came in contact with him in business 
was his friend. And every man who ever met him in politics, except those 
whose interest was in some opposite political party, was his friend. And 
every man knew that he was honest, and every man knew that he was a 
large-hearted, patriotic man, and that he was looking to the interests of the 
nation in every act of his legislation. 

I doubt whether any man has been much more abused than Senator 
Aldrich. He knew the needs of the nation when he began to work for it. 
He was a private soldier in company D of the Fourteenth Rhode Island. 
He offered his life to the nation when it needed it. For thirty-four years 
he was in Congress. His neighbors and friends believed in him from the 
beginning to the end of his term of service, which he closed last year. I think 
there were two terms as a member of Congress and the balance of the time 
as a senator. He was appointed as a member of the ways and means com- 
mittee in the house, and then in the senate he was a member of the finance 
committee. He served on every revision of the tariff for thirty-four years. 
It was my good fortune to be with him in the service upon the conference 
committee that amended the last tariff bill; to come in close contact with 
him, and I know more about him by reason of that experience. Yes, a 
good man, who for thirty-four years of political battle, who for thirty-four 
years of the kind of stuff that has been presented to us concerning him, 

Note 3. — "Early in December, 1862, Colonel Quay returned to duty, but so much re- 
duced by disease that he soon after resigned. . . . Colonel Quay, though in a feeble 
state of health, unwilling that the regiment should go into battle without him, volunteered 
as an aid on the staff of General Tyler, and served throughout the battle. General Tyler 
bears this testimony of his services in his official report: 'Col. M. S. Quay, late of the 
One Hundred and Thirty-fourth, was upon my staff as volunteer aid-de-camp, and to him 
I am greatly indebted. Notwithstanding his enfeebled health, he was in the saddle early 
and late, ever prompt and efficient, and especially so during the engagement.' " — History 
of Pennsylvania Volunteers, Samuel P. Bates, vol. 4, p. 283. 

Note 4. — Stephen B. Elkins was captain of company H, Seventy-seventh Missouri 
regiment. — Annual Report, Adjutant General State of Missouri, 1863, p. 516. 

20 Kansas State Historical Society. 

never uttered a word that he could not utter in the presence of any woman 
or child. He neither drinks nor smokes nor chews nor gambles, and he is 
a gentleman. He is a Christian gentleman, and he has faith, and it is the 
faith of the Christian; and he has patriotism, and it is the patriotism of a 
great American. 

He said one afternoon when we were beginning the work of the revision 
of the cotton schedule: "I have a word or two to say to the committee. 
So many unkind things have been said concerning this cotton schedule; it is 
said that I prepared it according to the interests of Rhode Island and my per- 
sonal interests. It is due to the committee to understand that I do not own 
a dollar's worth of stock in any manufacture that is affected by any legisla- 
tion that comes before this committee. I disposed of all that kind of stock 
when I entered Congress in order that I might never be justly accused of leg- 
islating in my own interest. ' ' And then he said : "I have felt myself respon- 
sible for the rates in the old law, and they were in force for two years, and 
were then reduced by court decisions, and the government has lost millions 
of dollars by it. I am not a lawyer, but I have consulted the foremost ex- 
perts of the custom house, able lawyers, and I have framed the language of 
this schedule so that no importer can ever evade it, and I think no court can 
misconstrue it. You may make the rates higher or lower if you preserve 
the ratio of them and preserve the language describing the goods. Now, I 
ask you to come in to-morrow morning and make suggestions in rates or lan- 
guage, just as you see proper." 

Some of us worked on it until nearly morning, and we came back to the 
meeting of the committee and agreed upon the terms within three minutes. 
I have given you a lot of history that is not in the papers, but just enough 
of it so that you may see the character of the man who has been so bitterly 
misrepresented by the partisan press. What is manifest to all is that dur- 
ing his service in Congress, in all the years gone by, he has not been the 
instrument of any man or any interest. That kind of a character is not 
made in a day. It was built up by years of trial and endurance. 

Friends, another man that is an instance of the soldier in the Civil War. 
I heard General Alger say at one time that when the war was over and he 
returned to Detroit, Mich., and took his young wife to the hotel, he had his 
last month's pay, and that was all he had in the world. After breakfast 
the next morning he stepped out to the sidewalk and began to consider 
what he should do for a living. He met a friend shortly who asked him 
what he was pondering, and he said: "I am thinking what I can do for a 
living." The friend said: "Here is something you can do. I have ac- 
quired a tract of timber land, and if you will take a sawmill and cut the 
lumber you can do business for both of us." And before night he had 
bought a portable sawmill and had it shipped to the place where the timber 
land lay. At the time he told me this incident he was rated at four or five 
million dollars, which had all been accumulated in the lumber business. As 
gentle as a woman, we often said concerning him, and yet he was the man 
who had commanded men in sixty-six battles, and who had been promoted 
from one rank to another to the place of major general of volunteers at the 
time he returned home.^ He was the man that McKinley selected for a 

Note 5. — Russell Alexander Alger, commissioned captain of company C, Second 
Michigan cavalry, October 2, 1861 ; promoted to major April 2, 1862 ; lieutenant colonel 
Sixth Michigan cavalry October 30, 1862 ; colonel Fifth Michigan cavalry June 11, 1863 ; 
brevetted brigadier general and major general of volunteers June 11, 1865. — Heitman's 
Historical Register U. S. Army, vol. 1, p. 157. 

The Army in Civil Life After the War. 21 

place in his cabinet, and he was the man who was selected as senator from 
his state. 

I am not sure that I can think of the name of another one whom I wish 
to mention. If I am not making this story too long, turn your thoughts for 
a moment to the house of representatives, to a man that we called Pete 
Hepburn. 6 He was captain of his company, and rose to lieutenant colonel 
of his regiment; was twenty-two years in Congress. Henderson,^ the 
speaker of the house, enlisted in the Twelfth Iowa. After serving until 
he had lost a leg in battle he was mustered out, but as soon as it was healed 
was in the service again, and was commander of a regiment. 

There is another Henderson, T. J. Henderson, » commander of an Illinois 
regiment, who was brevetted brigadier general for meritorious services at 
the battle of Franklin, Tenn. He was chairman of the appropriations com- 
mittee in the house a long time. 

Thomas B. Reed served a year on a gunboat. 

I now recall one other name, Warren," the senator from Wyoming, an- 
other man whose name is not often mentioned in the newspaper read by the 
average man. He too was a private soldier in the Forty-ninth Massachu- 
setts, and a medal-of-honor man. After he had served his time he went 
west before Wyoming was even a territory, and was active in organizing 
it. He was twice governor by appointment, and when it became a state he 
was elected its first governor, and is now serving his fourth term as senator. 

1 have been giving you these personal references for the purpoce of re- 
minding you that all the great legislation from the time of the Civil War 
down to this time has been under the direction and control of men who 
were disciplined in the ranks of the army; of men who knew while they 
were serving in the army that they were serving the Union, and knew that 
while they were fighting the battles of the country they were offering 
themselves to death that the Union might live. Were these men saving the 
nation for the purpose of inflicting upon it corrupt legislation afterwards? 
Have these men who carried the gun that represents service in the ranks 
of the army— these men who have been elected for public life year after 
year by their neighbors and friends, who know them personally— have these 
men been misgoverning and misguiding the nation ? There were about 
thirty millions of people in the United States when we came home; there 
are nearly ninety-three millions now, I think there were sixty-eight 
thousand manufactories then ; there are two hundred and sixty-five thousand 
now. There were but little over thirty-five thousand miles of railway 

Note 6. — William Peters Hepburn commissioned captain of company B, Second Iowa 
cavalry, August 14, 1861, mustered into United States service August 30, 1861 ; promoted 
to major September 13, 1861, and to lieutenant colonel July 1, 1862. — Adjutant General's 
Report, State of Iowa, vol. 2, 1863, pp. 393, 401. 

Note 7. — David Bremner Henderson enlisted in company C, Twelfth Iowa infantry ; 
commissioned first lieutenant October 24, 1861 ; discharged February 26, 1863, on account 
of disability, having lost a leg at Corinth, October 4, 1862. He reentered the arniy as 
colonel of the Forty-sixth Iowa infantry, commissioned June 9, 1864, and served until the 
close of the war. — Adjutant General's Report, State of Iowa, 1863, vol. 1, p. 446 ; 1864-'65, 
p. 122. 

Note 8. — Thomas Jefferson Henderson entered the army as colonel of the One 
Hundred and Twelfth Illinois volunteers, commissioned September 22, 1862 ; promoted 
brevet brigadier general November 30, 1864 ; mustered out June 20, 1865. — Adjutant Gen- 
eral's Report, State of Illinois, vol. 6, p. 149 (reprint of 1900). 

Note 9.^Francis Emroy Warren at the age of eighteen enlisted in the Forty-ninth 
Massachusetts regiment and became a noncommissioned officer in company C ; he received 
the congressional medal of honor for gallantry on the battlefield at the siege of Port 
Hudson. — Congressional Directory, Fifty-ninth Congress,- p. 139. 

22 Kansas State Historical Society. 

then ; there are two hundred and sixty thousand miles of railway in the 
United States now. 

The money deposited in the banks of the United States when we enlisted 
—in all the banks— amounted to a trifle less than four hundred and fifty 
millions of dollars. The money deposited in the savings banks alone to-day 
exceeds four thousand millions of dollars; add that to the money deposited 
in the other banks, and you have a total deposit of something over fifteen 
thousand millions of dollars in all banks. These vast sums give you some 
idea of the growth of the business of this country, and yet you can form 
but little conception of it from the mere recitation of numbers. When we 
enlisted the nighborhood shoemaker did the work for the neighborhood, but 
now somebody must do the work of making shoes for ninety millions of 
people. Somebody must see that every day the necessary materials and 
supplies are on hand. Somebody must see to the vast transportation that 
carries the goods, and that the work of the transportation army is carried 
on. And this great work has been done under the direction of the men who 
served during the Civil War, and who learned there the value and the force 
of organization. In every community and in every business the men who 
learned the value and the power of organization are the men who have 
directed and built up the business of the locality. 

There is but little more now to add. The value of liberty depends upon 
the use made of it. Here is the greatest nation on the face of the earth. 
One-half of all the railroads of the earth are in this nation; one-half of all 
the telegraph lines are in this nation; one-half of all the newspapers 
and; public schools and libraries are here. More than half the bank 
power of the whole world is here. The commerce between these great 
states of ours is more than the commerce of Europe, Asia, and Africa, 
with all the countries of the world. And all this great wealth, this great 
business, which has been built up by the generation that fought the battles 
for the preservation of the Union, is ready at your hand for the strength 
and the power and the glory of the nation. What are you to do with it? 
Ninety millions of people now; and at the same rate of increase in another 
fifty years there will be one hundred and twenty millions; and in another 
fifty years there will be two hundred millions of people. How will they 
live? What kind of a government will they have? 

The men who fought the battles for the preservation of the Union also 
fought the battle for the preservation of the constitution. But mankind 
will change ; there will be new peoples on the earth ; there will be a new 
set of teachers to construe the constitution. Even now there are those 
who say that it was made when the nation was young and we have out- 
grown it; and that the clothes of the infant and of the child are too small 
for the full-grown man. And yet no one suggests a single line of the con- 
stitution that will be repealed ; no one says which line of it is without 
force now, and without value now. It is the law of the land that regulates 
the relations of the states to each other and regulates the relation of the 
people to the national government. Men died that it might remain. Under 
it men have built this great nation, this great wealth, this great business 
which I have been talking to you about. And no v is it to be set aside as 
useless, the machinery provided by it to be broken in pieces and new meth- 
ods installed? And what new methods ? 

I do not care to discuss the future. I just want to remind you that this 

The Army in Civil Life After the War. 23 

present-day teaching brings to our minds the very beginnings of our race, 
when our ancestors were meeting under the oaks and making laws in what 
they called the "folkmoot. " This meeting of all the people was for the 
purpose of considering and passing laws. The laws were proposed, and then 
the people went home and hewed each other with swords until they decided 
which set was the biggest, and that set decided about the next meeting. 
That was the initiative and referendum then. Next there was the assembly 
of the wise men, the "witenagemot, " these being selected so as to include 
their best men, and these selected men proposed and passed laws for the 
goverment of all. And so the development of government went on, a step 
at a time, and finally came the Magna Charta, and it was only liberty for 
the few. Then, centuries after that, came the Mayflower, the colonies and 
the charters; but the charters came from the king and not from parliament, 
and the colonists lived under the charters and owed their allegiance to the 
king. They objected to parliament demanding obedience from them and 
levying tribute upon them. They were willing to do whatever the charter 
said they were to do for the king, but not for parliament; and then came 
the battle. After it was over came the constitution, made by representa- 
tives chosen by the people. 

Is the constitution too old? The charter of Connecticut was given by 
Charles the Second, and was the constitution until 1818. The charter of 
Rhode Island, given by the same king, was its constitution until 1842. The 
law made in Rhode Island, giving authority for the organization and gov- 
ernment of counties and townships and school districts, was substantially 
the same as the law of Kansas. The law providing for the creation of new 
townships and counties of Kansas is substantially the same as the law of 
Rhode Island written in 1734. The organic law of the land is one of the 
foundations of national character. It grows by development, not by repeals 
and changes. It not only guards and protects, but it also guides and directs 
the people in all real progress, all sound national development. 

An uneasy desire for organic change is one of the worst diseases that 
can afflict any people. The centrifugal forces of society seem now to be at 
work in every direction, trying to ascertain whether what has been done is 
not wrong in some way, or trying to ascertain whether there is not some 
new way, some better way. These forces forget that this great fabric 
which has been built has been built by the men who learned the value of 
power and of organization by their service in the army. And they knew 
that obedience to legitimate authority is the first duty of every human 
being, for definite moral authority is a reality and not a mere speculation. 
Human society is something nobler than a mere convenience. The nation 
is something greater than the sum of its individuals. One of the duties of 
government is the welfare of the citizen, but the highest duty of every citi- 
zen is the welfare of the nation. The instinct of our civilization is to its 
preservation, because it is in some way harmonious with the divine purpose 
of the world. 

I have not said what I intended to when I came. I intended to give you 
more instances, if I could, of the men who have served the country well 
both in business and public life, who came from the ranks of the private 
soldier-got their discipline there. I am unable to recall it all as I intended 
to, but I have detained you long enough. However, if I have fixed in your 
mind the value to this nation, during its civil life since the war, of the men 

24 Kansas State Historical Society. 

who fought its battles for the preservation of the Union, my object is ac- 
complished. Hardly any beginning in any community in the state was made 
without them. The very trees in the statehouse ground were planted by 
men who were led by Tom Anderson, and so in other places. Go to any 
county seat in the state and you will find the effect of the men who laid the 
foundation of the civil life of the state. Go to any community from the 
Missouri river to the Pacific ocean, and you will find that the beginning of 
the community, the beginning of the organization of it, was the work of 
some man who had served his term as a soldier. 

May I ask you now to think about our mighty national life, its great 
place in civilization, its relationship to the other nations of the earth. To 
remember the fact that here in America is a great people, with millions of 
population, millions of wealth, governing themselves ; governing them- 
selves by representatives chosen by the voluntary action of free men ; 
governing themselves by laws made by representatives chosen by the ac- 
tion of free men ? And yet this great nation does not consist so much in 
its laws and its officers as in the fact that citizens of this republic are wil- 
ling to be obedient to law. Nineteen-twentieths of all that men do is done 
because men believe it ought to be done. We have done right because we 
believe men ought to do right, and not because there is either law or gov- 
ernment. Law and the government and the force of law are for men who 
choose to do wrong, for men who attempt to do what ought not to be 

Now in this young commonwealth it has been a labor of love with your 
Historical Society to gather together the history of the beginnings of the 
state, the history of its heroic men and women, to make a record of it and 
to preserve it. It is a noble history. And the nation has a noble history 
and a great history. No other land has one like it. No other nation devel- 
oped a citizenship like ours. What is it all for? What is it all for if it be 
not to fulfill a divine purpose; if it be not to lead the nations of the earth 
toward that purpose, in the fulfillment of which every effort of ours, even 
this, has its place. As it carries forward the national life to the fulfillment 
of that great purpose, and we look forward through the centuries that are 
to come to the millions that are to live here, we can believe that on the 
foundations which these men have laid, upon every battlefield and by every 
patriot grave, a national life is to be built in which they will dwell secure 
and happy and noble. I thank you. 

At the close of Mr. Calderhead's speech, Mr. Jesse S. Langston arose 
and said: "I have in my possession, and have had for forty-six years, a 
picture of one who I have reason to believe has lived along almost touching 
lives with Comrade Calderhead. This picture was handed to me by one of 
his comrades. If I am not mistaken, he served in the company with Com- 
rade Calderhead; they have slept under the same blanket and drunk out of 
the same canteen. Since the war I have tried to learn his name and where- 
abouts, but have been unable to do so. I have written many letters to 
Grand Army posts, but I have failed to find him, so I wish to present this 
picture to Comrade Calderhead, hoping that he may live to carry it forty- 
six years, as I have done, and may God's choicest blessings rest upon him 
during all that time." 

Mr. Calderhead responded as follows: "This is Tim Lamaster, the drum- 
mer in our company. I certainly appreciate this more than I can tell you." 

Kansas State Historical Society. 



Address by John Lee Webster, LL. D..' President Nebraska Historical Society, at the Audi- 
torium, Topeka, September 26, 1911. on the occasion of the celebration of the laying of 
the corner stone of Memorial Hall by President William H. Taft. 

TTISTORY is to a nation what the faculty of memory is to individuals, 
-^-*- . . . the basis of all our experience, and, by means of experience, 
the source of all improvement. , . . History knows ail things, contains 
all things, teaches all things; not in winged words which strike the ear 

without impressing the mind, but in 
great and striking actions. . . . 
The spirit of the world itself is but a 
great and unending tale repeated 
from age to age, the poem of God, 
the source of human inspiration. 
Such is a condensed statement of the 
expressions of Lamartine, the French 
scholar and historian. 

Professor Van Dyke, in speaking 
of the footprints of a desert deer 
found in the petrified rocks upon a 
mountain top, said: "How many 
thousands of years ago was that im- 
pression stamped upon the stone? 
. . . And while it remains quite 
perfect to-day, the vagrant hoof mark 
of a desert deer, what has become 
of the once carefully guarded foot- 
prints of the Sargons, the Pharaohs 
and the Cassars ?" 

I take these two excerpts from dis- 
tinguished writers as a thought from 
which to deliver a disccurse upon the 
Great West, its place in American 
history, past, present and prospective 
future, and the urgent necessity as well as the expediency of preserving 
its history. 

Columbus, gifted by genius, was inspired with the belief that the world 
had lost one of its hemispheres. With him it was to be the discovery and 
bringing back to world relationship, not the Atlantic seacoast, hut the en- 
tire American continent. 

Note 1. — John Lee Webster, LL. D., of Omaha, president of the Nebraska State His- 
torical Society, was born March 18, 1847. in Harrison county, Ohio. The first fifteen 
years of his life were spent on his father's farm, alternating between farm work and 
attending a country school. At the age of fifteen he began preparation for college, which 
was interrupted in 1864 by enlistment as a private in the army. In 1865 he entered Wash- 
ington (Pennsylvania) College, graduating later from Mount Union (Ohio) College. He 
entered the law office of Thomas Marshall in Pittsburg, and in 1868 was married to 
Josephine Leah Watson. Upon his admission to the bar, in 1869, he settled in Omaha, and 
for forty-two years has been very active in his profession, appearing in many of the 
noted cases of the country during this period. He served in the state legislature of 

Hon. John Lee Webster, L. L. D., 

President Nebraska Historical Society, 

Omaha, Nebraska. 

26 Kansas State Historical Society. 

Yet, when the Bostonians threw the tea into Boston harbor they did not 
know of any land west of the Alleghenies. John Adams, the gifted advo- 
cate and firebrand for independence, knew nothing of lands westward from 
the colonies and their tributary territory. Madison and Wilson and their 
associate coworkers in framing the federal constitution were only acting as 
the representatives of the original thirteen states. The far-seeing George 
Washington looked westward only into the regions bordering on the Ohio 
river. Thomas Jefferson did not dream of the Louisiana Purchase until he 
learned of the importance of the Mississippi as an outlet of commerce at 
New Orleans, and that the missionary and the Spaniards were fixing habita- 
tions upon the Pacific coast. It was not until a half century later that the 
Kansas and Nebraska territorial bills in Congress began to attract public 

Kansas and Nebraska are a part of that vast plain between the Missouri 
river and the Rocky Mountains which in an ancient geological period was 
the bottom of an inland sea which extended from the Gulf of Mexico on the 
south to the lake regions on the north. In the climatic conditions which 
took place as the ages rolled along, this plain had its tropical period, when 
there were forms of vegetation and animal life which in this day can only 
be found in Africa and South America, and others which belonged to the 
medieval world and are entirely extinct. In the rotation of time other 
changes took place, and the regions of Arctic cold came where the tropical 
zone had been. The glaciers came down from the north and spread their 
deposits all over the vast plain from the mountains to the Missouri river. 
Following these geological and climatic changes there afterwards came the 
Great American Desert, when little sand dunes were seen everywhere and 
the parching sun dried up the vegetation. 

Lieutenant Pike, in his report of two government explorations into these 
western regions, said that these immense prairies were "incapable of culti- 
vation" and would have to be left to the "wandering and uncivilized abo- 
rigines of the country." Major Long, in a report to the United States of 
explorations into these regions, said of the prairies that they "bear a re- 
semblance to the Desert of Siberia." 

Washington Irving, the historian of John Jacob Astor's western enter- 
prise, indulging in the elegance of a romance writer, said of the American 
Desert: "It spreads forth into undulating and treeless plains and desolate 
sandy wastes, wearisome to the eye from their extent and monotony, and 
which are supposed by geologists to have formed the ancient floor of the 

Nebraska in 1873, and was a member and president of the constitutional convention which 
met in 1875 and made the present constitution of Nebraska. He was delegate at large 
from Nebraska in the Republican national convention which met at Minneapolis and 
nominated Benjamin Harrison, and again in the convention of 1896 at St. Louis. In 1887 
he was city attorney of Omaha. Mr. Webster is not only a great lawyer, interested in 
many of the most important cases before the courts, but he is a thorough student, a 
statesman of wide views, a stirring political campaigner, a polished and forceful speaker. 
In his addresses before bar associations or commercial or patriotic gatherings he has dis- 
cussed "Has the United States Outgrown the Constitution ?" "Has the United States a 
Destiny to Fulfill in China?" "The Right of the Nation to Acquire, Hold and Govern 
Acquired Territory," and "The Enlargement of American Commerce." He was attorney 
in the habeas corpus case of Standing Bear, in which the court held for the first time 
that an Indian is a "person" and is entitled to secure the rights of personal liberty from 
military custody. He carried through the United States supreme court a case of an 
Omaha Indian to establish the status of Indians under the fourteenth amendment. These 
suits laid the foundation for the humanitarian agitation that resulted in the acts of 
Congress providing for the allotment of lands to Indians in severalty and their ultimate 
attainment of citizenship. He has also represented in many cases great financial in- 

The West: Its Place in American History. 27 

ocean, countless ages since, when its primeval waves beat against the gran- 
ite bases of the Rocky Mountains." A United States senator, in opposing 
the admission of Kansas into the Union as a state under the Wyandotte con- 
stitution said: "After we pass west of the Missouri river, except upon a few 
streams, there is no territory fit for settlement or habitation. It is unpro- 
ductive. It is like a barren waste." 

But since the days of Adams, and Madison, and Washington, and within 
a little more than a half century, the nation stretched out its hand into this 
desert region and created a fertile soil and peopled it with America's noble 
men and women, who have constructed homes and schoolhouses and churches, 
and built towns and cities, and established marts, and railroads as commer- 
cial arteries, until these prairies have become the granaries of the world 
and a garden of beauty. 

We, the white men, are repeating in our age the same old story. His- 
torians tell us that the glories of antiquity were the highest in the lands of 
the desert. It was so in old Egypt and Palestine. It was so in Arabia, 
Persia and northern India. It was so in the lands of the Carthagenians and 
Moors. As these desert lands were once the heart of the world, we are 
making the West the heart of the best grazing and the best producing har- 
vest lands of the American continent. The old worlds lost, not because of 
their lands, but because of want of mental and physical energy in their 
people. Our experiment will permanently endure, because this is the home 
of the golden period of our manhood. It is this Kansas which is celebrating 
this anniversary of its history. 

The changing geological conditions from the time when this land arose 
from the bottom of the sea, to become again buried under the glacial de- 
posits, are no less wonderful than the transition of the American Desert to 
this paradise of states extending from the Missouri river to the Pacific, that 
has come about within the memory of some who are here participating in 
this celebration. 

This reaching out of the hand of the nation into this desert brings to our 
minds the awakening of the Great West from its primeval sleep of count- 
less ages to welcome and receive the pioneer and the emigrant; the time 
when the Great Spirit of the Indian tribes, their God Manitou, was to give 
way to the influence of the missionary priest with the cross in his hand, and 
the Christian religion and the white man's God. 

Again, the nation is stretching its hand out into these desert regions, 
and irrigation is changing arid plains into farms, and orchards, and gar- 
dens. Again we see, as the sea receded, as the glaciers melted, the desert 
passes, and verdure and trees come to cover the land as the conquering he- 
roes of old were adorned with chaplets of flowers. Water ! Water ! has be- 
come the master king of the desert. 

New England had her Pilgrims and her Puritans, who occupy abundant 
space in the pages of her history. Virginia had her Cavaliers, to whom is 
traced much of her chivalry and aristocracy. The Great West had its Pio- 
neers, whose lives a century hence will be no less interesting to us than are 
the lives of the Pilgrims and the Puritans to New England, or of the Cava- 
liers to Virginia. 

These pioneers were daring and intrepid men ; men in whose life cur- 
rents there flowed in modified and enlightened form the elements of that 
spirit of old that led the Macedonian chieftain in his conquering career in 

28 Kansas State Historical Society. 

Asia and won him the title of Alexander the Great; that dwelt in Rome 
and marched with Ctesar's armies through the forests of Germany and the 
valleys of Gaul ; that went with the Black Prince of Normandy when he 
crossed the North Sea and vanquished the armies of Harold, and gave him 
the realm of England for a throne and the name in history's page of Wil- 
liam the Conqueror ; that spirit of old that led Columbus across the track- 
less ocean to find a new continent that the world might move onward, and 
without which America would have remained unknown. 

The Norwegian Americans, who make up a great part of the inhabitants 
of the Northwest and are strong factors in our national character, can trace 
their American foundations back beyond the discovery of Columbus to the 
days of the Vikings, when they sailed the waters of the Far North as pio- 
neers of the sea. 

Such were the men who laid the solid foundations of the West, that 
West where in our day evidences of refinement are seen everywhere; that 
West which is moving the center of the country's social, commercial and 
political gravity farther westward every year, and represents untold possi- 
bilities for the future. 

The control of the government has already passed away from the origi- 
nal thirteen states. The form of national government is the same. It is 
exercised under the same constitution, but its administration has been 
transferred largely to the states of the Ohio and Mississippi valleys, and in 
a period of time it will be transferred to the states west of the Missouri 
river. In like migration the keeping of human rights and human liberty on 
this continent is being transferred into the hands of the people of this new 
West, and to maintain it they must be firm, and bold, and patriotic. 

For more than a hundred years the planters of Virginia and the Puritans 
of New England were European sentinels, standing guard over the Atlantic 
seaboard for Old England. Our pioneers began as empire builders, and in 
less than a hundred years have brought nineteen new states into the Union. 
They were as the Star of Bethlehem, leading and lighting the way for the 
twenty millions of people who are the citizens of these new states, and all 
under the American flag. 

The pioneers have made the desert an epitaph on the tombstone of time. 
Steam and electric forces are now ruling the West as they rule the East. 
With us the present is living history. The United States in this, the 
twentieth century, is flashing the light of its liberty and national supremacy 
over the world. 

It is confessedly true that the fundamental principle of the Urated States- 
government is human liberty. But to-day there is a more lively spirit of 
individual manhood and personal independence and of busman liberty in the 
states west of the Missouri river than exists anywhere else. It has a 
broader scope and meaning than the phraseology of Jefferson in the Declara- 
tion of Independence that "All men are created equal and have certain un- 
alienable rights, among which are life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness," 
for that declaration has always been construed with some limitations. 

The St. Gaudens statue of "The Puritan," standing with a staff in one 
hand and a Bible under his arm, typifies the spirit in which New England 
was peopled. It is like the glory of the fire that came down from heaven 
to make itself the living coal on the altar. Some day the state of Kansas 
will take just pride in placing in the Hall of Fame at Washington a heroic- 


The West: Its Place in American History. 29 

sized statue of John Brown. His voice was like unto the voice of one 
speaking in the wilderness, and what he said was true. It is the spirit of 
John Brown which has worked out into reality and living truth the state- 
ment often spoken by Frederick Douglas that "Man belongs to himself. 
His feet are his; his hands are his; the hairs on his head are his. It always 
has been so, and it always will be so until tyrants shall storm the citadel of 
heaven and wrest from the bosom of God man's title deed to himself." 

It has been said that it is the happiest of all fates to be born in New 
England and live in the West. Yet it is true that we have only "crossed 
the threshold of our new epoch." The men who plow and plant and culti- 
vate are writing history on the imperishable earth. The prosperity of Kan- 
sas and Nebraska springs from the soil and the seasons and the industry of 
their citizens. Their farmers plant in faith; they cultivate in hope; they 
reap in grace. They are the uncrowned kings of the day. 

It is interesting to contemplate the white man's invasion of this Great 
West. What millions of men have been employed in this warfare of settle- 
ment and of migration; what billions of money have been employed by way 
of improvements and in rewarding the processes of development; what 
farming districts have been created, and what workshops and what rail- 
roads have been constructed in the wilderness; what cities, with their busy 
thousands of inhabitants have been built in what was once the solitude of 
these primeval lands; what states have been carved out of the prairies and 
mountains extending from the Missouri to the Pacific; what undreamed of 
commerce is transported by land, and then sent forth in the holds of ocean- 
going steamships that whiten what was at that time the unexplored Pacific 
ocean. It is a subject which I have not time to elaborate. When properly 
told it will fill volumes of history, and should be written by a pen not infe- 
rior to that of a Parkman, a Prescott or a Macaulay. 

As citizens of the West we have but a limited appreciation and but a 
partial comprehension of the extent of its territory, of its present or future 
possibilities. Kansas and Nebraska are each equal in area to ten states 
like Vermont, to fifteen states like Connecticut, to thirty-eight states like 
Delaware, and to seventy states like Rhode Island. All of England and 
Scotland, and Ireland, and Belgium, and the Netherlands could be put 
within the boundaries of the Dakotas. We could put these same European 
countries within the states of Oregon, Washington and Idaho and have 
more land left than there is in all the New England states. If Texas was 
an inland sea and the Republic of France was dropped within it, it would 
form an island, the vision of whose inhabitants would not span the surround- 
ing waters. 

What is this Great West doing for the world to-day ? There are illustra- 
tions which beggar descriptions. It has been said that American energy 
sweeps the decks of the world's commerce. That energy comes from the 
West. It has been said the cradle of to-day is rocking elements that will 
startle the world of to-morrow. Their discoveries are being made in the 
West. It has been said, "Electric words from the land shores jump into 
wireless aerial chariots, and in the twinkling of an eye dance upon the 
decks of ships one hundred miles out at sea." It is from the West that 
there come the products of the soil, and of the mines, and of the ranges, 
and the forests, the material that laden these ships that make wireless 
telegraphy a useful instrumentality in the world's commerce. 

30 Kansas State Historical Society. 

The number of vigorous, energetic and industrious free men in this 
great West is a number six times as great as the population of the thir- 
teen colonies when the Declaration of Independence was signed and when 
the battles of the Revolution were fought ; five times as great as the popu- 
lation of all the states at the time when the federal constitution was 
adopted. It is a population greater than that of England when she carried 
her banner to victory over the chivalrous hosts of France at Crecy and 
Agincourt. It is a population greater than that of Greece when she won 
her separation from the dominion of the Turk ; a population nearly as great 
as that of Cicily and Naples and of Italy when Garibaldi started the revo- 
lution that created the federation of the kingdom of Italy under Victor 
Emanuel ; a population nearly as great as that of France at the time of her 
revolution or when Napoleon began his career as her emperor. 

Visions of our future population and of our wealth "sweep across the 
horizon of historical possibilities." The wave of population from Europe 
westward across the Atlantic began only two centuries ago, yet in the 
United States alone we have nearly one hundred millions of people. The 
overflow from Italy, and Austria, and Germany, and Belgium, and Holland, 
and Norway, and Sweden, and England, and Scotland, and Ireland is still 
going on, and will continue to go on as long as the races of the world con- 
tinue to increase in numbers. Putnam Weale, who has achieved much dis- 
tinction by his books dealing with the Far East and the world's future, 
estimates that the existing population of the earth will double in numbers 
by the end of the century. Where will these vast millions of people go? 
Will not the white men follow the tide of migration to North and South 
America? But of these continents our great Northwest offers the better 
opportunities and the more inviting prospects. 

The same writer has estimated that by the end of the century the United 
States will have a population of three hundred millions of people. Mr. Car- 
negie, no less thoughtful or intelligent, and not an unreasonable enthusiast, 
has said that the United States will ultimately have a population of five 
hundred million, every one an American, and all boasting a common citizen- 
ship. Should that day come more than two hundred million of them will 
live west of the Missouri river. 

We have said it is within the range of possibilities. Nebraska and Kan- 
sas, when compared to Holland, which sustains a population of four hundred 
and fifty people per square mile upon a soil which was lifted up out of the 
sea, an artificial creation, can sustain a population of seventy millions. The 
arable land of Egypt, surrounded by desert and dependent upon irrigation 
coming from the overflow of the Nile, has a much larger proportionate pop- 
ulation; nine hundred and fifty per square mile. Mightnot these two states 
sustain one hundred and fifty millions of people like the Egyptians? 

But we are not dependent upon our agricultural lands for the capability 
of sustaining a vast population. There is more water power in the rivers 
that flow from the slopes of the Rocky and Sierra mountains than there is 
in all New England. These rushing mountain streams of the West are 
awaiting the coming of the mill owner to make the capital of the investor 
become profitable. There is more lumber in Washington and Oregon and 
more extensive forests on the western slopes than there ever were in Maine 
and Michigan. There is more coal in Wyoming and Colorado than there 
ever was in Pennsylvania. There are more outcroppings of iron on the 

The West: Its Place in American History. 31 

slopes of the Rocky Mountains than there are in all of the states east of 
the Mississippi. The great manufacturing country of England, with her 
commerce that encircles the globe, goes to Africa with an enormous outlay 
of capital and maintains a protective army to get the supply of o-old to 
maintain her money standard. The United States for a century has been 
taking her gold and silver from her own western mountains, which for ages 
have been lying sleeping there, awaiting the coming of the pioneer and the 
gold digger and the improved machinery and appliances of these modern 
times. We can have every species of industry in the West, because it 
offers possibilities of every sort. 

I am not wholly without support if I speculate upon the possibility of the 
Pacific coast ultimately having larger cities than New York or Boston or 
Baltimore. The scholarly and wide-visioned Charles Sumner once said the 
world shall see in that far clime the streets of a wealthier New York; the 
homes of a more cultured Boston; the halls of a more learned Harvard; the 
workshop of a busier Worcester. 

All this territory of the Great West came to the original United States^ 
either by purchase or treaty. The boundaries and limits of the republic 
have already become so extended that they greet the morning sunrise at 
Porto Rico, and the southern sun when he reaches the tropics at Panama, 
and when he sends his glancing rays into the polar circle from the northern 
regions of Alaska; and now when he sets in the far western ocean we bid 
him good night from Hawaii and the Philippines. 

Notwithstanding this unhmited dominion, we have the same form of 
government that was administered when we had less than five millions of 
people. The same constitution has answered our demands, although we 
have to-day one hundred millions of people; and why may it not satisfy our 
necessities should we perchance in time have five hundred millions? If our 
public and private virtues shall be preserved our government will live 
through all times, no matter how extensive its territory and magnificent its 
worldly institutions, as surely as our material progress is destined to indefi- 
nite continuance. 

It is believed that there is a destiny which has forever been guiding the 
course of the human race. That same destiny which carried the Christian 
religion, and civilization, and learning, and literature and the arts from the 
banks of the Nile and the shores of the Adriatic across the continent of 
Europe to Paris and London, later carried it across the Atlantic. That same 
destiny is now shedding in bright effulgence all these advantages of culture 
and mental adornments over the Great West. 

But my speculations for the future are more than dreams of imagina- 
tion or hopes of the fancy. From the American Desert until now, and from 
now to a century hence, is the march of progress under the hand of God. 
It is the American republic coming into her own, the ruling power, the 
mistress of the world. 

We recur again to the value of this history and how it shall be preserved. 
History does not consist alone in the frigid recital of cold facts. There is 
that in history which appeals to the imagination. It is the romance of the 
lives of men who engaged in the stirring events of the period in which 
they lived. It is the recital of the transactions and creations of men and 
peoples and nations. It is the condensation into general declarations of the 
materials found in the thousands of biographies. 

32 Kansas State Historical Society. 

History lies at the bottom of all knowledge. It is the first starting 
point of all learning and of all literature. Our national government is 
founded on principles gathered from centuries of history. 

Our epic poems and our literature are varied and inspired expressions of 
the stirring events in history which have appealed most to the imagination. 
Had it not been for the historic events that made the siege of Troy memora- 
ble we would not remember Homer, and the literary world could not have 
had the enjoyment that has come to it through the passing centuries from 
the reading of the Iliad. 

Without the historical traditions of the old Italian cities, and without the 
histories of the wars between the kings of England and France, Shake- 
speare would have been obliged to depend upon the invention of his poetic 
genius for his fame. 

Other poets who have put forth in melodious phrase the thoughts that have 
come to them by the inspired muse have been indebted to the incidents of 
history. This is true from Virgil to Milton, from Byron to Tennyson, and 
from Longfellow to Whittier. 

The history of our country, as well as that of other countries, will live 
in its poetry. "Every great event, every historic episode, every critical 
moment in the annals of the nation is immortalized by the rhythm that 
thrills the hearts of the people down through the generations." 

History has been the field from which novelists have gathered the material 
for their romances. Without the history of England and Scotland we would 
not have had those beautiful pen pictures that run through the historical 
novels of that genius of Scotland, Sir Walter Scott, romances which have 
furnished abundant instruction and made millions of people happy while 
reading them. 

Had it not been for the recorded pages of history of the old Roman Em- 
pire we would not have had Bulwer's brilliant historical romance, "Rienzi, 
The Last of the Tribunes." Had it not been for the archaeologist and the 
historian, Buiwer could not have given to us the "Last Days of Pompeii." 
Had it not been for the recording of the exciting and tumultuous scenes of 
English history we would not have had Bulwer's masterpiece, "The Last of 
the Barons." 

The thousands of biographies of soldiers, of statesmen and of men emi- 
nent in various walks of life have been written by their admiring friends to 
perpetuate the memory of their actions and deeds and achievements to future 
generations. The primary purpose of biographies is a standing protest 
against oblivion and a contest to perpetuate the lives of these men in the 
pages of history. 

Go into any library and take down from the shelves all its volumes of 
history, and all its poems, and all its romances, and all its biographies, and 
all other volumes that deal in a general or specific way with the events of 
history, or appeal to the incidents of history to support their recitals or 
contentions in argument, and commit all these to the flames, and the library 
shelves will become vacant. When all these are gone the colleges must go, 
the universities must go, and civilization will go back to a period of igno- 
rance greater than that of the Dark Ages. Then we would have to begin 
again, as the world did centuries ago, to build up a new education and a 
new civilization, and pass through a long line of centuries to reach a bright 
and exalted period equal to that of the present age. Aye, more than all 

The West: Its Place in American History. 33 

that; when all these go the Bible must go, because, whether treated as a 
book of inspiration or as a great literature, it is a history of ancient kings 
and of nations, and of peoples, of the Jews, Assyrians, Babylonians and 
Egyptians, and of the Prince of Peace. Strip the world of the benefits of 
history and the world would not be worth living in. 

Without history we would not have our common country. Without a 
familiarity with the Magna Charta and with the English Bill of Rights, and 
the liberty of the individual man under the unwritten English constitution, 
Thomas Jefferson could not have written the Declaration of Independence. 
Without that knowledge of the rights of Englishmen which were trans- 
planted to the American colonies Washington could not have successfully 
carried on the War of the Revolution. 

Without a full and complete knowledge of the history of the conflicting 
contests between freedom and oppression which prevailed through the long 
evolutionary periods from ancient Greece to the federation of the colonies, 
Madison and Hamilton and Wilson and their associates could not have 
framed the federal constitution, and its supporters and advocates could not 
have secured its approval by the American people. 

Patriotism is the life and support of every nation, and without history 
patriotism would be unknown, for patriotism has its birthright in the spirit 
of history. Patriotism is a sentiment that has its inception in a reverence 
for the old historic beginnings. With America it goes back in memory to 
the landing of the Cavaliers at Jamestown and of the Pilgrims at Plymouth. 
It is cultivated and increased by its reverence for the memories of Wash- 
ington and his associate revolutionary heroes, and its recollection of all the 
bright pages in history that record the development of the country from its 
birth to its present great and majestic proportions. Blot from memory the 
history of our early beginning, the memories of our battles from Yorktown 
to the Spanish War, and the memories of the lives of the great men that 
have brought this country up to its present standard of supremacy of a 
world power, and we would not know the meaning of the word patriotism. 

Hence, confidently we may assert that without the benefits of history 
constitutional government could not be created and governments of laws and 
equality could not exist. Blot out history and organized governments would 
dissolve and society would lose the bonds of fraternal unity, and the only 
ruling power that man would know would be the power of force as exer- 
cised by a chief of a savage tribe or a conquering warrior like a Tamerlane 
or an Alexander. 

State historical societies collect and preserve historical incidents and 
records, the wells from which spring forth the intellectual and spiritual 
growth of our people, just as sculpture and art are the culmination of his- 
torical sequences. The interests which these societies represent are the 
foundation upon which the states rest and the nation is maintained. A 
reverence for the valuable materials gathered by these historical societies 
is one of the strongest moral influences that can be inculcated in our people. 
Upon an appreciation of what shall be gathered there rests the spirit, the 
loyalty and the patriotism of the generations. Historical knowledge is a 
positive force in molding public opinion, and is now as it ever has been, the 
source of precedents for our institutions of justice. 

As the air we breathe is drawn from the great depositories of nature, 


34 Kansas State Histo7'ical Society. 

and the light which illumines the day comes from a central sun millions of 
miles distant, so the knowledge which we possess in our age is drawn from 
great depositories of history, and our advancement and development is 
traceable to the historic precedents of the measureless past. 

The older nations of the continent of Europe, such as France, Germany 
and Italy, long since learned the wisdom of bringing home to the under- 
standing of the common people an appreciation of the memorable events in 
their national histories by means of works of art. The great historic truths 
which the mind can take in while the eye is resting upon a dream of beauty, 
either in the wonderful work produced by the sculptor's chisel, or in figures 
dressed in robes of color by the artist's brush, are lasting and persuasive. 
It is a happier method of instruction than the wearisome labor of searching 
through the storehouse of archives. America, too, is fast learning this 
method of teaching history, and within the last few years her history is be- 
ing immortalized in marble and bronze and painting. The national great- 
ness of the republic is being symbolized in memorials on its public buildings. 
Our monuments in figures of bronze and in chiseled marble are daily re- 
minders of our achievements in war and in peace. 

The statues of Grant, and Sherman, and Farragut, and Hancock and 
others that adorn the parks and circles in Washington city, and soldier me- 
morials in all the states, tell of the victories in the Civil War which gave to 
the country nationality. The statues of Lincoln, simple and unadorned 
though they may be, recall the Proclamation of Emancipation more vividly 
than it can be retold by any historian. 

The lovers of our national history have sought the aid of the painter's 
brush to keep fresh and vivid the biographic memories and personages of 
the founders of the republic. The painted portraits of Adams, and Han- 
cock, and Franklin, and Hamilton, and Jefferson, and of Generals Warren 
and Stark, and Lincoln, and Knox, and Gates, and Green, and Washington 
convey to us a deeper and more lasting impression of their characters and 
of their successes as statesmen or as soldiers than do the printed pages 
found in their biographies or the histories of the times in which they lived. 

The large paintings of the battlefields from Lexington and Bunker Hill 
and Germantown to the surrender of Cornwallis at Yorktown are a brilliant 
condensation of all the history of the War of the Revolution, just as the 
picture of the "Signing of the Declaration of Independence" tells the his- 
tory of the beginning of our republic. It has been said that the true his- 
tory of a people is written in its art. It is the genius of the sculptor that 
has fashioned in marble the exquisite conceptions of life, of music, of art, 
of learning and of science in America. These conceptions represent some 
deep philosophical truth in life as it is interpreted from historical records 
found in the archives of state historical societies. 

Art is as true a record of a nation's progress as a scroll, and pictorial 
impressions are oftentimes greater than the written word. The older civi- 
lization of the old world is represented in her priceless masterpieces, and 
such are more influential upon the national spirit and character than speeches 
and books. 

State Historical Society buildings and memorial halls are treasure houses 
of history. Their interior walls should be decorated with mural paintings, 
as in the congressional library, representing the history of the state. These 


The West: Its Place in American History. 35 

buildings should have bronze entrance doors representing "Knowledge" and 
"Wisdom" and "Memory." I believe that a State Historical Society 
building should be more than a storehouse for a museum and a hiding place 
for archives. It should represent in bronze, in sculpture and in art all that 
makes for history, culture, beauty, scholarship and higher civilization. 

The West is passing through a phase of history to which can be found 
no parallel except in the remote ages of the buried past. Centuries upon 
centuries ago there were empires which exist no longer. Cities were builded 
which have been depopulated and crumbled into decay. In those ancient 
times there were people who spoke languages that are no longer spoken and 
which are known to us only as they are taught by linguists in colleges or 
universities. We are in a state of bewilderment when we read of these 
ancient people whose empires and kingdoms and languages have disappeared. 
We ask ourselves how could these things transpire ? 

It is unthinkable to us that New York and Boston and Philadelphia at 
some future time should crumble into ruins; that the United States govern- 
ment should fall into decay; that the American people should become ex- 
tinct; and that a new race of people, speaking a new language, should in 
our stead tread the soil of the American continent. Yet we know that such 
a period of transition from one nation to another, and from one people to 
another, and from one language to another, has actually taken place in 
western Asia and in southeastern Europe. 

We of the West are to-day witnessing the disappearance of a race of 
people. The Indian tribes that once possessed this entire country have 
been driven to the western frontier, and we are the observers of their 
gradual extinction. Here in the West we can see and we can fee! going on 
around and about us a transition in history almost as remarkable and won- 
derful as that of the preceding ages which I have mentioned. There is in it 
a pathos that appeals to our sentimentality and a foundation for a romance 
in history which can be furnished by no other continent. 

But while to us one race of people is becoming extinct, there is a coun- 
terpart in the beginning of the creation of a new race of people, which is 
the composite of all races and all classes who make up our western popula- 
tion—an amalgamation of Norwegians, of Swedes, of Danes, of Irishmen, 
of Germans, of Frenchmen and of Englishmen into the new American man 
of the West. In that new man may be found the mental and physical 
characteristics of all these different peoples. 

In him may be traces of the nervous energy and versatility of the 
Frenchman, of the progressive push of the German, of the strong will 
power of the Scotchman, and the conquering spirit and energy of the Eng- 
lishman. As the Frenchman has superseded the Gaul, as the Englishman 
has superseded the Briton, as the Anglo-Saxon has peopled America, this 
new man of the West has already succeeded our Puritan ancestors. These 
new western men will exercise a dominating influence in the government of 
states and in the affairs of the nation. 

The states of the West owe it to themselves to preserve in the archives 
of their historical societies the traditions of adventure and the records of 
the conquests of the prairies and the uplands and mountains by these daring 
and courageous pioneers. They owe it to themselves to preserve in sub- 
stantial form the historical romance of the disappearance of one race of 


36 Kansas State Historical Society. 

people before the advancing progress of American civilization. The states 
owe it to themselves to collect and preserve in imperishable form all the 
material necessary to convey to the people in the generations, yes, even in 
the centuries to come, a comprehensive understanding of what the wilder- 
ness was before the hand of man had transformed it into a granary of 
wealth and a garden of beauty, and what were the racial characteristics of 
the people who were to form the composite man of the Great West. 

The lives and history of our pioneers, our scholars, our statesmen and 
soldiers should be preserved by our historical societies and in our memorial 
halls through the countless ages, as are preserved the hoof print of the va- 
grant desert deer of Van Dyke, for they are of more value to the future of 
our public than the history of the Sargons, the Pharaohs and the Caesars. 


Some Review of Fifty Years. 


An address by O. C. Hull,' of Great Bend, before the Kansas State Historical Society, at its 
thirty-fifth annual meeting', December 6, 1910. 

THE history of railroads in Kansas is so closely interwoven with the his- 
tory of the development of the state in all particulars that it is difficult 
to treat it independently and determine the exact significance of all the con- 
tributing forces. 

Railroads had passed the experimental stage and their practical value 
had been firmly established before Kansas was known, except as a part of 
the "Great American Desert." The importance of railroads in the de- 
velopment of a new country was given a thorough trial here. In the East 
the country was already developed and the railroad question was a simple 

Until the beginning of the agitation in Congress for the great Union 
Pacific Railroad, Chicago was the western terminus of the east-and-west 
railroads. But the wide discussion of and intense interest in this transcon- 
tinental road awakened the people and gave an impetus to railroad building 
in the western country. However, the settlement of Kansas had begun, 
and she had been organized as a territory and had a population of between 
70,000 and 75,000 people before the first railroad reached her borders. 

The first road to reach Kansas was the Hannibal & St. Joseph Railroad, 2 
extending entirely across the state of Missouri, reaching Kansas at St. 
Joseph and connecting it with the roads of the East. This road was finished 
early in the year 1859.^ The people of the northeastern part of Kansas had 

Note 1. — Oscar Clayton Hull was born in Butler county, Kansas, July 22, 1883. He 
is the son of Thomas A. Hull and Christina (Ullman) Hull. The father was born in 
Grafton, W. Va., July 14, 1851, and came to Kansas July 20, 1877. The mother was 
born at Redkey, Ind., October 26, 1859, and came to Kansas September 1, 1881. They 
were married in Butler county June 17, 1882, and now reside in El Dorado, Kan. Mr. 
Hull attended school at the Kansas Wesleyan Business College and the State Normal, 
graduating from the Kansas State University. He was principal of the Great Bend high 
school for two years, and is now in the senior year of the law department of the Uni- 
versity of Michigan. 

Note 2. — The Hannibal & St. Joseph Railroad had been incorporated in February, 
1847, but as it was not easy to raise the money for its construction the project lagged. 
The first survey was completed to Hannibal on Christmas day, 1850, and not until the 
summer of 1852 was the contract finally let for building the road. When the two ends 
were at last but one hundred miles apart, stages were put on and a lively passenger 
business was done. — History of Buchanan County and St. Joseph, p. 229, et seq. 

Note 3. — "On February 14, 1859, the first through passenger train arrived at St. 
Joseph from Hannibal, with Edgar Sleppy as engineer and Benjamin H. Colt as con- 
ductor. A great celebration in honor of the completion of the road was held on Wash- 
ington's Birthday, at the old Odd Fellows' Hall. A jug of water from the Mississip'>i 
was emptied into the Missouri river at the mouth of Blacksnake, the ceremony of 
mingling the waters being performed with great solemnity by Broaddus Thompson a 
prominent citizen in those days, and a most unique character withal." — History of Bu- 
chanan County and St. Joseph, p. 231. 


38 Kansas State Historical Society. 

become enthusiastic in their faith in the state and in railroads, and had de- 
cided to build a road of their own to connect with this new line to the East. 
Consequently the Marysville or Palmetto & Roseport Railroad, afterward 
called the St. Joseph & Denver City Railroad, was organized in January, 
1857, by local men, and the road from Elwood to Wathena, a distance of 
five miles, was completed, and the first locomotive in Kansas, the "Albany," 
was placed on the track April 28, 1860.^ 

In the meantime the Union Pacific agitation in Congress had aroused 
the Kansas pioneers, and the Leavenworth, Pawnee & Western Railroad 
Company had been organized in 1855, but work was not begun on the line 
until May, 1857. Nothing was really accomplished, and the road was ac- 
quired by the Union Pacific Company in 1863. 

At the time and following the organization of these companies there was 
a general demand of the people for railroads, and a series of years followed 
during which numerous meetings were held, companies were organized, and 
everything was done except the actual construction of roads. The cost of 
the construction of a road was so great, while the country was yet too 
sparsely settled to guarantee profitable operation, that it seemed impossi- 
ble to accomplish anything. Then the Civil War came on, and railroad 
building ceased to be the absorbing topic for some time. 

But the plan of building up the new country and connecting it with the 
East was not to be abandoned. The question was being discussed in Con- 
gress, and that body finally decided to continue the policy it had inaugu- 
rated in 1850 in the case of the Illinois Central Railroad to encourage rail- 
road building. That policy was to aid new roads by granting them a large 
amount of government land, extending a few miles on either side of the 
track. This would at once aid the railroad by providing a source of rev- 
enue through the sale of such lands. It also aided them indirectly, in that 
it was a means of settling the country through which the road passed with 
homeseekers, tempted by the liberal offers of the railroad company. Ac- 

NOTE 4. — The Marysville or Palmetto & Roseport Railroad was incorporated by legisla- 
tive act approved February 17, 1857. The incorporators were Robt. M. Stewart, W. P. 
Richardson, F. J. Marshall, Bela M. Hughes, Richard Rose, A. M. Mitchell, Reuben 
Middleton, R. H. Jenkins, Fred W. Smith and W. S. Brewster. The company was em- 
powered to construct a railroad from Marysville or Palmetto City to Roseport, "so as to 
connect with the Hannibal & St. Joseph railroad." In June, 1857, the Roseport town 
company was reorganized, and the town christened Elwood, thereafter the railroad being 
known as the Elwood and Marysville. Wilder's Annals, March 20, 1860, says : "Iron 
arrives in Kansas and tracklaying begins on the Elwood & Marysville railroad. This is 
the first railroad iron laid on Kansas soil." The Elwood Free Press of April 28 an- 
nounced the arrival on the 23d of the locomotive "Albany." This engine was crossed over 
from St. Joseph on the ferry boat "Ida," and pulled up the bank at Elwood by enthusiastic 
men and boys. The next day several flat cars were brought across the river and the 
opening of the first section of the road was celebrated. Col. M. Jeff. Thompson, president 
of the road, Willard P. Hall and Gov. R. M. Stewart, of Missouri, addressed the crowd. 
A mile of track toward Wathena had been laid, and over this the engine and cars ran 
back and forth amidst the cheers of the spectators. James Whitney was the engineer of 
the "Albany." When the road was completed to Wathena, July 19, a free excursion was 
given, the Jackson Guards of St. Joseph and many prominent Missourians taking part. 
All day long the woods along the right of way were crowded with an e.xcited throng of 
people. In a directory of St. Joseph for 1860-'61 occurs the following : "Elwood is placed 
by the Hannibal & St. Joseph railroad in direct communication with the most populous 
and wealthy cities of the East, and by the first of April will be within fifty hours' travel 
of New York." During the disturbed political situation of 1861 little work was done on 
the Elwood road, and in 1862 the name was changed to St. Joseph & Denver City Railroad. 
Again, owing to the paralyzed condition of the country, no work was done, and it is 
said that at this period the farmers along the line used the flat cars hitched to oxen for 
drawing their wood and produce to the ferry landing, the engine having been taken back 
to St. Joseph. Finally the ties rotted and Cottonwood sprouts grew thick between the 
rails. In January, 1866, a new company was formed made up of local capital, and a con- 
solidation was effected with the old railroad company, the new company retaining the old 
name. Eventually this road was built to the Nebraska line, and its present name is the 
St. Joseph & Grand Island Railway. 

Railroads in Kansas. 39 

cordingly, on July 1, 1862, an act was signed by the President granting five 
sections per mile on either side of the road to the Leavenworth, Pawnee & 
Western Railroad Company, for the construction of a road from the mouth 
of the Kansas river to connect with the Union Pacific in Nebraska, at the 
100th meridian. The franchise of the Leavenworth, Pawnee & Western 
Railroad, together with this land grant, was acquired by the Union Pacific, 
Eastern Division, and construction work was begun at the Missouri river in 
September, 1863. July 2, 1864, this act was amended, increasing the land 
grant to ten sections per mile on either side of the track, or 12,800 acres 
per mile, making a total of about 6,000,000 acres of land for the Union Pa- 
cific in Kansas. 5 In addition to this. United States bonds to the extent of 
$16,000 per mile, payable in thirty years and drawing six per cent interest, 
were issued, and constituted a first mortgage on the road. 

In the meantime, by act of March 3, 1863, Congress had granted to the 
state land amounting to ten sections per mile, to be given to railroad com- 
panies which would build roads in certain specified directions. This land 
was given to the Leavenworth, Lawrence & Galveston, extending from 
Leavenworth to the south line of the state; to the Atchison, Topeka & 
Santa Fe," from Atchison to the western line of the state; and to the Mis- 
souri, Kansas & Texas, from Fort Riley to the southern boundary. These 
roads received, respectively, 450,000, 934,522 and 712,895 acres of land. 

By act of July 23, 1866, a similar grant was made to the state for the 
St. Joseph & Denver City Railroad, extending from Elwood to the junction 
of the Union Pacific. This grant amounted to 64,672 acres in Kansas and 
about 400,000 acres in Nebraska. This road also received the proceeds from 
the sale of 125,000 acres of land, a part of 500,000 acres granted to the state 
for internal improvement.^ 

The Kansas City, Fort Scott & Gulf Railroad was given the proceeds from 
the sale of 125,000 acres of the land granted to the state, and by an act of 
July 25, 1866, was granted the usual amount of ten sections per mile, but 

Note 5. — Land grants to Kansas railroads, according to a government compilation, are 
as follows : 

Union Pacific Railroad — Kansas City to Denver: Estimated area in acres, 7,776,238.14; 
certified or patented to June 30, 1907, 6,175,620.63. 

Leavenworth, Lawrence & Galveston — Lawrence to southern boundary of Kansas : 
Estimated area in acres, 485,545.69; certified or patented to June 30, 1907, 249,446.13. 
This includes 186,936.72 acres of the Osage ceded lands, which should be deducted under 
the decision of the supreme court in the case of L. L. & G. R. R. v. The United States, 
92 U. S. 733. 

Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railroad— Atchison to western boundary of Kansas: 
Estimated area in acres, 2,885,496.43 ; certified or patented to June 30, .1907, 2,944,788.14. 

Missouri, Kansas & Texas Railway — Fort Riley to southern boundary of Kansas: 
Estimated area in acres 1,121,784.18 ; certified or patented to June 30, 1907, 976,593.22. 
This includes 270,970.78 acres of the Osage ceded lands, which should be deducted under the 
decision of the supreme court in the case cited above. 

St. Joseph & Denver City Railroad — Elwood, Kan., to Hastings, Neb. : Estimated area 
in acres, 1,350,381.03 ; certified or patented to June 30, 1907. 462,933.24. 

Union Pacific, Central Branch — Missouri river to 100th mile post: Estimated area in 
acres, 261,841.51 ; certified or patented to June 30, 1907, 223,080.50. 

All of these grants are practically adjusted, but not closed. — U. S. Land Office state- 
ment showing land grants made by Congress to railroads. 1908. 

Note 6.— The Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway is building to-day a line of rail- 
road from Dodge City into the southwest corner of the state that follows very closely one 
of the lines suggested by the railroad convention of 1860. It is interesting to take the 
map showing the lines of road suggested by that convention, published in the Historical 
Collections, vol. 9, p. 477, accompanying an article by the late Gov. Geo. W. Glick, and 
compare it with a railroad map of to-day. One is struck anew with the wisdom and 
foresight of those pioneers who laid the foundations for our present material growth and 

40 Kansas State Historical Society. 

all except 17,500 acres was forfeited because of failure to perform the con- 
ditions of the grant. 8 

The Central Branch of the Union Pacific, or the Atchison & Pike's Peak 
Railroad, received a grant of 187,608 acres of land, and government bonds 
to the amount of $16,000 per mile, similar to the Union Pacific grant, were 
issued, amounting to $1,600,000." 

This was the end of government aid to the railroads in Kansas. Enough 
roads were built to connect the country pretty well, and the railroad busi- 
ness became a paying proposition, so that the government ceased its dona- 
tions. However, in addition to the government aid, there were vast sums 
of money raised for the roads by the voting of bonds by local communities 
through which they passed. This form of aid and inducement has continued 
during the entire period of railroad building. 

Just what the railroads would have done without the aid, or how long 
before they would have been constructed, can only be conjectured. The 
immense cost of construction, the sparsely settled country and limited 
traffic made the railroad business extremely perilous, and even with all the 
grants that were made, many roads were unable to overcome the difficulties. 
Before the business became profitable the country had to be developed and 
a general carrying trade built up. 

The inducements offered were so attractive, however, that there was a 
rapid growth of early roads, and many miles of track were laid. There 
were 931 miles in operation by 1870, and 2134 in 1875. 

The beginning of our railroad building was by independent and separate 
interests. The Union Pacific was a part of a great system, but it was not 
connected with any other road in Kansas. As was noted before, many com- 
panies were organized and much independent local action was undertaken. 
But local capital and construction force alone were insufficient for the propo- 
sition, and practically all the early roads were backed by eastern capital, 
although there might be local representation, and often local control was 
maintained. The interests which were back of each company were, as a 
rule, independent of other companies; consequently the first roads were in- 
dependent, unallied and usually antagonistic. As the railroad industry be- 
came more definitely shaped its value as an investment was assured, and 
the large financial interests saw that the most profitable way of operating 
the roads lay in consolidation. There began a gradual connecting and ally- 
ing of the companies, of interownership of stock and actual buying up of 
entire roads by other railroads, until to-day we have only a few large in- 
dependent lines. This trend in Kansas is typical of the great movement of 
consolidation and centralization not only in railroad but in other lines of 
business all over the United States, and may be an effect of the general 
tendency toward concentration of wealth. 

One reason for the passing of small independent railroads is the difficulty 
of financing them through money panics. It requires a great amount of 
reserve capital to keep a road from going to the wall, and so many have 
failed in critical times that only experienced financiers are able to cope 
with the problems. 

This is well illustrated in the past history of Kansas roads. During the 

Note 7. — Cutler's History of Kansas, 1883, p. 246. 
Note 8. — Ibid, p. 247. 
Note 9. — Ibid, p. 246. 

Railroads in Kansas. ^i 

early years of railroad construction, many, in fact practically all, of the 
roads were built with borrowed money. Their bond issue was usually all 
the road would bear. The roads were aided by the localities through which 
they passed, and most of them by direct grants of government land. In 
some cases these grants, all told, amounted to the entire cost of the road. 
But behind this was the fact that the promoters did not represent any great 
wealth. They were often inexperienced in railroad building and operation. 
Then the field was so new and uncertain, and the whole railroad business 
having not yet established itself financially, that it was a very speculative 

Practically all the early roads passed at some time into the hands of re- 
ceivers. The returns from operation usually did not pay running expenses, 
and the panic of 1873 came on before the early roads had become paying 
investments. They were naturally the first victims of the broken confi- 
dence, and the strain upon them was too great. 

After the money panic had passed and times became better there was a 
readjustment in the railroad business. Eastern creditors and capitalists 
took over many of the roads at much reduced figures. It was some time 
before railroad building started again, but it gradually increased until the 
boom years, when it increased so rapidly that the same consequences 
awaited it that had befallen it before. The speculation of 1886 and 1887 
was followed closely by the hard times of 1892 and 1893, and while most of 
the roads were able to hold their own in this case, yet it put several small 
companies in such a plight that they were compelled to sell to the larger 
companies, and thus was started again the consolidation of roads which has 
been going on ever since. 

The periods of growth of railroad mileage in Kansas correspond exactly 
with the periods of prosperity and good business. Nothing has responded 
so quickly to the changing financial conditions as railroad building. The 
first period began about the close of the war and extended to the year 1873, 
during which year the Santa Fe was completed. The panic put a stop 
to the business, and it required a long time for it to recover. After the 
panic the few roads that were built were small extensions and branches of 
the roads already in operation. The great speculative feature was entirely 
eliminated, and roads were built only where they were needed and de- 

Early in the 80's business began to increase rapidly, a boom was started 
in the southern part of the state, and railroad building was again re- 
sumed. The boom was centered about Wichita, and during this period 
that city was well connected with the East by new roads or extensions of 
old ones. But this stimulus did not have a general eflfect at first, no re- 
sponse being made except in the southern part of the state. By the year 
1885 the whole country was booming again, and road building began anew. 
In that year there were 4168.48 miles of railway in the state, and by De- 
cember 30, 1890, there were 8882.31 miles.'" Most of this was built during 
the years 1886 and 1887. The building was not limited to any section; the 
West was eager to have railroads built, and probably received more than 
were needed for the next twenty years. 

After this period there was a general subsidence of the building fever. 

Note 10. — Board of Railroad Commissioners, Annual Reports, 1885, p. 198, and 1890,. 
p. xxvii. These figures do not include sidetrack. 

42 Kansas State Historical Society. 

and the hard times of the early 90's demonstrated that we had all the 
roads we could stand. Practically nothing has been done since 1890 until 
within the past few years, when several companies have been incorporated 
and some construction done. 

The relation between the population of the state and the railroad mileage 
is a direct one. (See accompanying table.) With but few exceptions, the 
growth of the two has gone on together. Did the people bring the rail- 
roads, or did the railroads bring the people ? In the East, where the country 
was settled before a railroad was known, there is no question of this kind. 
But, as noted earlier in this paper, the growth of the railroad industry and 
the settlement and development of Kansas have taken place together, and it 
presents a different question from those regions that were fairly well settled 
when railroads were first thought of. Kansas had a few people and some 
industry before a railroad was considered. But one of the most serious 
obstacles in the way of settlement was this fact of separation from the 
East. Consequently, the early settlers were clamorous for a railroad long 
before the population and commerce would justify the investment. As we 
have seen, many efforts were made by local men to build a road, but with- 
out success. 

The Union Pacific was the first railroad built entirely across the state 
and westward, regardless of population. This fact precludes the idea that 
it depended upon the people of Kansas for support. It was built to connect 
the East with the West, and was justified by its liberal land grants and by 
the prospects of through commerce This was the beginning, and was 
sufficient to bring many settlers. As a rule, the settlements were made 
along the lines of railroad, and until settlement was extended in other di- 
rections there was but little inducement for other roads. The only instances 
where the roads left the settled districts and launched out into the sparsely 
settled or unsettled parts were where they had some goal in sight and did 
not depend upon local traffic for support. 

Aside from the indirect inducement which railroads offered for settle- 
ment, there was the direct advantage of securing land cheaply. The rail- 
road companies sold several large tracts to foreign immigrant societies and 
brought foreign colonies into the state, thereby greatly increasing the pop- 
ulation along their lines. 

After the passing of the land-grant policy, the railroads have, as a rule, 
been built largely, if not wholly, within those districts where the population 
was large enough to furnish local business sufficient to justify the invest- 
ment. In the first instance, the railroads, aided by the government, con- 
tributed towards settling the state. Since the public aid has ceased it has 
been necessary for the population to increase to such an extent that a road 
would be a paying investment before it was built. The larger roads have 
gradually extended branches as population has increased, and the present 
network of roads is a result of increased trade and industries, which have 
demanded greater transportation facilities. 

The distribution of the railroads in the state is an indication of the re- 
lation between population and railroad mileage. We find several times as 
many miles of railroads in the eastern half as in the western half of the 
state. And those roads in the western half are, with one or two excep- 
tions, through lines. The cross branches are numerous in the eastern half 

Railroads in Kansas. 


of the state, but in the vestern half there is only one road running from 
north to south, ^ and practically no connections whatever between the va- 
rious through lines. The reason is obvious. In the eastern part of the 
state the population is so dense that local business justifies roads running 
in all directions, while in the sparsely settled West only direct lines, run- 
ning from east to west and with some outside connection, can be supported 
by the business. 

Railroad building is beginning again; few roads having been constructed 
within the last twenty years, the country has now developed to such a point 
that new roads are needed and demanded by the people. Were it not for 
the political agitation and the policy of reducing the profits of railroad op- 
eration, there would be no question about new roads being a paying propo- 
sition. But with the possibility and probability of having profits limited by 
legislation, together with other difficulties always connected with a new 
road, there is greater hesitancy in building than there ever has been. As 
soon as conditions become more settled we may look for many miles of new 
railroad, especially in the western part of the state, which has developed 
more in the past twenty years than in all the time preceding. Certainly if 
the roads then in operation paid at all, many new roads could be supported 
now and undoubtedly will soon be built. 

While there has been but little railroad construction during the past 
twenty years, yet the period has been one of wonderful development and 
improvement in railroad operation. Improvement has been made in every 
department of railroading, and traveling has become not only rapid and 
convenient, but comfortable as well. And all along with all the improve- 
ments in railroad service there has been a gradual increase in wages and in 
the number of employees. When we consider the increased efficiency and 
cost of railroad service, and then remember that the freight and passenger 
rates have been steadily declining, we must concede that the railroad in- 
dustry is exceedingly well organized and that its development has been 
marvelous. See pages 44, 45, 46. 


1. Wm. G. Cutler, ed. : History of Kansas. 

2. Reports of Railroad Commissioners of Kansas. 

3. Auditors' Reports. 

4. Poor, H. V. : Poor's Manual of Railroads. 

5. Governors' Reports, 1876. 

6. Reports of State Board of Agriculture. 

7. Governor's Messages, 1879. 

8. D. W. Wilder: Annals of Kansas, 1541-1885. 

9. Report of Tenth Census of United States, vol. 4 (Transportation). 

10. D. B. Emmert: Kansas Magazine, vol. 2, 1873. 

11. U. S. Census Reports, 1860-1900. 

12. Railroad folders, early newspapers, etc. 

Note 11. — The connecting line between Winona, on the Union Pacific railroad, and 
Garden City, on the Santa Fe, has been in operation but a short time. The Garden City, 
Gulf & Northern was organized in 1908, and runs from Scott City to Garden City. It is 
operated by the Santa Fe. The Scott City Northern runs from Scott City to Winona via 
Jlusseii Springs, and the first regular train went over its line August 1, 1911. 


Kansas State Historical Society. 


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Railroads in Kansas. 47 



Chartered December 12, 1895, as the successor to the Atchison, Topeka 
& Santa Fe Railroad Company, whose property was sold under foreclosure 
December 10, 1895, and possession taken January 1, 1896. 

On February 11, 1859, the Atchison & Topeka Railroad Company was 
granted a charter, and on March 3, 1863, the name was changed to the 
Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railroad Company. 

The building of the line was started from Topeka, 2 beginning in October, 
1868, and was completed to the Colorado border by 1873. The line between 
Atchison and Topeka was not begun until 1871, and was finished in May, 

The road from Topeka to Lawrence was built in 1874 by the Kansas 
Midland Railroad Company, successors to the Lawrence & Topeka Railroad 
Company, which had commenced work on the prospective line in 1871. 
The Ime from Kansas City to De Soto was likewise built by the Kansas 
Midland in the summer of 1874. The connecting road between Lawrence 
and De Soto was the St. Louis, Lawrence & Denver, which company had 
filed articles of incorporation July 22, 1867, with the purpose of building a 
road from Pleasant Hill, Mo., to Lawrence, and thence west to Denver. 
This road from Lawrence to Pleasant Hill was purchased, and that portion 
between Lawrence and De Soto consolidated with the Kansas Midland under 
the name of the Kansas City, Topeka & Western Railroad, and leased by 
the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railroad Company October 1, 1875, thus 
giving a direct line from Topeka to Kansas City. 

The Kansas City, Lawrence & Southern Railroad Company was granted 
a charter on February 12, 1858, under the name of the Leavenworth, Law- 
rence & Fort Gibson Railroad Company. On February 24, 1866, the name 
was changed to Leavenworth, Lawrence & Galveston. In 1867 the line was 
built from Lawrence to Ottawa, and in 1870 the road was extended from 
Ottawa south to Thayer, and in 1871 to Coffeyville. In 1870 a line was con- 
structed from Ottawa to Olathe by the Kansas City & Santa Fe Railroad, 
which company, upon the completion of this line, made a lease in perpetuity 
to the Leavenworth, Lawrence & Galveston. From Olathe to Kansas City 
the Leavenworth, Lawrence & Galveston used into Kansas City the track 
of the Missouri River, Fort Scott & Gulf (now Frisco). On August 9, 1878, 

Note 1. — This information was used in the hearing before an Interstate Commerce 
Commission examiner, at Topeka, January 19-22, 1912, and formed part of the evidence 
in behalf of the complainant in the case of the State of Kansas and the Public Utilities 
Commission v. the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe and other railroads. It was gathered by- 
Clay Hamilton, one of the attorneys in the case. The suit was against all the railroads 
operating in the state, and their connecting companies as far east as the Mississippi river, 
and was brought to enforce a general reduction of freight rates. 

Note 2. — "Road commenced at Topeka in October, 1868. Opened to Carbondale, 18 
miles from Topeka, July, 1869 ; to Burlingame, 27 miles, September, 1869 ; to Osage City, 
35 miles. May, 1870 : to Reading, 45 miles, June, 1870 ; to Emporia, 62 miles, July, 1870 ; 
to Cottonwood, 82 miles, March, 1871 ; to Florence, 107 miles. May, 1871 ; to Peabody, 119 
miles, June, 1871 ; to Newton, 136 miles, July, 1871 ; to Sedgwick, 147 miles, April, 1872 ; 
to Wichita, 163 miles. May, 1872 ; Atchison to Topeka, 49 miles. May, 1872 ; Newton to 
Hutchinson, 217 miles from Atchison, June, 1872 ; to Great Bend. 269 miles, July, 1872 ; 
to Larned, 291 miles, August, 1872 ; to Dodge City, 351 miles. September, 1872 ; to the 
western state line, 470 miles, December 23, 1872. Time of building, four years and three- 
months."— Cutler's History of Kansas, 1883, p. 244. 

48 Kansas State Historical Society. 

the Leavenworth, Lawrence & Galveston was sold under foreclosure and 
the name changed to Lawrence & Galveston. On March 29, 1879, the Law- 
rence & Galveston, the Kansas City & Santa Fe, and the Southern Kansas 
railroad companies were consolidated, and assumed the name of the Kansas 
City, Lawrence & Southern Railroad Company. This line was purchased in 
1880 by the Kansas City, Topeka & Western Railroad Company. In 1881 
the Santa Fe completed a line between Olathe and Chouteau, a station near 
Holliday, to connect with the main line out of Kansas City. The line of the 
Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railroad Company from Kansas City to Chi- 
cago was completed April 29, 1888, by the Chicago, Santa Fe & California - 
Railway Company. 


The Chicago & Alton built a bridge over the Mississippi at Louisiana, 
Mo., in 1870, and completed its railroad to Mexico, Mo., in the same year. 
From Mexico, Mo., it used the road of the North Missouri (now Wabash) 
from the year 1870 to May, 1879. In May, 1879, it completed its own road 
into Kansas City. 


The Platte County Railroad was completed to Harlem in the spring of 
1869. When the new bridge over the Missouri was finished, in July of that 
year, this road came on into Kansas City. In May, 1870, it was consolidated 
with the Council Bluffs & St. Joseph Railroad, under the name of the Kan- 
sas City, St. Joe & Council Bluffs, and in 1880 was sold to the Burlington. 

In 1860 the Kansas City & Cameron Railroad Company contracted to 
build a road from Kansas City to connect with the Hannibal & St. Joe at 
Cameron, Mo. Work was started in 1861, but the war put a stop to it. 
After the war the work was again taken up, and the road was completed 
to the north bank of the Missouri, opposite Kansas City, in November, 1867, 
and passengers and freight were transferred by ferry. When the Missouri 
river bridge was completed, in July, 1869, it was used by this road to make 
an entry into Kansas City. In February, 1870, this road was taken over 
by the Hannibal & St. Joe, and in 1882 the Hannibal & St. Joe was pur- 
<;hased by the Burlington. 


This road enters Kansas City over the tracks of the Kansas City North- 
western and Missouri Pacific holding. Poor's Railroad Manual for 1890, 
page 521, states that this road has a 999-year contract with the Kansas City 
Northwestern, dating from December 12, 1888. The best information I can 
find is to the effect that the road entered Kansas City in 1891. 


This line entered Kansas City in 1887 over its own road, corripleting a 
bridge over the Missouri river east of the city and entering its own depot 
at Twenty-third street and Grand avenue. 


This road first entered Kansas City in 1871, over the tracks of the Kan- 
sas City, St. Joe and Council Bluffs (now Burlington) from Beverly. In 
1880 it began using the tracks of the Hannibal & St. Joe (now Burlington) 
from Cameron. In March, 1887, arrangements were made with the Union 
Pacific to use the tracks of that road between Kansas City and Topeka, in 

Railroads in Kansas. 49 

order to connect w th the Rock Island western line out of Topeka. July 10, 
1904, the St. Louis, Kansas City & Colorado line was completed between 
Kansas City and St. Louis. The Rock Island owns this road. 


This was commenced in 1882 and finished in 1886. About 1906 it 
merged into the Kansas City Terminal Railway Company, and still ope- 
rates under that name. 


This road— the company organized April 30, 1900— has no tracks into 
Kansas City, nor does it have any trackage arrangement by which it may 
use the lines of any other road. A Kansas City charter was granted it in 
1900, but the line has not yet been completed. Its road was completed into 
Wichita in November, 1904, and it has through freight rates into Kansas 
City with the Rock Island, Santa Fe, Missouri Pacific and Frisco. 


This road was chartered December 29, 1893, to take over the property 
of the Kansas City, Wyandotte & Northwestern, which it bought under 
foreclosure on January 5, 1894. The receiver operated the road until July 
1, 1S94, when it was turned over to the new company, and is now owned 
and controlled in the interest of the Missouri Pacific Railroad Company, 
having been purchased by that company January 18, 1910. The Kansas 
City, Wyandotte & Northwestern was chartered November 23, J885. The 
line was completed to Leavenworth in May, 1887, and to Seneca inj'Janu- 
ary, 1888. The extensions to the terminals in Kansas City were completed 
on February 18, 1888, and the road was opened on the same day for through 
business. On March 28, 1887, it was consolidated with the Leavenworth & 
Olathe Railroad. The consolidated railroads went into the hands of a re- 
ceiver on March 24, 1890. and were later sold to the Kansas City North- 


This road was organized as the Kansas City, Nevada & Fort Smith Rail- 
road Company, November 6, 1889, and its name was changed to Kansas 
City, Pittsburg & Gulf January 26, 1893. It was sold under foreclosure 
March 19, 1900, when the Kansas City Southern Railway Company, organ- 
ized the same day, took over its properties, assuming possession of the road 
on April 1, 1900. 


This road is a Union Pacific holding. It comes into Kansas City over|the 
tracks of the Missouri Pacific, under an arrangement made in October, 1896. 


The Missouri, Kansas & Texas Railway Company was incorporated under 
the laws of Kansas as the Union Pacific Railway Company, Southern Branch, 
September 25, 1865. In 1870 this road was consolidated with the Tabo & 
Neosho, the Labette & Sedalia and the Neosho Valley & Holden railroads, 
and the name changed to Missouri, Kansas & Texas. 

The company has no line of its own into Kansas City. The best in- 
formation to be had seems to indicate that it has entered Kansas City 
under a trackage arrangement with the Kansas City, Fort Scott & Mem- 

50 Kansas State Historical Society. 

phis, made on July 8, 1889, to handle its trains, and in April, 1894, it ar- 
ranged with this same company to handle its own traffic over the same road. 
However, Miller's "History of Kansas City" says that the Missouri, Kan- 
sas & Texas came into Kansas City over the Fort Scott road in August, 

1874 [page 156]. 


This road was started as the Pacific Railroad of Missouri. The ground 
was broken in July, 1860, but the war put a stop to the work, and the line 
was only completed to Little Blue station in July, 1864. The first passen- 
ger train from St. Louis came into Kansas City in September, 1865, and in 
November of that year the track was extended to the present Grand Ave- 
nue depot. The same year a road was begun between Kansas City and 
Leavenworth as the Missouri River Railroad Company. The line was com- 
pleted in July, 1866, and was opened from Leavenworth to Atchison in Sep- 
tember, 1869. This road was an auxiliary company of the Missouri Pacific 
and was at once taken over by that road. 

The Central Branch of the Missouri Pacific was organized February 11, 
1859. as the Atchison & Pike's Peak Railroad. June 13, 1860, work was 
commenced at Atchison, and by January 20, 1868, the road was completed 
to Waterville. On November 20, 1866, the name of the company was 
changed to Central Branch, Union Pacific Railroad Company. It was eventu- 
ally leased to the Missouri Pacific, and incorporated with that company by 
articles of consolidation July 8, 1899, and has been extended as far west as 
Lenora, Norton county. 

Several of the early histories of Kansas City refer to a "Kansas City, 
Wyandotte & Northwestern Railroad" as organized in 1872. They state 
that it was the intention of this road to build a line northwest along the 
Missouri river valley to the Nebraska line. However, failing to secure the 
requisite aid along the proposed line in Kansas, the company concluded to 
divert the course of the road and build it down the Missouri valley. It was 
therefore reorganized under the name of the Kansas City & Eastern, and 
began work in December, 1873, on a line between Kansas City and Inde- 
pendence, Mo. This was completed in 1874, and in 1875 the balance of the 
line to Lexington was put under contract and completed in the spring of 
1876. The road so built is a narrow gauge, and is represented to be of 
great importance because it reaches the valuable coal mines at Lexington. 
In November, 1879, Gould bought the Kansas City & Eastern, and in De- 
cember it was leased to the Missouri Pacific and became a division of that 
road. The road here described should not be confused with the Kansas 
City Northwestern, which was begun in 1885 under the name of the Kan- 
sas City, Wyandotte & Northwestern, and was later actually built toward 
the northwest, and now also belongs to the Missouri Pacific. 

In 1879 the Missouri Pacific extended its line between Holden, Mo., and 
Paola, Kan., to Ottawa, Kan., and built the old "Fall River Railroad" 
from Paola to Le Roy, which was opened in December, 1880. 

Between the years 1886 and 1888 the Missouri Pacific built its line from 
Kansas City to Paola, under the name of the Kansas City & Southern, in 
order to connect with its lines to the south and east out of Paola. 

Railroads in Kansas. ^ 


This company was made up of smaller roads, which were bound together 
into Arthur E. Stillwell's "North-of-Kansas City System" to give an en- 
trance by a road he built in 1897, known as the Kansas City & Northern 
Connecting Line. This latter road was organized in 1887 as the Chicago, 
Kansas City & Texas Railroad, and began operating in July, 1889. It was 
reorganized in June, 1893, as the Kansas City & Atlantic Railroad, and 
operated between North Kansas City and Smithville, Mo. 

The Quincy, Omaha & Kansas City is now owned by the Burlington, but 
is operated under a separate management. 


This road entered Kansas City in August, 1898, over the tracks of the 
Kansas City <&■ Northern Connecting Line. The company is a reorganized 
one, and dates back to the Marysville or Palmetto & Roseport Railroad 
Company, incorporated February 17, 1857. Through various vicissitudes, 
with changes of name, it came down to 1885, when it was reorganized and 
named the St. Joseph & Grand Island Railroad Company; February 23, 1897, 
the name was again changed and the present style adopted— the St. Joseph 
& Grand Island Railway Company. 


On March 8, 1865, a charter was granted to the Kansas & Neosho Valley 
Railroad. This road became, August 10, 1868, the Missouri River, Fort 
Scott & Gulf, and later, March 15, 1879, the Kansas City, Fort Scott & 
Gulf. It was organized to construct a line from the mouth of the Kaw ta 
Galveston. Work was begun at the Kansas City end in 1866. The line was 
open to Olathe in December, 1868, to Fort Scott December, 1869, and to 
Baxter Springs May 2, 1870. The branch of the Katy coming down from 
Junction City succeeded in touching the Indian Territory line before this 
road did, and, since the government would grant but one railroad charter in 
the territory, the course of the Gulf road was changed to the southeast and 
a line constructed from Fort Scott, which was known as the Kansas City, 
Fort Scott & Memphis. This road was purchased by the St. Louis & San 
Francisco in 1898. 

In 1887 the Kansas City, Oceola & Springfield, known as the "Blair" 
road, was built from Kansas City to Oceola by John I. Blair. In 1896 he 
arranged with the Frisco for a sale, but the road was not used by the 
Frisco until 1898. By the purchase of this road in 1898 the St. Louis & San 
Francisco secured its first entrance into Kansas City. 


Work was begun on this road west from Kansas City September 7, 1863. 
It was organized as the Eastern Division of the Union Pacific. It after- 
ward became the Kansas Pacific, and later the Union Pacific. On Novem- 
ber 26, 1864, the last rail was laid into Lawrence, and on November 28 the 
first excursion train ran into that city from Kansas City. The line was 
extended to Topeka, and by January 1, 1866, regular passenger trains were 
running from Kansas City to that point. Train service was estabhshed 
between Kansas City and Denver August 15, 1870. ^ The branch between 
Lawrence and Leavenworth was completed in May, 1866. 

Note 3. — Wilder's Annals says the Kansas Pacific reached Denver September 1, 1870. 


52 Kansas State Historical Society. 


This road began construction under the name of the Missouri Valley 
Railroad, and was later taken over by the North Missouri Railroad. It 
completed its line to Harlem, opposite Kansas City, in 1868, and came into 
Kansas City over the new bridge in 1869. In 1872 the name was changed 
to the St. Louis, Kansas City & Northern, and a few years later it became 
the Wabash. 

In 1869 the following roads were occupying the first union station in 
Kansas City, the presfent union depot having been built in 1877 : Hannibal 
& St. Joe, now Burlington ; North Missouri, now Wabash ; St. Joe & Coun- 
cil Bluffs, now Burlington ; Kansas Pacific, now Union Pacific ; Kansas 
City, Fort Scott & Gulf, now Frisco; Leavenworth, Lawrence & Galves- 
ton, now Santa Fe. 

The information relative to the preceding railroads was gathered from 
the following authorities : 

"History of Kansas City," by Mrs. Carrie Westlake Whitney, vol. 1. 

"History of Kansas City," by Theo. S. Case. 

"The Railway Systems of Kansas City; Their Inception and Develop- 
ment," by W. P. Trickett, Commissioner of Kansas City Transportation 

"Greater Kansas City." Official Year Book for 1904-'05. 

"History of Kansas City," by W. H. Miller. 

"Commerce of Kansas City in 1886" (E. H. Phelps & Co.) 

"Kansas City in Three Decades," by William Griffith. 

Kansas City Journal files ; story by E. H. Gates, December 16, 1906. 

Poor's Manual of Railroads. 

Annual Reports of the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway Company. 

Reports of the Kansas Board of Railroad Commissioners. 

Cutler's "History of Kansas," 1883. 

"'Thirty Years in Topeka," by F. W. Giles, 1886. 

Kansas State Historical Society. 53 



An address by Leslie A. Fitz,' of the Department of Milling Industry, State Agricultural 
College, before the Kansas State Historical Society, at its thirty-fifth annual meeting, De- 
cember 6, 1910. 

TT IS impossible to trace with any degree of accuracy the steps that mark 
•*■ the development of this great industry. Many a little mill built in the 
early territorial days to meet a clearly defined need served well its purpose 
until finally crowded out by the changed conditions, when it was dismantled 
and its early history forgotten. Here and there, however, we find an early 
settler or a pioneer miller who can vividly picture for us the contrast be- 
tween flour milling in the late fifties or early sixties and flour milling in the 
present day. 

Historians have attempted to connect a set of buhrs found near Troy, 
Doniphan county, with the time of Coronado and his explorations of the 
Missouri river territory in 1541, but there is no evidence to show that these 
were ever used in a Kansas mill. 2 Possibly they may have been abandoned 
by early settlers who came up the Missouri river. 

One of the first needs of the early settlers was a milP of some sort upon 
which to grind the grain produced into suitable form for home consumption. 
Consequently the first mills were established as a necessity to society 
rather than as a manufacturing enterprise for profit. These early mills 
were usually built in connection with sawmills, and located on small streams 
which could furnish the necessary water power. They were usually equipped 
with one or two run of stone buhrs and a hexagon reel. The earliest of 
these custom or gristmills ground more corn than wheat. In some cases a 
toll of from one-eighth to one-twelfth of the grain was taken; in others the 
settler's "grist" was ground and a fee of from twenty-five cents to thirty- 
five cents per bushel charged. 

The "exchange" mill, or the custom of exchanging wheat for flour, was 
of later origin. In this case the farmer received a given amount of patent 

Note 1. — Leslie Arthur Fitz was born on a farm near Vinland, Douglas county, Kan- 
sas, October 2, 1875. His father, George Thompson Fitz, was born in Cambridge, Mass., 
came to Kansas in 1859, and during the Civil War served three and a half years in the 
Second and Ninth Kansas regiments. His mother, Laura E. Du Mars, was born in Erie 
county, Pennsylvania, and came to Kansas in 1857. Leslie attended school in the Stony 
Point, No. 3, district, Douglas county, and graduated in 1902 from the Kansas State 
Agricultural College with the degree of B. S. May 1, 1902, he entered the service of the 
United States Department of Agriculture, prior to which time he had farmed and taught 
school in Douglas county, having worked his way through college. During his govern- 
ment service he was located in Kansas, California, Washington, D. C, Baltimore, Chicago^ 
Duluth, Minneapolis and North Dakota, his specialty being field work with small grains, 
testing, selecting and hybridizing introduced and native varieties, grain standardization, 
and the commercial handling and grading of grain. He became a pi-ofessor at the Agri- 
cultural College March 1, 1910. October 6, 1904, he married Nellie C. Hemmart, of Hal- 
stead, Kan. 

Note 2. — An account of the finding of these buhrs was published in the Kansas City 
Journal, October 29, 1908. The first mill in Doniphan county was provided for in the 
treaty of 1836 with the Iowa Indians. It was built about 1838, at a cost of $2800, and 
was situated on Mill creek, which derived its name from the mill, a small stream that 
puts into Cedar creek above Iowa Point. The mill was burned by the Indians and the 
buhrs used as stepping stones in Mill creek. The Iowa Point mill was built in 1857. 

Note 3. — For accounts of some early Kansas mills, see "History of Manufactures in the 
Kansas District," by R. L. Douglas, in Historical Collections, vol. 11, p. 81. 

54 Kansas State Historical Society. 

flour, usually thirty-two to thirty-five pounds, for each bushel of wheat, 
and the miller retained the lower grades and by-products. The "merchant" 
mill, where the grain is bought and the flour and by-products sold outright, 
belongs to the present-day methods. 

The earliest grist and sawmill of which we have any record was built in 
Wyandotte by Matthias Splitlog, an Indian, in 1852. This mill was run by 
water power, and was indeed a very primitive affair. Later, in 1858, John 
McAlpine and James Washington erected the first steam flour and sawmill 
in Wyandotte county. 

In Leavenworth county the first gristmill was built in January, 1855, in 
what was then known as "Slab Town" (East Leavenworth). The firm of 
Panton & Yohe erected a combined grist and sawmill, where they offered to 
grind corn "at the most reasonable terms." 

It may be of interest to note in passing that the original company, which 
developed in 1869 into what is now the well-known Great Western Manu- 
facturing Company, was organized in Leavenworth in 1858.^ 

The following item^ serves to show something of the primitive methods 
to which the early settlers of Osage county were compelled to resort, in 
1856, in order to obtain flour or meal for subsistence: 

"As soon as corn had become hard enough to be grated, holes were 
punched in the bottoms of tin pans and the corn was grated from the cob. 
Previous to that time Absalom W. Hoover had made a hand mill of lime- 
stones. After the corn became ripe and hard this mill was kept running 
constantly, settlers coming many miles to grind their corn here." 

Even nearly ten years later, although conditions had improved wonder- 
fully, they were still far from satisfactory, as an incident related by Mr. C. 
Hoffman, 8 one of our pioneer millers in western Kansas, will show. In 1865 
Mr. Hoffman went to Council Grove with a load of wheat to have it ground 
into flour. On arriving at Council Grove he found the mill was closed, and 
he was forced to drive to Burlingame, making a total distance of about 200 
miles, to secure flour for family use. 

It is quite difficult to find out much about some of the early mills that 
were established for a time and then abandoned or dismantled. We are in- 
debted to the Milling and Grain News, of Kansas City,"^ for the following 
item regarding one of the first of these: 

" Recent investigations made by the Milling and Grain News show that 
the first bolted flour made in Kansas was manufactured in 1857, at Blue 
Mound, Douglas county, seven miles southeast of Lawrence, by John W. 
Willey, jr., who is now a resident of Kansas City, and in talking to a rep- 
resentative of Milling and Grain Netvs he detailed with vivid remembrance 
the early days when his father, mother and himself emigrated from Indiana 
to Kansas and started the first milling business, which has now developed 

Note 4. — "The great Western Manufacturing Company was established in 1858, as 
Maison, Willson & Co., the firm consisting of A. F. Maison, E. P. Willson and P. Estes. 
In 1860 Mr. Maison retired, Willson and Estes continuing the business. ' In 1865 D. F. 
Fairchild purchased a third interest, and the style of the firm name became Willson, 
Estes & Fairchild until 1869, when John Willson became a partner, and the present style 
of 'Great Western Manufacturing Company' was adopted." The output of the company 
consists of flour-mill machinery, stationary and portable engines, sawmills, pumps, mining 
machinery, ironwork, water wheels, and general mill furnishings. — Cutler's History of 
Kansas, 1883, p. 434. 

Note 5.— Ibid., p. 1531. 

Note 6. — For brief sketch of Mr. Hoffman, see Historical Collections, vol. 11, p. 151. 

Note 7. — Issue of January 7, 1909. 

The Milling Industry in Kansas. 55 

into the state's greatest industry. Mr. Willey remembers the old windmill « 
which stood near Lawrence and was operated for some time by Wilder & 
Palm, but this mill, which it has been claimed was the oldest in the state, 
was not built until 1859, and burned down in 1870 and was not rebuilt. 

"As far as known, the first bolted flour made in Kansas was that manu- 
factured in a mill at Blue Mound seven miles southeast of Lawrence, fifty- 
two years ago next autumn. John W. Willey, sr. , and his son, John W. 
Willey, jr., built the mill. It was a combination institution, being used 
for a sawmill, in which materials for the houses and other buildings of the 
early settlers were made, as well as for a gristmill, where bolted flour was 
made. Shingles also were rived out here. 

"The elder Willey and his son left Retreat, Ind., a little town on the 
Jeffersonville & Indianapolis railroad, about March 1, 1857, for Kansas. 
Twenty days later they landed in Wyandotte, and, proceeding at once to 
Blue Mound, seven miles southeast of Lawrence, bought a claim and picked 
out a site for a mill on the Wakarusa creek. The location was on the farm 
owned by Robert Irwin. The father returned to Indiana, and, securing the 
machinery for the mill, shipped it as far as possible by rail and then loaded 
it on a boat for Kansas City, where it landed sometime in August. They 
hauled the equipment for the pioneer flouring mill overland from Kansas 
City to Blue Mound, hewed out timbers for a frame, erected a mill, which 
was a combination sawmill and gristmill, sawed the lumber to board up the 
framework, and began the manufacture of those two great essentials to the 
pioneer settler— flour and building material. 

"Before this institution, however, there were mills grinding whole wheat 
flour or Graham flour. One of these was at Leavenworth," where a pair of 
French buhrs were used in grinding wheat and corn. The corn then was 
ground at the rate of twenty to thirty bushels an hour, and each customer 
had to place his grist at the hopper and take his meal sacks to the spot 
where they were filled. People in those days would come to mill a distance 
of fifty and seventy-five miles, and would camp, awaiting their turns, some 
times a week or ten days, owing to a rush of business at the mill. 

"Mills in those days were run with two shifts of hands, one night and 
the other day. After the Willey mill had run for several years, furnishing 
the settlers with flour and lumber, a shingle machine was attached to the 

The following item from the Everest Enterprise tells of the first ship- 
ment of flour from Kansas territory. Nothing is said about the quality or 
grade, but it was probably a Graham flour: 

"The old town of Palermo, in Doniphan county, had the distinction of 
having made the first shipment of flour out of Kansas territory. The ship- 
ment was made in September, 1858, on the steamer 'Minnehaha,' and 
consisted of one hundred sacks It was manufactured at the mill of Ma- 

NOTE 8. — "In 1863 Messrs. Wilder and Palm established what is now known as the 
Lawrence Agricultural Works. The motive power is a genuine Holland windmill, erected 
in the same year by mechanics brought over from Sweden by Mr. Palm (himself a native 
of Sweden). . . . The mill is an octagon-shaped building, four stories high, with 
stone basement and a frame superstructure, the windmill proper having an eighty-foot 
sweep. At an outlay of $9700 the mill was completed and put in operation as a gristmill, 
with two run of buhrs, or a capacity of twenty bushels per hour. . . . Additional 
buildings were erected for the manufacture of agricultural implements." — Cutler's History 
of Kansas, p. 330. 

The first plow made in Kansas is said to have been cast here. This mill burned April 
29, 1905. 

Note 9. — "The first flour mill erected in the town [Leavenworth] was built in 1857 by 
Earle & Bunbing, on the northwest corner of Main and Short streets. . . . This was 
before the days of the roller mills. There were three or four sets of buhrs in the mill, 
with all necessary machinery and bolts for making first-class flour, which they did. 
Prior to that time all the flour used in the town and vicinity was brought here from 
Weston and Platte City, Mo., or shipped here from St. Louis by steamboat. Owmg to 
the scarcity of wheat raised in this vicinity at that time and the large capital required to 
compete successfully with the mills in Missouri, . . . the mill failed to prove a paymg 
investment." — Early History of Leavenworth, H. Miles Moore, 1906, p. 193. 

56 Kansas State Historical Society. 

han & Kimber.ioat Palermo, from wheat raised in Kansas territory. It 
was consigned to Mahan & Kimber's agent, Culver Hiatt, at St. Joe. Reg- 
ular consignments were made by this firm to Hiatt thereafter." 

The story of another early mill, which did a thriving business and sup- 
plied the needs of many pioneers, is related in a very entertaining manner 
by Mr. A. B. Whiting, of Topeka. In substance, the facts related are as 
follows : 

"In the years lH55-'56 the New England Emigrant Aid Company, of 
Boston, sent several steam mills to Kansas for the benefit of the free-state 
settlers. They located them at points promising to be business centers, 
Atchison, Topeka, Lawrence and Manhattan each getting one. By far the 
largest and best was sent to Quindaro and unloaded from the steamboat 
at the landing there. During the border war a party of ruflSans rolled the 
two big boilers into the Missouri river and threw in such machinery as a 
drunken gang could handle. However, the Yankee shippers had carefully 
plugged the inlets of the boilers, so they failed to fill and sink, and all the 
machinery was recovered later. 

"In the spring of 1858 the Bachelder Town Company (now Milford, in 
Geary county), including such prominent Riley county men as S. D. Hous- 
ton, B. E. Fullington and Abraham Barry, made a deal with the New Eng- 
land Aid Company, giving them a share of the town site for the milling 
machinery at Quindaro. Some pieces of this were so heavy that it was 
impossible to haul it by wagon over thei roads and through the fords as they 
existed at that time. Fortunately, the Kaw river was then a navigable 
stream, and a boat was secured to bring the machinery to Manhattan and 
unload it on a sand bar up the Blue river some eighty rods from its mouth. 
From there it was hauled across the country on wagons to its destination 
on the Republican river. Here it was finally sold to three men on long-time 
payments, and they set it up equipped as a sawmill at a cost of some $6000. 
For three years it did a splendid business, and Junction City in its early 
days was built mostly of lumber from this mill. 

"Finally the mill company failed, leaving the Town Company a mortgage 
on the property, and a dozen judgments to be killed or satisfied. Time ard 
the courts did this. In 1863 the writer bought the plant at a small figure, 
under contract to build and operate a flouring mill at the place. The Union 
Pacific Railroad had located its main line up the Republican and across the 
mill site, and the outlook seemed promising, for the railroad had filed its 
claims for land withdrawals for a hundred miles up the river. However, 
after the plans and contracts for buildings and machinery were too far 
along to be changed, the railroad company changed their route, went up the 
Smoky Hill instead, and left the mill to its fate. 

"In the fall of 1866, the mill, with a daily capacity to grind 300 bushels 
of wheat, anjd more corn, was in operation, and for the next nine years 
never made but one shut-down of over two weeks. It ran night and day a 
great deal of the time. Compared with our mills of to-day it was but a 
small affair, but under frontier conditions then existing no other mill in 
Kansas ran so continuously or drew patronage from so large a territory as 
this mill at Milford in the later sixties. 

"In addition to the grain ground, the sawmill, which was run by the 
same engine, cut from two to three million feet of lumber in the course of 
ten years. 

"The business was discontinued in 1880, and about that time came the 
change from stone buhrs to steel rolls, and the mill was dismantled, the 
buhrs going to Kansas City and the boilers to Junction City." 

Here and there we find a pioneer mill that changed systems as improve- 
ments were made, but still retained the same management, as the property 
was handed down from father to son until the present day. Probably the 

Note 10. — Mahan & Kimber built the first flour mill in Kansas territory, in 1855-'56, at 
Palermo. — Historical Collections, vol. 11, p. xviii. 

The Milling Industry in Kansas. 57 

oldest and best known is the Emporia Water Mills, more familiarly spoken 
of as Soden's mill. Cutler's history 11 tells us that the first flour manu- 
factured in Lyon county was made in August, 1858, by W. T. Soden. His 
mill was located in what is now Pike township, then Cottonwood township. 
In the spring of 1860 he sold this mill and came to Emporia, where he built 
the Emporia Water Mill. This had one run of buhrs and a capacity of 200 
bushels daily. Every year since that time this mill has made and marketed 

The original building in which the first flour was ground stands to-day, 
though very little of it is visible from the outside, it being almost com- 
pletely surrounded by the several additions which have been built as the 
business grew. This pioneer building is of typical frontier-settler construc- 
tion. The main timbers show the marks of the hand ax, having been hewn 
out by hand from trees cut in the immediate vicinity of the mill. Much of 
the lumber, including the weatherboarding, is of walnut, showing how 
plentiful this class of material was in the early days. Flour has been ground 
in this mill on almost every system from the old stone buhrs to the present- 
day roller system. 

Soden's mill became one of the landmarks in the country about Emporia, 
the pioneers coming for miles in all directions with their grists to mill, and 
many of the early settlers of this section and the western country made 
Soden's mill their camping ground on their way to their future homes. 

In 1899 W. T. Soden retired from active management, and was succeeded 
by his son, J. R. Soden, who still manages and operates the plant, which 
makes the "Five Roses" flour. 

Another pioneer mill, which is probably the oldest mill in the state still 
operated by the man who built it, was located at Marysville, in 1864, by 
Perry Hutchinson. He built a rather elaborate tunnel, or water way, to 
carry the water from the Blue river over to his mill site. On the first floor 
WitS a sawmill, while on the second floor were two run of stone, upon which 
custom work was done. The capacity was 300 bushels every twenty-four 
hours. The original mill was on the east side of the river, but in 1867 it 
was rebuilt on the west side. In 1868 five run of stone were put in and the 
capacity increased to 125 barrels per day. In 1881-'82 a full roller mill was 
installed, which resulted in a capacity of 250 barrels every twenty-four 
hours. This was at least one of the very first full roller mills west of the 
Missouri river. It burned down in 1905 and was rebuilt in 1906, equipped 
with eight double stand of 9x30-inch rolls, with 300 barrels daily capacity, 
and Mr. Hutchinson still sells "The Best" flour. 

Another one of the well-known mills of the state was built by Mr. C. 
Hoffman, at Enterprise, in 1868. A dam was built across the Smoky Hill 
river and a mill grinding 300 bushels per day immediately erected. This 
mill was farthest west of any in the state at that time. Later, as the char- 
acter of the wheat began to change and improvements were made in mill 
machinery, the old stone buhrs were replaced by rolls. These rolls were 
much different in form from the present styles. In many cases some of the 
stones were removed and the grinding was done partly on rolls and partly 
on stones. 

In 1881 a new mill was built by Mr. Hoffman, and two rolls were used, 

Note H.— Cutler's History of Kansas, 1883, p. 851. 

58 Kansas State Historical Society. 

one on bran and one on germ middlings. In 1883 the four stone buhrs used 
in breaking the wheat were displaced by rolls. The arrangement of the 
machinery was very different from that now found in a modern mill. In- 
stead of having all the rolls on one floor, the sifters on another and the 
purifiers on still another, the rolls in this mill were arranged on floors one 
above the other, and under each set of rolls was a shaker screen which 
separated the middlings from the rest of the stock. The use of the rolls 
resulted in an increased production of high-grade flour from a bushel of 
wheat, and this soon forced all the Kansas mills to install rolls. 

The first flour shipped outside of the state by Mr. Hoffman went to 
Sherman, Tex., in 1873, three cars being shipped to a broker at that point. 
Prior to that time the mill had been run on "grist" or "toll" trade, the 
average toll being one-sixth of the wheat brought in, or twenty-five cents 
per bushel, for grinding, and the farmer usually received about thirty-two 
pounds of flour per bushel of wheat. 

Flour costs were arrived at in a much simpler manner than at present, 
the basis being to sell 100 pounds of a "straight-grade" flour at three 
times the cost of a bushel of wheat, i. e., if wheat was 90 cents per bushel, 
"straight-grade" flour was sold at $2.70 per hundredweight. 

The first export flour was sold by Mr. Hoffman in 1882, and was con- 
signed to a firm in Antwerp, Belgium. This was probably the first ship- 
ment of export flour from Kansas. It is of more than passing interest to 
note that C. Hoffman & Sons Milling Company still ship large quantities of 
flour to this same firm. 

The greatest influence affecting the development of the milling industry 
in Kansas has undoubtedly been the marked growth in her wheat industry. 
In 1870 there were less than two and one-half million bushels of wheat 
raised in the state, while in 1880 it had increased to over twenty-five mil- 
lion bushels, and by 1890 the amount was nearly thirty million bushels. ^^ 
During the last ten years the total production has fluctuated between fifty- 
four million and ninety-four million bushels, with an average of over 
seventy-eight million. '^ 

However, the milling industry of Kansas has developed primarily be- 
cause of the quality of Kansas wheat rather than because of the large 
quantity. Nearly forty years ago the Mennonite settlers coming into 
Marion county brought with them from Russia a small amount of seed 
wheat. This was a hard red winter wheat, called "Turkey. "i* It proved 
to be so well adapted to soil and climatic conditions that ic multiplied 
rapidly and soon spread to adjoining counties. Thus began the first steps 
in revolutionizing the whole wheat industry of Kansas. ^^ The early settlers 
had located chiefly in the valleys along the streams in the eastern portion 
of the state, and as little or nothing was then known of hard winter wheat, 
practically all wheat farmers grew the soft varieties. Big 'May, Little May, 
Fultz, Mediterranean, Canada Club and other common varieties made up 
the grists which the pioneer mills ground upon the old stone buhrs. The 

Note 12. — Fifteenth Biennial Report, State Board of Agriculture, p. 1196. 
Note 13. — Seventeenth Biennial Report, State Board of Agriculture, p. 992. 
Note 14. — Fifteenth Biennial Report, State Board of Agriculture, p. 945. 
Note 15. — Historical Collections, vol. 11, p. 151. 

The Milling Industry in Kansas. 59 

mills were equipped to grind this kind of wheat, and the housewives were 
accustomed to flour made from it. When the millers attempted to grind the 
hard Turkey wheat upon the stone buhrs then in use they experienced con- 
siderable difficulty, and when the housewives tried to make bread from this 
flour they had even greater difficulty. Consequently most millers rejected 
Turkey wheat as unfit for milling purposes; but here and there we find a 
miller who persisted in his efforts to solve the problem of making a satis- 
factory flour from it. There were at least two important reasons for the 
millers wishing to grind Turkey wheat, viz. : It could be bought much 
cheaper at that time than the soft wheat, and its chemical analysis indi- 
cated that it would make a flour of high gluten content, i" The latter 
quality caused a great demand for Kansas flour for export. Thus we see 
the introduction of hard wheat gave an impetus to our wheat industry, 
which resulted in a surplus for our mills and also supplied the character of 
flour in demand. 

Kansas flour is demanded not only abroad but also in neighboring states. " 
Colorado imported one and a half million dollars' worth of flour in 1909, and 
most of this came from Kansas wheat. Experts estimate that one-half the 
bread eaten in Denver and four-fifths of that in Pueblo is made from Kan- 
sas hard winter wheat flour. 

All this increase in the wheat supply and in the demand for Kansas flour 
has resulted in Kansas having more good, well-equipped mills to-day than 
any other state in the Union. The first census of Kansas territory, taken 
in 1860, shows only thirty-six flour and gristmills, with the average capital 
invested as a little over $3000 and the output valued at about $300,000. The 
next decade saw the number of mills practically trebled, while the average 
capital invested and the value of the output were multiplied by nine. The 
number of mills kept on increasing until we finally had, in 1876, 330 mills. 
This number has since decreased, the number of small mills decreasing and 
the number of larger ones increasing, until the census for 1910 shows 255 
reporting the manufacture of wheat flour. The total number of barrels 
of flour produced was 10,887,744, of which 10,858,960 was white flour and 
28,780 Graham flour. The total value of the flour was $52,589,613. 

We have 18 mills with a capacity of 1000 to 2000 barrels, 34 with a ca- 
pacity of 500 to 900 barrels, and 119 with a capacity of 100 to 400 barrels. 
The remainder have a capacity of less than 100 barrels. The towns which 
lead in milling are Kansas City, Kan., with a daily capacity of 10,800 bar- 
rels; Topeka, 3750 barrels; Wichita, 3460 barrels; Wellington, 3050 barrels; 
Hutchinson, 2600 barrels; Leavenworth, 2250 barrels; Coffey ville, 1950 bar- 
rels; Salina, 1925 barrels; Arkansas City, 1550 barrels; Atchison, 1450 bar- 
rels; Newton, 1070 barrels; McPherson, 1070 barrels; Enterprise, 1050 

Many of the above figures fluctuate from year to year, but they serve to 
give a general idea of the present milling industry of Kansas. 

Note 16. — "Kansas hard-wheat flour has qualities that are hard to get from wheat 
grown in any other section of the country, and that is the strength of the flour. It is 
very glutinous wheat, and is full of strength." — The New Kansas Magazine, Feb., 1892, p. 7. 

Note 17. — "Western Kansas ships much wheat to California millers, and western and 
central Kansas mills do a large flour trade to the Pacific." — Millers' Almanack, 1911- li. 
p. 15. 

60 Kansas State Historical Society. 


An address by Edwin H. Webster,' Dean of Agriculture, State Agricultural College, before- 
the Kansas State Historical Society, at its thirty-fifth annual meeting, December 6, 1910. 

WHAT a story it tells of conquest and failure ! The feature in which we 
may rejoice is that the failures have been in a large measure over- 
come, and to-day Kansas is, agriculturally speaking, a wonderful success. 
Ushered in with the great drought of 1860, met along the way by grass- 
hoppers, chinch bugs, cyclones and blizzards, the name of Kansas became a 
joke in many quarters of the country. The prosperous years since the 
nineties have made it a name to conjure by in this day, when Kansas has 
more money in her banks and more students in her colleges than has any 
other state in proportion to population. 

It is not the purpose of this article to dig up the skeleton or to write 
with any undue enthusiasm of Kansas' present prosperity, but to state a 
few facts in plain English for the earnest thought of the present genera- 
tion of young men who are to be the farmers of the future Kansas. "There 
is nothing that succeeds like success." There is nothing that so blinds 
one's power of perception and reason as success attributed to wrong causes. 
That too many Kansans have attributed our success to the wrong cause is a 
question worthy of consideration. The most apparent factors of our 
present-day success are the rise of the value of Kansas land and the rise in 
value of things the farmer has to sell. 

During the sixties, seventies and eighties Uncle Sam was giving the 
virgin soil of the state to whomsoever came. With a great domain to be 
had for the asking, the actual value of land was an uncertain quantity. If 
A. asked too much for his land, B. went farther west and homesteaded; 
hence A. could not arrive at any definite conclusion as to the actual value of 
his land. During the late eighties, however, the greater part of the avail- 
able land was taken up. Then came the period in the nineties when values 
of everything fell flat, due to the panic of 1893 and the long time necessary 
to recover from this shock. The years 1893 and 1894 mark the darkest days 
Kansas has ever known. Added to a crop failure over most of the state 
were the low prices of everything the farmer had to sell. Since 1893 there 
has been a gradual and almost uninterrupted rise in the values of all com- 
modities. It took several years for this influence to reach the land itself, 
but when it did, about 1900, there began an activity in this direction that 
has continued until the present time. Men who had valued their land at $10 
to $25 an acre suddenly found it worth from $15 to $40, then from $25 to $60, 

Note 1. — Edwin Harrison Webster was born near Yates Center, Woodson county, 
Kansas, February 25, 1871. His father was Rufus D. Webster, born in New York state 
in 1839, and his mother Harriet Edwards, born in Indiana in 1850. The father died at 
Fairfax, Va., December, 1910 ; the mother is still living. Edwin Harrison Webster gradu- 
ated from the Kansas State Agricultural College in 1896. He has done scientific work as 
professor of dairying, Kansas State Agricultural College, and chief of Dairy Division, 
United States Department of Agriculture. He is now director of Experiment Station, 
Kansas State Agricultural College. He married, April 10, 1900, Eleanor Fryhofer, of 
Randolph, Kan. They have one daughter. His father's people came from England some- 
time between 1620 and 1700, settling in New England. His mother's people came from 
Wales about 1800. 

Fifty Years of Kansas Agriculture. 61 

•later from $40 to $100, and still later from $75 to $150 an acre in many 

The value of the farm products showed a corresponding increase in value. 
In 1893 corn was worth 10 to 15 cents a bushel and wheat 30 to 40 cents. 
From 1907 to 1911 corn was worth from 40 to 60 cents a bushel and wheat 
75 cents to $1.'- 

The man in 1893 on a 160-acre farm that was worth $3000, and mortgaged for 
nearly that amount, with a failure of corn and wheat, worth 12 and 40 cents, 
respectively, was a wholly different being from the same man in 1908 on 
the same 160-acres, worth $10,000, mortgaged possibly for '$2500, with corn 
and wheat worth, respectively, 50 and 90 cents. In the first case the farmer 
had absolutely no credit at the bank or at the store; he had practically 
nothing to sell, and could get little or nothing for what he had. In the 
other case his credit was A-1 at the bank and he needed to ask for only tem- 
porary credit at the store. 

There is no denying the fact that this farmer in 1908 was infinitely better 
off than he was in 1893. His credit had increased with the increased value 
of his land. In 1893 he was mortgaged to the limit; in 1908 he could borrow 
two or three times as much on the same land. This fact gave him a feeling 
of independence and power to act in financial matters. His crops were 
bringing him from two to three times what they did in 1893, and the ready 
cash paid his bills, bought modern improvements for his home, and provided 
him witn an automobile. 

The two principal reasons given for our agricultural advancement are 
change of climate and better farming. The first of these— change of cli- 
mate—is given as a reason by many who ought to know better. The 
weather records of Kansas do not show any appreciable change in climate. 
There is to-day no more rainfall, nor less wind, than Kansas had fifty years 
.ago. It is neither hotter nor colder, on an average, than it was then. 
There has been a change, but that change is not one of climate. It is one 
of surface conditions. The breaking up of the prairies has caused more of 
the rain to go into the soil, which in turn has modified the reflection of 
heat, thus lessening the tendency to hot winds. Trees cover large areas 
which were once entirely without timber. The presence of trees has modi- 
fied the climate to some extent, by breaking up the surface winds, retard- 
ing rainfall and modifying the humidity of the air. Such modifications of 
climate as have been noted are due to man's control of the elements, and 
not due to any fundamental change in the climate itself. 

The term "dry farming" has come into existence in the past few years. 
This is not farming without water, but farming by the utilization of all the 
water that falls, thus enabling the farmer to take advantage of the situa- 
tion and to force the elements to work for him instead of against him. The 
greatest change in Kansas agriculture is due to this ability of man to con- 
trol things that fifty years ago he knew nothing about. 

The second reason for our agricultural advancement— better farming- 
is worthy of most careful consideration. The explanation given above for 

Note 2. — Kansas has a population of 1,690,949, an approximate land area of 52,335,360 
acres, with a land area in farms of 43,384,799 acres. The value of all farm property is 
$2,039,389,910, of which the land alone is worth $1,537,976,573. There are 111,108 farms 
in the state operated by their owners, and of these 60,682 are reported free from mort- 
gage debt. The value of domestic animals is $245,926,421, of poultry and bees $7,596,081, 
and of all crops $203,075,000. — U. S. Census, 1910, Agricultural Bulletin. _ 

62 Kansas State Historical Society. 

the apparent change in climatic conditions is a factor in better farming. It 
would not be amiss in this connection to call attention to the statistical 
evidence at hand, and analyze that evidence in the light of the facts which 
it reveals. The chart (opposite p. 64) shows a graphic story of corn and of 
wheat from 1862 to 1911. Here is pictured the yield of corn and of wheat 
per acre, the price of corn and of wheat per bushel, the gross income from 
corn and from wheat per acre, and the number of acres planted to corn and 
to wheat in the state. This chart tells an interesting story, and to those 
who have lived long enough in Kansas to have experienced the ups and 
downs through which the state has passed it will spell tragedy and comedy 
as they study the variations shown. Here is pictured our successes and our 
failures. It is not my purpose to explain why yields have varied so ma- 
terially, nor why prices have varied year by year, but to draw some conclu- 
sions from the general tendencies shown in the chart, which represent fifty 
years of corn and of wheat growing. 

Yield per Acre.— It will not take very much studying for one to deter- 
mine that our yield per acre has not increased, but has rather decreased, 
during the past fifty years. Taking a period of time before 1893 equal to 
the time since 1893, and the chart shows that there has been a decreasing 
yield per acre rather than an increasing one. This fact is well understood 
by those who are making a careful study of our present agricultural condi- 
tions.-* What of our boast that we are doing better farming, in the light of 
the facts revealed by this chart? It seems quite certain that the prosperity 
which Kansas has enjoyed for the past eight or ten years can not be at- 
tributed to an increased yield of wheat or of corn per acre. 

Value of Corn and Wheat per Bushel. —The lines representing the value 
of corn and of wheat per bushel contain much interesting information. 
During the war times prices reached unprecedented heights. During the 
seventies and eighties there was a gradual decline in prices, until in 1893, 
1894 and 1895 corn and wheat touched the lowest price per bushel that the 
state has ever known. From 1894 to 1911 wheat has steadily risen in value, 
and from 1896 to 1911 corn has shown the same tendency, both crops being 
worth more than double the value per bushel in 1911 than in the early 
nineties. In these figures are to be found the explanation of Kansas pros- 
perity during the last decade. By combining the price per bushel with the 
number of bushels per acre we get the result shown in the chart indicating 
the income per acre. Here, more graphically than elsewhere, is shown the 
tendency of Kansas agriculture during the fifty years of her history. A 
line drawn through the chart from the sixties until the early nineties shows 
a constantly decreasing income per acre for both wheat and corn. Continu- 
ing this line until 1911, it shows a constantly increasing income per acre for 
the period between 1894 and 1911. The decline in income per acre from the 
sixties until the nineties is due to a combination of declining prices and de- 

NOTE 3. — "In 1907 Germany and Kansas each sowed 5,200,000 acres of wheat, and 
from their 5,200,000 acres of rejuvenated soil German farmers reaped 145,000,000 bushels, 
while from our 5,200,000 acres of virgin soil Kansas farmers reaped but 68,000,000 bushels. 
France is the size of our three greatest wheat-producing states — Kansas, Minnesota and 
North Dakota. In 1907 France sowed 16,000,000 acres to wheat, as did these three states. 
Since the introduction of beet culture French soils have been so rejuvenated that from her 
16,000,000 acres of wheat French farmers harvested 325,000,000 bushels, while from our 
16,000,000 acres the farmers of Kansas, Minnesota and North Dakota harvested but 188,- 
000,000 bushels."^ — Testimony before the Committee on Finance, U. S. Senate. 

Fifty Years of Kansas Agriculture. 63 

creased yield per acre. From 1890 until 1911 the increased income per acre 
is due solely to the increased value of the products per bushel. 

Value of Land.— It is not possible to gather accurate figures as to the 
value of land in Kansas from 1862 to 1911, but in a general way it is well 
known that the value of land decreased during the eighties, and that it 
reached a point in the early nineties at which, in many parts of the state, 
land practically had no trading value. From 1890 to 1911 land has doubled, 
and even quadrupled, in value. Land that in the nineties sold for from $10 
to $20 per acre in 1911 sold for from $40 to $75 per acre. 

The effect that this increase in value has had upon the farmers of the 
state has already been discussed. Taking into account this fact, together 
with the increased income per acre because of the increased prices per bushel, 
and contrasting this with what is practically a diminishing ratio in yield per 
acre, there is material for consideration by the residents of the state. The 
analysis of these facts shows one thing above all else, and that is that the 
prosperity which Kansas enjoys to-day is due largely to things external. 
The farmer has had no part in causing the rise in value of farm products, 
or in the value of the land which he occupies. The only factor over which 
he has control, that of yield per acre, shows that he has not exercised that 
control as he should. It has been demonstrated by experiments in many 
parts of the state that the yield of both corn and wheat can be doubled. In 
other words, Kansas should be growing to-day from twenty to twenty-five 
bushels of wheat and from forty to sixty bushels of corn instead of thirteen 
bushels of wheat and twenty-three bushels of corn. This fact is well worth 
the most careful consideration of every young man in Kansas who expects 
to farm. 

The value of land to the farmer who occupies it for farming purposes 
should be based upon its producing capacity. Land that ten years ago was 
worth $25 an acre, and is to-day selling for $75, is producing in bushels 
no more wheat or corn than it did ten years ago. The man who buys this 
land at $75 an acre and harvests thirteen bushels of wheat has three times 
the capital invested that he had ten years ago. His bushel income remains 
the same. If the farmer had control over the price that he obtains for his 
crop of wheat or corn he might be able to insure an income on the 75-dollar 
land equal to what he had on the 25-dollar land, but the farmer does not 
have control of this factor. Any serious disturbance in the business 
world might easily reduce the price of a bushel of wheat or a bushel 
of corn to one-half of the price reported in 1911. The measure of the 
farmer's intelligence and progressiveness is shown in his ability to produce 
an increased acre yield and not in the price received per bushel. That 
farmers of the state are beginning to think along this line is shown by the 
ever- increasing demand for information, by increasing interest in farmers' 
institutes and other educational associations in which the farmer may gain 
information for use in his farming operations, and by the growing demand 
for the best literature on agricultural topics. 

The young men of to-day who have given the question of agriculture 
any serious thought are turning to the farm as one of the best and surest 
means of livelihood that may be found in the state. They recognize that 
the farmer's future success depends upon his ability to increase his unit of 
production, and the young man who begins farming with this knowledge 

64 Kansas State Historical Society. 

has every prospect for a successful career. On the other hand, the young 
man who begins where his father left off, the young man who does not 
recognize the tendency of the times, the young man who thinks that our 
present success in Kansas is due to some mysterious process of nature, the 
young man who does not recognize that he must follow up-to-date scientific 
methods in his work, is the young man who will help to hold the general 
average of Kansas agriculture at its lowest level. To this type of young 
man, high-priced land with low-yielding capacity does not offer any great 
hope for the future. In the efforts that are being put forth by the agri- 
cultural press and by many of our local county papers, in the extension 
work that is being done by the Agricultural College, and in the young men 
who attend the agricultural colleges in this and other states— in these lies 
the hope for the future. All of these tendencies are combining with greater 
force to compel the young man who is to be the farmer of the future to 
study our present conditions, to see the need of more intensive and intelli- 
gent farming, and to realize that in such farming there lies for him and for 
those like him such a future as can be offered in no other work in life. 

The story of corn and wheat through the fifty years of the state's his- 
tory represents accurately the story of Kansas agriculture as a whole. 
These two great staple crops are the money crops of the state. As their 
values fluctuate because of price or of yield, so do the values of live stock 
and other conditions change. 

For the purposes of this article it is enough to point out the great over- 
powering facts: that the yield per acre has diminished in fifty years, that 
the value of land has increased enormously since the nineties, and that our 
future progress in agriculture must be based, not on greater increase in the 
value of farm crops, but in a greater yield per acre of these commodities. 

-64 Kansas State Historical Society. 

has every prospect for a successful career. On the other hand, the young 
man who begins where his father left off, the young man who does not 
recognize the tendency of the times, the young man who thinks that our 
present success in Kansas is due to some mysterious process of nature, the 
young man who does not recognize that he must follow up-to-date scientific 
methods in his work, is the young man who will help to hold the general 
average of Kansas agriculture at its lowest level. To this type of young 
man, high-priced land with low-yielding capacity does not offer any great 
hope for the future. In the efforts that are being put forth by the agri- 
cultural press and by many of our local county papers, in the extension 
work that is being done by the Agricultural College, and in the young men 
who attend the agricultural colleges in this and other states— in these lies 
the hope for the future. All of these tendencies are combining with greater 
force to compel the young man who is to be the farmer of the future to 
study our present conditions, to see the need of more intensive and intelli- 
gent farming, and to realize that in such farming there lies for him and for 
those like him such a future as can be offered in no other work in life. 

The story of corn and wheat through the fifty years of the state's his- 
tory represents accurately the story of Kansas agriculture as a whole. 
These two great staple crops are the money crops of the state. As their 
values fluctuate because of price or of yield, so do the values of live stock 
and other conditions change. 

For the purposes of this article it is enough to point out the great over- 
powering facts: that the yield per acre has diminished in fifty years, that 
the value of land has increased enormously since the nineties, and that our 
future progress in agriculture must be based, not on greater increase in the 
value of farm crops, but in a greater yield per acre of these commodities. 




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Kansas State Historical Society. 65 


An address by Earl Leon Shoup. ' of Holton, before the Kansas State Historical Society at 
its thirty-fifth annual meeting, December 6, 1910. 

TZANSAS history of significance is usually thought of as dating from the 
J-^ passage of the Kansas-Nebraska bill, and the inauguration of the 
"storm-and-stress" period in which determined men and Sharp's rifles 
played so important a part. This was a critical time for the future of the 
state. Should the new society transplanted to the western prairies be that 
of the old Puritan type in social, political and educational ideals, or should 
it take its impulse from the institutions of the South? The struggle in 
Kansas was but the conflict of two irreconcilable ideas. The one triumphed; 
and our fifty years of statehood has been a development and an expansion 
of the principles then decided. 

But there is an earlier chapter in Kansas annals fraught with great sig- 
nificance for her subsequent history, and, if anything, more fascinating in 
interest. ' This was the period of the establishing of missions among the 
Indian tribes of the territory. But these must be considered as more than 
attempts to civilize the native. Those pioneer preachers are to be reckoned 
among the factors contributing largely to the Kansas of to-day. 

When the curtain lifted on the Kansas scene almost a century ago'it re- 
vealed a wild and beautiful view — wide expanse of prairie lands; hills and 
valleys covered with tall, waving grass; fringes of timber along the^water- 
courses. The sole inhabitants were the bands of Indians who lived along 
the streams and subsisted by means of the chase. In the east were the 
Kanzas and Osages, and farther west the Pawnees, bands of Cheyennes 
and other western tribes, making frequent incursions on war and hunting 

Two different classes of men looked upon this vision, and each saw a dif- 
ferent possibility. The trader saw the chance of making a fortune through 
bartering his trinkets and bad whisky to the Indians for furs and pelts. 
French traders were the first to arrive, these coming mostly from St. Louis. 
Pierre Chouteau and Manuel Lisa were the most noted of these. 

The missionary conceived more. He saw the Indian lifted from his de- 
graded and miserable life to civilization. Then, too, he thought of Chris- 
tianity : 

"Lo, the poor Indian! whose untutored mind, 
Sees God in clouds, or hears Him in the wind. 

Yet simple Nature to his hope has given, 
Behind the cloud-top't hill, an humble heaven." 

He wished to give him a God. 

Note 1. — Earl Leon Shoup was born at Leon, Butler county, Kansas, May 1, 1886. He 
is the son of Levi H. Shoup, of German descent, who came to Kansas in 1876 and settled 
near Whiting, Jackson county. He was formerly of Bryan, Williams county, Ohio. 
Alice Campbell, the mother, of Irish descent, came to Kansas from Kentucky with her 
parents in 1870 and settled near Whiting. Earl Leon Shoup graduated from Campbell 
College, at Holton, and Washburn College, Topeka, in 1911. He has always lived in 
Kansas, except eleven months in New Mexico. He taught a district school in Jackson 
county, and is now engaged in the county high school at Kingman, Kan. 



66 Kansas State Historical Society. 

Before mentioning the work of the missionaries in particular, it is better 
to give a sketch of one of the most characteristic of them. If one were to 
name the person who above all others had a guiding hand in the Indian af- 
fairs of the territory, it would be Isaac McCoy. 

Born in Pennsylvania and reared in the frontier settlements of Kentucky 
and Indiana, he was peculiarly fitted for the work that he took up. After 
a short time as a young minister he became greatly interested in the con- 
dition of the Indians about him. At his solicitation, he was appointed, in 
1817, the first Baptist missionary to the Indians, and was sent to the Mi- 
amis in Indiana. 

He founded the missions among the Miamis, Ottawas and Pottawatomies 
in Indiana and southern Michigan, drawing about himself a band of young 
workers, among whom were Johnston Lykins, Jotham Meeker and Robert 
Simerwell, who, inspired by their leader, devoted their whole lives to the 
cause of Indian reform, and afterwards formed the nucleus of the Baptist 
missionaries in Kansas. 

McCoy's activities were by no means confined to the work of teaching. 
In 1823 he conceived the scheme of setting aside a large tract of land in the 
West, to which all the Indians of the United States should eventually be 
removed. This he thought to be the only way of saving them from de- 
struction. Here, away from the baleful contact of white men, they could 
be raised to civilization. He had in mind a federation of all the tribes of 
the territory, and finally the formation of an Indian state. 

It was not the scheme of a dreamer; it was formulated by one who knew 
the Indian character as scarcely any other person ever has, and it became 
his life work. Never once, to the day of his death, did he lose sight of his 
one great object— to civilize and Christianize the Indians. To this he de- 
voted himself, unconditionally, all that he had — family, property and friends. 
Space forbids telling of his almost superhuman efforts to bring about suc- 
cess; of his oft-repeated trips to Washington and other cities of the East, 
through the wilderness in the dead of winter; of his frequent addresses in 
all parts of the country; of his lobbying at Washington. Suffice it to say, 
he won the support of John C. Calhoun, Secretary of War, and other in- 
fluential men, members of both branches of Congress, and the result of his 
efforts was the act of May 26, 1830, providing for the removal of the In- 
dians to the West. 

McCoy was appointed surveyor and agent for the removal. He defined 
the boundaries, which include the eastern half of the present state of Kan- 
sas. His scheme also included the establishment of missions and schools 
and the appointment of an adviser to the Indians. Finally, there was to be 
a district set apart for the seat of government of the Indian territory, soon 
to become a state. With almost startling exactness his scheme was carried 
out. In 1837 he was given permission to survey a district of seven square 
miles for the capital. This he located on the Marais de Cygnes river, in 
what is now Miami county.- The town of Osawatomie is located within the 
district assigned for the Indian capital by McCoy. 

He surveyed, or had surveyed, most of the Indian reservations; ^ made 

Note 2. — The Historical Society has in its collections a map of Missouri, 1850, which 
shows a part of the adjacent Indian territory, on which is located the "seat of govern- 
ment," as well as various Indian reservations and villages. 

Note 3. — This work began in 1830, when land for the Delaware Indians was surveyed. 

Indian Missions in Kansas. 67 

treaties, acted as personal adviser for the natives, and on more than one 
occasion prevented intertribal war. McCoy's chief assistants in the survey 
were his sons. Doctor Rice McCoy and John Calvin McCoy, and John Donel- 
son, a nephew of Mrs. Andrew Jackson. 

Soon after the passage of the act a large number of Indians were con- 
gregated in the eastern part of the territory. The total number in the 
whole territory was given as: native tribes, 21,660; emigrant, 73,200; 
total, 94,860. 

About this time their location was something as follows: The Wyandots 
were north of the Kaw river, next to the Missouri. North of these were 
the Delawares, whose villages were near the Kaw; the Kickapoos; and in 
the extreme northeast corner of what is now Kansas were the loways and 
the Sacs and Foxes. South of the river were the Shawnees, Ottawas, 
Pottawatomies, Osages, Quapaws, and the remnants of several tribes. 

Most of these were in the most miserable" condition ; and one of the first 
duties of the missionary was to cooperate with the government officials in 
allaying their distress. This was one of the very important services they 

The churches were not slow in seeing their opportunity, and soon a num- 
ber of mission establishments were in successful operation. Only a few of 
these can be mentioned here. 

Just at this point it is interesting to note that America's first Christian 
martyr, a missionary to the Indians, met his death in Kansas. This was 
Fray Juan de Padilla, a Franciscan friar, who accompanied Coronado on his 
expedition to the Quivira villages. When Coronado returned, Father Juan 
remained behind as a missionary, and was killed by the Pawnees, it is 
thought, in 1542." 

The first missionary station was the one established by the Presbyterians 
on the Neosho river, among the Osages, in 1824 But this and several 
others by the same denomination in these parts were soon abandoned. 

In 1830 the Shawnee Methodist mission was established a few miles 
southwest of where Kansas City now stands, in what is now Johnson county. 
Three large buildings were erected, and in 1855 the so-called "bogus" legis- 
lature met in one of these. This was a manual-labor school; a large farm 
was worked, and Indians taught both to read and to work. Rev. Thomas 
Johnson was the founder, and for most of the time the superintendent. 

Near by was the Shawnee Baptist mission, established in 1831 by the 
Rev. Mr. Lykins; and the Friends' Shawnee mission, begun in 1834. It was 
at the Baptist mission that the first book was printed in Kansas— an Indian 
primer of twenty-four pages, printed by Rev. Jotham Meeker in 1834. He 
afterwards did much printing for the missions and Indian agents. In 1837 
he removed his press to where Ottawa now stands, and founded a mission 
among those Indians, which he faithfully superintended till his death in 1854. 

The Presbyterian station among the lowas and the Sacs and Foxes was 
another important one. This was established in 1837, near the present 
town of Highland, by Rev. Samuel Irvin and wife. 

At the same time that Thomas Johnson was starting his Shawn,ee mis- 
sion his brother, Rev. William Johnson, commenced his labors among the 

Note 4. — For an account of Father Padilla, see Historical Collections, vol. 10, p. 84. 
The Catholic Encyclopedia, 1911, vol. XI, p. 385, gives a brief account of the "proto- 
martyr of the United States." 

68 Kansas State Historical Society. 

Kanzas. He was first at their village, a few miles east of the site of To- 
peka and north of the river. In 1835 he founded the Methodist mission, 
among the same tribe, on Mission creek. There was also a most efficient 
station here, conducted by the Baptists, founded by Dr. Johnston Lykins in 

There were Baptist, Methodist, Presbyterian or Catholic missions among 
the Delawares, Kickapoos, Weas and Piankeshaws, Pottawatomies, Wyan- 
dots, and Sacs and Foxes, which did an aggressive work. There was a Meth- 
odist mission located on the site of Osawatomie,'' which John Brown and 
his men were in a few years to make immortal; also another famous one 
at the old trail town of, Council Grove. « 

But one of the most successful enterprises was the Catholic station on 
the Neosho river, among the Osages. In 1822 Father de La Croix visited 
this tribe and baptised two Indian children— the first ceremony of this kind 
within the state. In 1827, 1829 and 1830 Father Charles Van Quickenborne 
visited the Osages and preached ; and later, in 1847, Rev. John Schoen- 
machers established the Osage mission. Substantial buildings were erected, 
and subsequent success won for the mission the name of the "Cradle of 
civilization in the Neosho valley." 

There were other Catholic missions, but the next in importance was the 
St. Mary's mission, among the Pottawatomies.^ This was a Jesuit station, 
established in 1838 on Pottawatomie creek, in what is now Miami county. 
It was moved into Linn county in 1839, where it remained until the removal 
of the Pottawatomies north of the Kaw in 1849. It was then established at 
St. Mary's, Pottawatomie county. Here an efficient mission school was 
run, with an able corps of teachers, and so continued till 1869. 

From our viewpoint, it seems as if the missionaries were doomed from 
the first to fail. But not so. If the government had always been able to 
keep its promises to the Indians— to have assured them a permanent home, 
and kept out undesirable traders who proved to be the worst of foes to the 
interests of the Red Man— there is every reason to believe that the project 
of Indian reform would have succeeded. There was always a class of men 
who for selfish interest kept before the public and the government an im- 
pression of the futility of any effort to civilize the Indians. 

Many of the schools had as many as fifty pupils, and several had more. 
The young Indians made fine progress; so much as to call forth the wonder 
and praise of government inspectors and chance visitors from the East. 
Those thus trained became the leaders of their tribes; and when they finally 
left Kansas for a home farther south in the territory, they could count, as 
Kansas' only good gift to them, the life service of these consecrated men 
and women missionaries. 

The missionary's contribution to Kansas was more than religious. His 
entrance marked the beginnings of the moral forces in the state. It is 
characteristic of Kansas that in building her foundations she did not think 
only of her material prosperity, and later bring in education and culture; 
but here the teacher preceded even the homesteader. 

Note 5. — This mission was established in 1837, and Frederick B. Leach was appointed 

Note 6. — This mission was established when the Kaws moved to their new reservation, 
and was in charge of T. S. Huflfaker and Rev. Henry Webster. 

Note 7.— Established by Rev. Christian Hoecken. — The Dial, June, 1890, p. 1. 

Progressive Legislation in Kansas. 69 

Some of the more direct services of the missionaries were: religiously, 
they constituted the nuclei of the churches as they developed later, and, 
educationally, they founded the first of the splendid schools for which Kan- 
sas has since become famous. 

The first school of higher learning was the Western Academy, founded 
at the Shawnee Manual Labor School in 1848. It was attended by students 
from eastern Kansas, and there were a score or more of pupils from Mis- 
souri. The first teacher was Rev. Nathan Scarritt. 

Three of our colleges and universities grew directly out of mission 
schools: Highland University, Highland; Ottawa University, Ottawa; and 
and St. Mary's College, St. Marys. 

To the missionaries, also, we owe the first printing plant and the first 
Kansas book. 

Finally, we are indebted to the missionaries for the example of those 
who placed the welfare of men above that of mere gain; men who, without 
hope or thought of pecuniary reward, endured the hardships of savage life 
and remained true to their cause until the end. Surely such are fitting 
founders of a great commonwealth. 


An address by Charles E. Hill/ professor of political science, State Normal School, Emporia, 
before the Kansas State Historical Society, at its thirty-fifth annual meeting. December 6, 

IT WOULD be hard to find a state with more progressive measures than 
Kansas. But that does not mean our state has been strikingly original 
in its lawmaking; it means, rather, activity in gathering, assimilating and 
applying the best thought and experience of other states. 

In the case of appropriation bills, the governor can veto any item and 
the rest of the bill becomes law: but when the President vetoes part of a 
bill he thereby vetoes the whole bill. This arrangement Kansas adopted in 
1904; yet Colorado had it in her constitution of 1876. Kansas has blazed the 
way in the solution of the liquor problem, ^ and to-day has the best prohi- 
bition law and the best enforcement thereof of any state. Wisconsin 
adopted a state-wide primary in 1903, as did eleven other states before 
Kansas adopted one in 1908. In the adoption of the inheritance tax law 
Kansas stands thirty-seventh. The commission form of city government 
was evolved in Texas about ten years ago, and Kansas is using an adapta- 
tion of the Des Moines plan. Oklahoma had aguaranty-of-deposits law the 
year before Kansas. Many people outside the state express the belief that 
Kansans are radical, changeable, erratic. Kansans are not; they are con- 
servatively progressive. 

Any law that touches our pocketbooks is one of prime in terest. In 1907 

Note 1.— Charles Edward Hill was born at Rochelle, Ogle county, Illinois, September 
27, 1881, the son of Peter K. Hill and Engeborg Hill. He was educated at the .University 
of Michigan, and adopted the profession of teaching. Before coming to Kansas he lived 
in Illinois, Iowa and Michigan. He came to Kansas in 1907, settling at Emporia, where 
he accepted the professorship of political science in the Kansas State Normal. In 19H ne 
was married to Jane Blair. 

Note 2.— The Maine liquor law was passed in 1846 ; in 1851 it was amended ; in 1856 
repealed; in 1859 prohibition was readopted, and in 1884 made part of the constitution. 
The question was resubmitted by the legislature to popular vote September, 1911, ana 
repeal defeated by a narrow margin. 

70 Kansas State Historical Society. 

the taxes of the state amounted to $20,497,603, a per capita contribution of 
$12.41. Kansas has one of the best systems for collecting this tax. At 
the head is a commission of three, appointed by the governor with the con- 
sent of the senate; the salaries are $2500 for each; the term of office four 
years; and partial renewal of the commission obtains. This commission has 
supervisory power over all tax matters in the state. It provides uniform 
tax books in the counties and in the offices of state treasurer and state au- 
ditor. It requires the county assessors to meet at least once in two years 
for discussion and instruction. Whenever the commission finds it necessary 
to obtain evidence, witnesses may be compelled to attend, and the county 
attorneys and the attorney-general are at its service. It assesses all rail- 
roads, telegraph and telephone lines and property, express, sleeping-car and 
private car companies doing business in Kansas, gas and oil pipe lines, 
street railroads, electric lines and property. County and township assessors 
may be removed at the instance of the commission. 

The county assessor is chosen by the qualified voters for two years, and 
he must have been a resident taxpayer for at least four years previous. In 
counties of less than 12,000 population the county clerk is ex-officio county 
assessor, and the county commissioners fix his salary. In other counties the 
salary varies from $5 a day to $1200 a year, according to the population of 
the county. The county assessor shall appoint the trustees as township as- 
sessors, but he may suspend these for cause, and after a hearing before the 
commission they may be removed. In cities of the first and second class he 
appoints such deputy assessors as may be necessary. 

The property itself is assessed at actual valuation. Neighbors or other 
persons may be put under oath to testify as to the property owned. If the 
neighbor refuses he shall be fined from $10 to $"00, and may, in addition, 
be imprisoned for not more than six months. Property omitted from the 
assessor's list is taxed a double amount. The estimate of the value of real 
estate is verified by a board of review, which the county assessor appoints 
in every assessment district. The board of equalization for the county is 
the county commissioners ; for the state it is the State Tax Commission. 

The proof of the success of this plan, which was made largely in 1907, 
may be derived from the 1908 report of the Tax Commission. In 1904 the 
Federal Census Bureau estimated the true value of all property in Kansas at 
$2,253,224,243. The last assessment under the old plan (1907) shows the 
total assessed valuation at $425,281,214, or not quite 19 per cent of the Cen- 
sus Bureau's estimate in 1904. The next year (1908) the first under the 
new plan, showed the total assessed valuation to be $2,451,560,397, repre- 
senting an increase of 476.4 per cent over the 1907 valuation — a startling 
index of the success of the law. 

A subject of difference between the two great parties in the last state 
campaign was the inheritance tax, placed upon the statute books in 1909. 
The law divides heirs into two classes. Class A includes husband, wife, 
lineal ancestor or descendant, adopted child and descendants, and son-in-law 
or daughter-in-law of the decedent. All inheritances going to members of this 
class below $5000 are exempt, but inheritances not exceeding $25,000 shall pay 
a tax of 1 per cent; $25,000 to $50,000, 2 per cent; $50,000 to $100,000, 3 percent; 
$100,000 to $500,000, 4 per cent; and all sums above $500,000 pay a tax of 5 
pjr cent. Class B includes brother, sister, nephew or niece of the decedent. 
Inheritances of a member of this class below $1000 are exempt, but all 

Progressive Legislation in Kansas. 71 

sums below $25,000 pay 5 per cent; $25,000 to $50,000, 7i per cent; $50,000 
to $100,000, 10 per cent; $100,000 to $500,000, 12J per cent; and all sums in 
excess of $500,000 are subject to i tax of 15 per cent. If no will of the de- 
cedent is filed for probate, then the Tax Commission, through the county 
attorney or through the attorney-general, shall ask the probate court to ap- 
point an administrator. If property is transferred by deed, grant or gift 
in contemplation of death, the tax shall be a lien on the interest of the 
beneficiary. The county treasurer retains a small sum, ranging from 5 per 
cent to 10 per cent, for payment of county officers ; the rest of the tax is 
forwarded to the state treasurer for the use of the state. 

The income from this tax falls upon those who are able to bear it; it is 
just; and the income from it is sure and will increase with the age of the 
state. Since March 16, 1909, until the present the Tax Commission has 
charged and certified to the county treasurers for collection an aggregate 
of $148,786.26. 

By the guarantee-of-bank-deposits law any state bank with a surplus 
equal to 10 per cent of its capital may participate in the assessment and 
benefits of the act. The bank shall deposit with the state treasurer bonds 
or money to the amount of $500 for every $100,000 or fraction thereof of 
deposits eligible to the guaranty. The bank commissioner shall during 
January of each year make assessments of one-twentieth of one per cent 
of the average guaranteed deposits as shown by the last four statements; 
the minimum assessment in any case is ?20; and this assessment shall con- 
tinue until the guarantee fund reaches $500,000. Should the fund become 
depleted, then additional assessments will be made, but not more than five 
assessments shall be made in one year. 

If a bank should fail the bank commissioner shall take charge, and shall 
issue to each depositor a certificate of the amount deposited, bearing either 
the contract rate, which shall not exceed 3 per cent; or if there is no con- 
tract, 6 per cent interest. The bank commissioner shall publish the date of 
payment of the certificates. If the assets of the bank are not sufficient he 
shall draw a check upon the state treasurer, to be countersigned by the 
auditor of state, payable out of the bank depositors' guarantee fund, in fa- 
vor of each depositor for the balance due. Should a bank fail to pay its 
assessment, then the bonds deposited may be sold, and the bank shall be ex- 
amined. If found insolvent, the bank commissioner shall take charge; if 
found solvent, its certificate as a guaranteed bank shall be canceled and a 
card at least twenty by thirty inches, with plain type, showing such with- 
drawal, shall be exhibited in the banking rooms. It shall be unlawful for 
any bank under this act to receive deposits continuously for six months in 
excess of ten times its paid-up capital and surplus, and a violation of this 
provision shall mean a cancellation of the bank's rights under the guaranty 
of deposits. 

Only a financial stringency will reveal the full value of the guaranty 
law. However, 398 banks are now participating in the guaranty fund, and 
the cash and bond funds aggregate $335,000.3 Two great results have been 
accomplished. The people, by reading the arguments between the national 
banks and the state bank commissioners, have become informed; and sec- 
ondly, the national banks have found it safest to organize into an insurance 

Note 3.— At the end of February, 1912, the bank commissioner's office showed 440 state 
banks guaranteed and $358,500.59 in the guaranty fund. 

72 Kansas State Historical Society. 

company for the guaranty of their depositors. Thus depositors reap the 
benefit of the fullest protection in both the national and state banks. 

In 1895 Kansas made a strict gambling law. Every person who shall set 
up or keep any table or gambling device, or shall keep a place for playing 
any game of cards for money or property, shall on conviction be guilty of a 
felony and be punished by imprisonment and hard labor for one to five years. 
All places so used are declared nuisances and may be perpetually enjoined, 
under suit in the name of the state, brought by the attorney-general, county 
attorney or by any citizen of the county where the nuisance exists. Every 
person who bets money or property at any place to which persons resort for 
gambling purposes shall be guilty of a felony and subject to iniprisonment 
and hard labor in the penitentiary from one to three years. Every person 
who bets money or property at any gaming table or gambling device, or 
upon the result of any game of skill or chance, shall be guilty of a misde- 
meanor, and shall be punished by a fine of from $10 to $100, or by imprison- 
ment in the county jail for ten to thirty days, or by both such fine and 
imprisonment. Betting on elections or holding a stake are punished by a 
fine not exceeding $50. 

The pure food law provides that any manufacturer who adulterates with 
any poisonous or deleterious substance or misbrands food, drugs or medi- 
cines shall upon conviction of the first offense be fined $300 or be impris- 
oned one year in the county jail, or both. If any one keeps or offers for 
sale any such adulterated or misbranded food, drug or medicine he shall be 
fined $50 or be imprisoned in the county jail not exceeding one year, or both, 
in the discretion of the court. The dean of pharmacy at the Kansas Uni- 
versity has supervision of examination of drugs. The chemistry depart- 
ments at the Kansas University and Kansas Agricultural College have 
supervision of the examination of foods. The reports of examinations are 
made to the secretary of the State Board of Health, and the county attor- 
neys throughout the state are at his service. 

Whoever shall knowingly sell to any person, or to any cheese or butter 
manufactory, any milk diluted with water, or adulterated milk from which 
any cream has been taken, or shall keep back that part of the milk known 
as strippings, or sell milk the product of diseased animals, or use poisonous 
or deleterious material in the manufacture of cheese or butter, shall be 
fined $25 to $100 and be liable in double the amount of damages to the per- 
son upon whom such fraud has been committed. 

Every place occupied or used for the sale, manufacture, packing, 
storage or distribution of any food or drug shall be properly lighted, 
drained, plumbed, ventilated, screened, and conducted with strict regard to 
the influence of such conditions upon the health of the employees and upon 
the purity and wholesomeness of the food and drugs. The State Board of 
Health is authorized to make and publish such rules and regulations as are 
necessary in food and drug inspection and to carry out the provisions of 
this act ; and any person or association violating such rules and regulations 
shall be fined not to exceed $100. 

The execution of the law is vested largely in the State Board of Health, 
which shall appoint four food inspectors and two drug inspectors, to serve 
during the pleasure of the board. The board shall also appoint an assist- 
ant chief food inspector and an assistant chief drug inspector. The stand- 
ards of quality, purity and strength for foods and drugs shall be those 

Progressive Legislation in Kansas. 73 

adopted by the United States Department of Agriculture until other stand- 
ards are prescribed by the State Board of Health; and the secretary of 
the State Board is authorized to cooperate with the United States Depart- 
ment of Agriculture in the enforcement of the national pure food law. 

The laws of l509 reveal the beginning of tuberculosis legislation in Kan- 
sas. The disease is declared infectious and communicable. Upon every 
physician in the state is placed the duty to report in writing to the county 
health officer, or in cities of the first class to the city health officer, 
within twenty-four hours after the disease becomes known, the patient's 
name, sex, color, occupation, place of last employment and address. Any 
person may forward sputum to the state bacteriologist for free examina- 
tion. When any apartments or premises become vacant because of the 
death or removal of a tuberculosis patient no one shall live in those apart- 
ments or premises until they shall have been disinfected according to rules 
made by the Board of Health. The penalty for endangering others through 
sputum or other bodily discharge is a fine of not more than $10. ■* 

Cattle infected with tuberculosis shall be segregated and quarantined. 
If the live-stock sanitary commissioner shall have reason to believe or ra- 
ceive notice that the disease exists in any of the domestic cattle of this 
state, he shall notify the professor of veterinary science of the State Agri- 
cultural College, who shall in person or by deputy make an examination. 
The infected animals may be sold only subject to the rules and regulations 
made by the Live-stock Commission. The penalty for violation is a fine of 
$25 to $100. 

The prohibition amendment of 1880, together with supplementary legis- 
lation, especially that of 1901 and 1909, and their strong enforcement, made 
Kansas a prohibitory state. By the last law the manufacture, sale or bar- 
ter of any spirituous, malt, vinous, fermented or other intoxicating liquor 
is made a misdemeanor. The penalty is a fine of $100 to $500 and imprison- 
ment in the county jail for thirty to ninety days. The enforcement of the 
law is vested in the county attorneys, attorney-general and assistant at- 
torney-general, who are given power to issue subpoenas for witnesses, 
compel testimony and to prosecute. It shall be the duty of sheriffs, mayors, 
marshals, police judges and police officers to notify the county attorney of 
any violation and to furnish the names of witnesses. 

All places where liquors are made, sold or given away, or where persons 
are permitted to go for the purpose of drinking, are declared to be common 
nuisances, and every person who maintains or assists in such nuisance shall 

Note 4. — In September, 1909, the State Board of Health, under chapter 379, Session 
Laws of 1907, abolished the common drinking cup on railroad trains, in railroad stations 
and in all public and private schools and state educational institutions. In April, 1911, a 
ruling was made which included all hotels and lodging houses in this prohibitory measure. 
Since the question was taken up by the Kansas Board of Health many states have fallen 
into line, and the forbidden common drinking cup is no longer regarded as the offspring 
of freak legislation. 

September 1, 1911, the use of the common roller towel in hotels, railway trains, rail- 
way stations, public and private schools was prohibited by a ruling of the Board of Health. 
This measure has called forth the following ebullition from Judge: 
"Roll on, thou stiff and dark old towel — roll ! 

A hundred hands are wiped on thee each day ; 
Thou bearest mystic records, like a scroll. 

And finger prints of all who passed thy way. 
And where be those who said thou shouldst not stay? 
The New York traveling men who bade thee hence. 

The Kansas people, who did sternly say, 
'Each his own towel — count not the expense,' 
They pass — but thou still roll'st thy length immense." 

74 Kansas State Historical Society. 

be fined $100 to $500 and imprisoned in tlie county jail for thirty days to six 
months for each offense. Any person, without cost or giving bond, can ask 
for an injunction against such nuisance. A common carrier can deliver 
liquor shipped from another state only to the person to whom the liquor is 
consigned, and with a written order by the consignee. The penalty for 
violation is a fine of $100 to $500 and imprisonment for thirty to ninety days. 

The anticigarette law provides that cigarettes and cigarette paper can 
not be sold or given away by any person or company. The penalty for vio- 
lation is a fine of $25 to $100. Furthermore, every minor person who shall 
smoke or use cigarettes, cigars or tobacco in any form on a public road, 
street, alley, park, or in any public place of business, shall be guilty of a 
misdemeanor and fined $10. And every person who permits such minor 
person to use tobacco in any form on premises owned or managed by him 
shall be guilty of a misdemeanor and fined from $25 to $100. 

The antilobby law is an important protective measure. The secretary of 
state shall keep two legislative dockets— a docket of legislative counsel and 
one of legislative agents. The counsel are persons who examine witnesses, 
make oral arguments or submit briefs before the legislature or the legis- 
lative committees. The agents are persons employed or retained by any 
person, firm or association to promote or oppose legislation. The petitions, 
orders and bills which the counsel or agent is working for or against shall 
be entered opposite his name on the docket. The paying of a fee to counsel 
or agent contingent on the passage or defeat of a measure is forbidden. 
No agent or counsel can appear upon the floor of either house when in 
session, except upon invitation of the house extended by vote. The penalty 
for violation of the act shall be a fine not to exceed $5000, or imprisonment 
in the county jail of not more than one year, or both, and the court may 
bar a counsel or agent from acting in such capacity again for three years. 
The attorney-general prosecutes. The act does not apply to municipal or 
other public corporations and their representatives. 

At a special session of the legislature in 1908 Kansas enacted a state- 
wide primary law. It provides that all candidates for elective office, in- 
cluding those for United States senator, s'oall be nominated by a direct 
primary. But the act does not apply to special elections to fill vacancies, 
nor to school-district meetings for the election of officers, nor to elections 
in cities of less population than 5000. The time for holding the primary for 
all candidates to be voted upon at a general election is the first Tuesday in 
August of the even-numbered years. This date will have to be moved for- 
ward to April or May if the plank in the last Republican platform [1910], 
providing for nomination of delegates to the national convention by direct 
vote of the people, be enacted into law, as the national conventions usually 
meet in June or July. Candidates for office in cities of the population of 
10,000 or more are to be nominated at an election held on the first Tuesday 
of March, annually; but all first-class cities having the commission form 
of government shall hold their primaries in odd-numbered years on the sec- 
ond Monday preceding the municipal elections. 

No candidate for a state office or for United States senator shall have 
his name placed upon the ballot unless at least forty days prior to the elec- 
tion he shall have filed a nomination paper signed by at least 1 per cent 
and not more than 10 per cent of the total vote of his party in the state. 
If for a district office, the paper must carry signatures equal in number to 

Progressive Legislation in Kansas. 75 

at least 2 per cent and not more than 10 per cent of the party vote. for 
a subdistrict or county office, the paper shall have at least 3 per cent and 
not more than 10 per cent of the party vote in such subdistrict or county. 
If for a county precinct committeeman, the signatures shall equal at least 
10 per cent of the party vote in the precinct. If for a city office, the sig- 
natures shall equal at least 5 per cent and not more than 10 per cent of the 
party vote. The basis of the percentage is the party vote at the last pre- 
ceding state election. The papers are filed with the secretary of state, 
county clerk or city clerk, according to the territory represented by the 
office. A separate official primary ticket of each party shall be provided 
for use at each voting precinct. A voter can cast his ballot for any 
candidate on his party ballot only. The conduct of the election and the 
canvassing of the returns is the same as at a general election. 

Government by commission is the most recent step in the evolution of 
city government. Any city of the first class, upon filing a petition having 
on it the names of 10 per cent of the voters, or any city of the second class 
filing a petition having on it the names of 40 per cent of the voters, calling 
for an election, may adopt this plan of government by a majority vote. A 
city of the first class so adopting it must maintain it for at least five years; 
a city of the second class so adopting it must maintain it for at least four 
years. This plan does away with ward politics, for the five commissioners 
in cities of the first class and the three in cities of the second class are 
chosen by the voters of the entire city. The commissioners' salaries range 
from $250 to $4000 a year, so able men can afford to devote at least part 
of their time to the business of the city. 

In first-class cities the mayor serves as commissioner of the police and 
fire departments ; the other four serve as commissioner of finance and rev- 
enue, commissioner of waterworks and street lighting, commissioner of 
streets and public improvements, and commissioner of parks and public 
property. All of these commissioners are chosen in odd-numbered years 
and hold office for two years. In second class cities the mayor serves as 
commissioner of the police, fire and health departments ; the other two 
serve as commissioner of finance and revenue and commissioner of streets 
and public utilities. One is chosen annually and serves for three years. 
Thus the law provides for division of labor and offers an opportunity to de- 
velop skill. It also locates responsibility, which is not so easily done in the 
mayor-and-council system. The appointment of officers is vested in the 
board of commissioners. The recall exists in the first-class cities, and ap- 
plies to commissioners and appointive offices alike. An election for the re- 
call of an officer may be had upon filing a petition bearing the signatures 
of voters equal in number to 25 per cent of the total number of votes cast 
for mayor at the last election. 

The power to pass ordinances is vested in the board of commissioners, 
with the initiative and referendum as safeguards. In cities of both the first 
and second classes, if a petition for an ordinance be signed by electors in 
number not less than 10 per cent nor more than 25 per cent of the number 
of votes cast for mayor at the preceding election, then the commission shall 
within twenty days pass the ordinance without change, or submit the same 
at the next general city election occurring not more than thirty days after 
the clerk's certificate of sufficiency is attached to the petition. But if the 
petition in a city of the first class contains 25 per cent, or in a city of the 

76 Kansas State Historical Society. 

second class contains 40 per cent, of the voters' signatures, and the com- 
mission does not pass the proposed ordinance, then the commission shal) call 
a special election. If a majority of the ballots cast favor the proposed 
ordinance it shall become law, and such ordinance may be amended or re- 
pealed only by vote of the electors. However, the board may propose an 
amendment or a repeal at any succeeding general election. 

The commission form of city government, hardly ten years old, has been 
authorized in twenty-seven states. Among the Kansas towns which have 
adopted it are Topeka, Parsons, Coffeyville, Leavenworth, Wichita, Inde- 
pendence, Hutchinson, Anthony, lola, Emporia, Newton, Pittsburg, Abilene, 
Wellington and Kansas City.^ 

The legislature of 1911 passed a law which is familiarly known as the 
"blue-sky law," and which gives the bank commissioner supervision and 
control over any and all investment companies, domestic and foreign, doing 
business in the state. This law provides that all investment companies, 
before offering for sale any stock, bonds or other securities, except those 
specifically exempted in section 1 of the act, shall file in the office of the 
bank commissioner, together with a filing fee, a statement showing in de- 
tail the plan upon which it proposes to transact business; also an itemized 
account of its actual financial condition, the amount of its property and 
liabilities, and such other information as the bank commissioner may re- 
quire. The company must also file copies of its charter, articles of incor- 
poration, constitution, by-laws and all papers pertaining to its organization. 
The bank commissioner is empowered to make a detailed examination of the 
business affairs of the company, and its books must be open at all times to 
his inspection and investigation. All agents that these companies may em- 
ploy to do their busine s must first register with the bank commissioner 
and pay a fee, and the authority granted them by this registration is re- 
vokable at any time by the commissioner. Semiannual reports must be 
made to the bank commissioner, and failure to report causes forfeit of the 
company's right to do business in the state. Severe penalties are provided 
for violation of the law, fines of from $100 to $10,000 may be imposed, and 
imprisonment for from ninety days in the county jail to ten years in the 

This idea of Hon. Joseph N. Dolley, the bank commissioner, has attracted 
world-wide attention, and, without waiting for much time to develop, began 
to show practical value. Much enthusiastic commendation has been given 
the law by business interests and all sorts of publications everywhere. The 
February number of Current Literature gave very complimentary atten- 
tion to it, saying that one hundred million dollars is about the sum pilfered 
from the pockets of the American people annually by the sale of "wildcat" 
securities. The post office puts the sum even higher. Though nearly every 
state and territory will incorporate the rankest fake proposition, only one 
state— Kansas— seriously attempts to protect its citizens from stock-selling 
pirates. In every state a purchaser of fake stock may sue for the recovery 
of his money, which is about as satisfactory as the privilege of suing a 

Note 5. — The following Kansas towns have adopted the commission form of govern- 
ment, the list being complete to November, 1911: Anthony, Abilene, Caldwell, Chanute, 
Cherryvale, Coffeyville, Council Grove, Dodge City, Emporia, Eureka, Girard, Hutchinson, 
Independence, lola, Kansas City, Leavenworth, Marion, Neodesha, Newton, Parsons, 
Pittsburg, Pratt, Topeka, Wellington, Wichita, and Junction City. 

Universities of Fiftij Years Ago and To-day. 77 

pickpocket for the recovery of your watch. There are also statutes against 
obtaining money under false pretenses. But nine times out of ten the fake 
stock scheme is framed up with sufficient ingenuity to make conviction ex- 
tremely doubtful. The Post-office Department, Current Literature further 
says, is the only effectual barrier between the widow's mite and the set of 
thieves promoting wildcat stock-selling campaigns. If the fraud involves 
the mails, and complaint is made to the Post-office Department, prosecution 
will follow. But the department can not act until the swindle is well under 
way, and a great many victims lament their vanished fortunes. 

State Bank Commissioner Dolley has virtually stopped the swindle as 
far as the limited power of a single state can accomplish this end. Reports 
of frauds of this description drifted into Mr. Dolley 's office with increasing 
frequency from year to year. People, he says, usually came to him for in- 
formation after they had parted with their money. Mr. Dolley started an 
investigation into the entire question, and discovered that there were no 
less than five hundred agents selling wildcat stocks in Kansas. They were 
getting anywhere between three and five million dollars out of the people 
of the state for values chiefly fictitious. With the cooperation of the news- 
papers and banks, Mr. Dolley succeeded in persuading the legislature to 
pass the "blue-sky law," so nicknamed because it was designed to prevent 
the swindling of people through sales of stock based chiefly on "atmos- 
phere." The law is a real law with real teeth to it. The "blue-sky law" 
went into effect March 15, 1911; and some idea of the extent of the fraud 
at which it was aimed may be gathered from the fact that within six 
months the bank commissioner received more than five hundred applica- 
tions to sell stocks or bonds in Kansas— and out of about five hundred and 
fifty applications he approved just forty-four. "No doubt the most out- 
rageous schemes simply withdrew from the state without any attempt to 
get a license, so that," a writer in the Saturday Evening Post says, "the 
five hundred and odd that did apply and were rejected represent, so to 
speak, the upper crust or the more plausible of the blue-sky fraternity." 


IN ORDER to furnish some perspective for a picture of the University of 
Kansas in the year 1911 we present herewith a survey of the general 
condition of university life and instruction fifty years ago, about the time 
of the opening of the University of Kansas, together with a condensed 
statement of the status of the University at the present time. 

Institutions called universities have been in existence for more than seven 
hundred years, and there has been an unbroken continuity in their develop- 
ment for that length of time; but it is probable that their development has 
been greater, quantitatively and qualitatively, in the last half century than 
in any other fifty years since Abelard and Irnerius laid the foundations of 
the universities of Paris and Bologna in the twelfth century. 

The growth and changes that have come to universities since Kansas 
came to statehood, like changes preceding this time, have been both in form 
and in content. The fields of university activity have been enlarged, and 

78 Kansas State Historical Society. 

within each field there have been fundamental modifications, corresponding 
in a rough way to the changing currents of the world's economic, scientific 
and social thinking. As yet it would be too much to say that the universi- 
ties create and dominate these currents of thought, though it is true that 
they more and more assume initiative and leadership in all fruitful lines of 
the world's thinking. 

The history of the change in the meaning of the term university is both 
interesting and typical of the changes that have come in the university's 
scope and fields of activity. At first the term university was used to in- 
clude persons associated in the work of scholarship. Universitas magis- 
trorum et scholarium is the form used in the early papal bulls and royal 
proclamations addressed to the early universities ; and this phrase was 
really the official name of the guild of scholars, in all ways analogous to the 
trade guilds which existed everywhere in the days when universities were 
being founded. Later, by a sort of metonymy, the word university came 
to mean the institution itself and the impersonal elements of which it is 
composed rather than the persons connected with the institution. Just what 
necessary elements enter into the true conception of a university has been 
a difficult matter to determine, and is not yet a matter of agreement. For 
instance, the German definition of a university is altogether different from 
the English idea, and the American university is different from both. This 
change in the meaning of the word university is paralleled by an opposite 
change in the significance of the word faculty, now universally used to 
mean the body of teachers giving instruction in a school or department, 
which formerly meant the subject taught, as the faculty of grammar or the 
faculty of dialectic. While in the meaning of university the emphasis was 
changing from the personal to the impersonal elements, the meaning of 
faculty, from an impersonal, was taking on a personal significance. 

When Kansas came to statehood, a half century ago, all the great univer- 
sities of the Old World had been established, many of them for centuries. 
Some of them were decadent, but with possibilities of splendid revival that 
have since been realized. Many of the early foundations had been given 
up, and some of the European universities were then, as now, relatively 
weak and unimportant. It is worthy of note that while no European uni- 
versity of first rank has been founded in the last fifty years, by far the 
larger number of the best American institutions of higher learning have 
been established within that period. Practically, there are two exceptions 
to the above statement. Fifty years ago the University of London was an 
examining and degree-giving but not a teaching university; in the last 
years of the nineteenth century it resumed the teaching function which it 
had given up sixty years before, and now in the magnitude of its organiza- 
tion and its influence it is worthy of the great city and empire which it rep- 
resents. And in France, for sixty years after 1808, the action of Napoleon 
in organizing higher education in the form of separate faculties, independent 
of each other and all dependent on the central government at Paris, re- 
mained the policy of the French government. So that the present Univer- 
sity of Paris, now the largest university in the world, is in the second 
decade of its corporate existence. While practically the splendid growth of 
the Universities of Paris and London as unified, teaching universities has been 
made within the last dozen years, nominally their existence reaches far back 

Universities of Fifty Years Ago and To-day. 79 

of the fifty-year period whose end we are trying to compare with its begin- 
ning in the matter of higher education. 

To sum up in a general way the conditions of European univers ties at 
the time Kansas was admitted to the Union, they were few in number and 
sparsely attended, the students being drawn almost wholly from the noble, 
well-to-do or professional classes. As was said above. France was at this 
time without organically connected, unified universities, having, instead, un- 
connected state faculties in law, medicine, theology, letters and sciences. 
Save the two ancient universities of Oxford and Cambridge, England had 
only the unimportant University of Durham, founded in 1832. Germany 
had the largest number of universities of any European country— twenty; 
of these the University of Berlin was easily the most important. Austria, 
Switzerland, Holland, Sweden and other countries of Europe generally had 
their university foundations from the Middle Ages, more or less modified to 
meet modern conditions. Generally speaking, these European universities 
were for men only. Europe has always been behind America in the recog- 
nition of the educational rights of girls and women, though in America fifty 
years ago there were very few institutions of college or university rank that 
admitted women students. Oberlin College and Antioch College, under the 
leadership of Horace Mann, have the honor of being the first colleges in 
America to give to women the right to be trained in educational institutions 
of the highest rank. 

In the European universities a half century ago there were two points in 
which they were conspicuously different from American institutions of 
higher learning: the students coming up for university study were trained 
in well-organized preparatory schools of high grade, of which the German 
Gymnasia and the English public schools, such as Eton, Rugby and Win- 
chester, are typical; secondly, professional instruction had a far larger 
place in European universities than in corresponding American institutions. 
It goes without saying that at the present time the difference between 
American and European institutions is in both these particulars much less 

The most obvious fact, as one endeavors to compare the present-day 
American university with its predecessor of fifty years ago, is that in the 
strict sense there was no university in America at that time. The oldest 
and the best of our educational institutions then was a college associated or 
bound up with some loosely connected professional schools. To speak with 
accuracy, then, one should call the institutions of higher learning of that 
time colleges rather than universities. The unifying of educational forces 
and agencies into a homogeneous and well-balanced whole, the development 
of the true university character and spirit, was in America the work of 
the last quarter of the nineteenth century. And the comparison involved 
must be that of a college, or at most a university in embryo, with an insti- 
tution that in its aims and in its material, scientific, intellectual and spiritual 
equipment and resources represents for us the true university ideal, differ- 
ent from, though not inferior to, the university ideal that has been evolved 
by other enlightened peoples. 

To understand the long strides that have been taken within the half cen- 
tury it will be well to set forth with clearness and order and in some detail 
the aims and the standards and principles that dominated the best American 
colleges at the beginning of the period in question. 

80 Kansas State Historical Society. 

First. The aims of the American college of that time were disciplinary 
and cultural rather than informational; to develop through intellectual ap- 
plication and concentration a general power or capacity which had the 
quality of being transformable to meet the needs of later life, rather than 
to develop directly a specific skill in the concrete activities of life. The 
college was considered a preparation for life rather than a noble participa- 
tion in life. Vocational schools existed, but they were few in number and 
pitifully inadequate, measured by our present-day standards; and the close 
correlation that nowadays exists between the college and professional schools, 
for the good of both, was then lacking. All of the earliest colleges in this 
country were founded for the express purpose of training ministers, and 
this purpose is still manifest in the conduct of many colleges under the 
auspices of religious denominations. 

Another way in which the aim of higher education of a half century ago 
differs from the present is in the number whom it was intended to reach. 
The training of the college was for those who expected to practice the pro- 
fessions and those who were able to live lives of leisure. It was not expected 
that the college would appeal to business men or craftsmen, and it seldom 
did. It was the theory of that day that the college did not have a message 
for the hewers of wood and the drawers of water in the world's industries, 
and that these workers did not need the higher education— that it would 
unfit rather than fit them for the work they had to do in the world. The 
idea that higher education is helpful to all classes had not yet been accepted, 
nor the truth that power through discipline may be gained in the use of sci- 
entific and utilitarian subjects as really as through humanistic and philo- 
sophical subjects. 

Second. The college of fifty years ago had a fixed and rigid curriculum. 
It had not yet occurred to the directors of these institutions that the per- 
sonal equation needed to be taken into account in selecting the studies suit- 
able for the development of mind and character. Clear and exact reasoning 
is a necessity for every college student; therefore every college student 
should study mathematics and logic. Facile and forceful expression are 
necessary for all ; so all should study rhetoric and foreign languages. Ev- 
eryone should be somewhat familiar with the phenomena of matter and 
force ; therefore physics and chemistry should be included in the college 
curriculum. And in this way study after study was added until the curriculum 
was complete, each study tested by the needs and capacity of the average 
man. The trouble with the fixed curriculum is that it does not make allow- 
ance for the wide deviation from the average— the one whose large capacity 
in some line is not satisfied by the moderate provision of the curriculum, 
and the one whose interest and ability in some line of required work is 
markedly lacking. In the latter case the work in the field for which there 
is a disinclination might be mastered, but the expenditure of energy and 
time would be out of all proportion to the result gained. The bases of the 
differences noted here might be age, sex or environment. On the side of 
those who favored the fixed curriculum were the arguments of economy and 
ease of administration, often no small considerations to the colleges of fifty 
years ago. 

Third. One of the most marked exceptions to the general rule of the 
fixed curriculum was the University of Virginia. This institution was the 
first in America to take a decided stand in favor of what is now called the 

Universities of Fifty Years Ago and To-day. 81 

elective system. That this institution committed itself to the elective 
principle in such a large way from its foundation is due directly to the in- 
fluence of Thomas Jefferson, and indrectly to the influence of the elective 
principle, Lernfreiheit, as administered in German universities. 

The influence of the University of Virginia and of American scholars 
who came back from studies in Germany, filled with admiration for the 
freedom in the choice of studies that they found there, was felt among 
other American colleges, and various proposals for lessening the fixity of 
the curriculum and attempts to give greater freedom in the choice of 
studies in colleges were made. Gains were made here and there, but these 
were generally lost through reaction. Harvard, which was later, under 
Eliot, to be the great leader in the development of the elective system, 
went farther in this direction in the first half of the nineteenth century 
than any other American institution except the University of Virginia ; but 
by 1856 the ground gained was practically all lost, and in 1861 it seemed 
that American colleges had tried the elective system and had practically 
given it up as unsuitable. These words from the report of President 
Sparks of Harvard College, in 1852, probably represent the view of the ma- 
jority of American educators fifty years ago: "The voluntary system, as 
it has been called, is still retained to a certain extent, rather from neces- 
sity than preference. The number and variety of the studies for which the 
university has provided instruction are so large that it is impossible for any 
student, within the period of four years, to give such a degree of attention 
to them all as will enable him to acquire more than a limited and superficial 
knowledge, from which little profit can be derived." Although written 
with the opposite intention, these words form, as President Eliot says, an 
unanswerable argument for the elective system. 

Fourth. Fifty years ago in the universities of Europe the faculties of 
professional instruction were closely associated with the general faculty of 
arts or philosophy. In the German universities they were coordinate facul- 
ties of the same institution, as they also were in the universities of Holland 
and the Scandinavian countries. In English universities much of the pro- 
fessional instruction was given in the colleges and was included in the work 
leading to the bachelor's degree. But in France, as has been said, the 
faculties were separate and independent of each other, and, nominally, had 
no connection except through the ministry of instruction in Pans. 

Conditions in America were between these two extremes. Many pro- 
fessional schools, especially schools of theology and medicine, were inde- 
pendent and not connected with the universities in any way; and where 
professional schools did form parts of these institutions the connection was 
not close and the relation of the schools not well defined. Within the half 
century under survey, it has come to pass that the number of professional 
schools connected with universities (a) have greatly increased in numbers; 
when we name theology, law, medicine, pharmacy, engineering, architec- 
ture, forestry, music, dentistry and veterinary, the list is still an incomplete 
one; (6) have multiplied the students attending these courses more than 
tenfold; and (c) have increased the efficiency of the courses in an almost 
equal ratio. 

All of these results have come about largely because of the close relation- 
ships that have been established between the professional schools and the 


82 Kansas State Historical Society. 

general training of the college, which through the whole period has been 
the core or the heart of the American university. Here educational history 
is repeating itself; for in the medieval universities a student was not re- 
ceived into the superior faculty of law, theology or medicine until he had 
completed the general studies of the so-called inferior faculty, the arts 
faculty; and in American universities there is a reversion to this idea in the 
requirement that is becoming more and more common that students are re- 
ceived into the professional schools only after taking, in whole or in part, the 
college course. 

Fifth. Another element in the life of American universities, not all, but 
a majority of them— a picturesque feature of universities of the present 
day that was almost wholly lacking in the institutions of a half century 
ago— is coeducation. In our country this has been brought about through 
the development of state universities supported by public tax, with the 
manifest inequity of providing higher education for men and not for women, 
and the manifest economy of providing education for the two sexes in the 
same institution. All civilized nations have been moved to make more 
generous provision for the higher education of women; but in no other 
country of the world has so large an extension of the equality of opportunity 
met with such an enthusiastic response and so adequate a return. 

Sixth. As compared with the democracy that obtains in all forms of 
education to-day, the universities of fifty years ago were relatively undemo- 
cratic. At that time the establishment and development of the great state 
universities, supported by all the people and appealing to all the people, 
had not gone far enough to become the great democratizing influence that 
it has since become. It was in 1862, the year after Kansas came to state- 
hood, that the national Congress passed the law for the establishment of 
the agricultural and mechanical colleges, and these institutions, in many 
cases developed as departments in state universities, have been powerful 
agencies in making higher education in America more democratic. How- 
ever, with the principles of democracy so deeply ingrained in the fabric of 
our political, social and industrial life, a more democratic type of higher 
education than was known a half century ago was inevitable. 

And so, looking from our noble foundations of higher education in 
America with more than four hundred thousand students, their elastic 
courses, their appeals to popular interest and their incitements to popular 
advancement, their development of high ideals for professional life, and 
their stimulation of the best qualities in manhood and womanhood across 
the five decades that have elapsed since Kansas attained to statehood, one 
can realize the tremendous stri 'es forward that have been taken and the 
great contrast between the conditions and the institutions of higher educa- 
tion now and then. Arvin S. Olin.^ 

Note 2. — Arvin Solomon Olin, professor of education at the University of Kansas, 
was born October 19, 1855, at Eden, Clinton county, Iowa, the son of Nelson Olin and 
Harriet Holley Olin. The father was born at Perry, N. Y., May 26, 1827, and died at 
El Dorado, Kan., December 28, 1908. The mother was born at Gainesville, N. Y., December 
18, 1827, and died at Earlville, Ohio, April 11, 1866. Before coming to Kansas the subject 
of this sketch lived in Iowa, California, Ohio and Michigan. He attended the common 
schools in all the states named, the Ottawa University, the University of Kansas, Clark 
University, and the University of Chicago. He belongs to various educational organiza- 
tions, and has been piesident of the Kansas State Teachers' Association (1903), and 
memljer of the State Board of Education. He has been engaged in educational work in 
Kansas since May, 1873, when he began teaching a district school at Ridgeway, Osage 


Universities of Fifty Years Ago and To-daij. 83 


Forty-six years after its opening to receive students the University of 
Kansas ranks nineteenth among the universities of America, judged by at- 
tendance ; or, if comparison were made upon the basis of equal organiza- 
tion, perhaps fifteenth. For instance, Nebraska, which ranks in statistical 
tables ahead of Kansas, is credited with the attendance of her Agricultural 
College, which is not separated from the university. Furthermore, attend- 
ance statistics, to be fair, must show the number of weeks each student is 
in attendance. Short-course students can not fairly be counted against 
full-year students. The actual student-week attendance at the University 
of Kansas shows the use made of the University by the people of Kansas 
to be proportionately much greater than the numbers counted merely by 


For the year 1911-'12 the attendance at the University of Kansas is over 
2400; of these about 400 will graduate. The number of first-year students 
is about 800. Serving these 2400 students there is a large force of men and 
women, including all from chancellor to janitor. About 165 of these are 
regular teachers on salary. The University has 4100 living alumni and 
about 20,000 former students altogether. 


The instruction and service of the University has always been practically 
free to the people of the state. Including the nominal fee of $15, a student 
can live at the University for $186 for the school year. In fact, many stu- 
dents who board themselves go through on much less than this. Probably 
the average is between $250 and $300. Despite the increasing standard of 
living, the general tone and tendency of student life is simple and moderate. 
No Kansan with the mental capacity need enter life without a higher edu- 
cation when the cost is so low and the means of self help so accessible. At. 
least half of the students earn all or some portion of their own expenses in 
or out of school. 


The prime aim of instruction at the University of Kansas is integrity 
of character. Research scholars are developed if possible; keen students 
are developed if possible; but honest thinkers and workers who will try to 
give back to the world more than they receive— such products are the hope 
of the University of Kansas. 

Instruction at the University is given by recitation, by lecture and by 
laboratory experimentation. Instruction by lectures is largely limited to 
the two upper classes of the college and to higher work in the professional 
schools. Recitation work is supplemented by much laboratory work, and 
by some apparatus in almost every department. In recitation classes a 
mandate of the regents limits the number to 40, most classes the at- 
tempt is made to reduce this to 25. For some subjects even this number is 
too large. Aside from the daily recitation, results are tested by irregular 
quizzes and by final examinations in each semester. Candidates for higher 

county. He served as first professor of education in Ottawa University and the University 
of Kansas, also as superintendent of schools, Ottawa, 1889-'90, Kansas City, Kan., 1890-'93. 
September 6, 1882, he was married at Lawrence to Martha Davis, in 1911. 

84 Kansas State Historical Society. 

degrees must write dissertations presenting the result of special studies, 
and stand a final general examination. 


The organic unity of the public-school system of Kansas makes the 
scholarship of the University very largely dependent in quality and advance- 
ment upon that of the Kansas high schools. In view of the youth of so 
many Kansas high schools, the average of University scholarship is not yet 
what it should and will be ; but both parties to this relationship recognize 
their mutual obligations and are working together for the raising and broad- 
ening of standards. They can not afford to grow apart. The ideals of the 
University inspire the high school. The practical necessities of the high 
school must be considered by the University. The University is doing its 
part in this matter by furnishing as rapidly as possible well-equipped teach- 
ers and offeriag expert inspection and advice. The high schools are showing 
their good will by seeking close relations with the University and by sending 
their graduates to it in ever-increasing numbers. The graduate of the 
Kansas high school lacks in accuracy and thoroughness, but he is marked by 
adaptability and mental alertness. While keeping these latter qualities, 
the training of the future must try to strengthen the former. 

Fifteen units of high-school studies, practically four years' work, are re- 
quired for entrance, but the University accepts this on the certification of 
the high school authorities. The amount is that required by all the better 
institutions in the United States. 


The 275 teachers and assistants and honorary lecturers offer each year 
about 600 different courses of study in some 50 departments. In the pro- 
fessional schools the student's entire course is mapped out, with the excep- 
tion of a very small margin. In the college the student is required to take 
a minimum of work in several groups of study, as physical science, mathe- 
matics, modern language, during the freshman and sophomore years; in the 
junior and senior years his choice is free, subject to a maximum limit of 
one-third of all his work in a single group, as mathematics, while at least 
one-sixth of his entire work must be spent in some one department. The 
aim of these regulations is to secure a wise combination of concentration 
and distribution of studies. 


It is the declared policy of the university to base the work of all the 
professional schools upon the freshman-sophomore work of the college. The 
schools of medicine and education have already adopted this standard; the 
other schools are preparing to adopt it as soon as feasible. In this way, in 
medicine and education the student will receive a B. A. at the end of four 
years, and in engineering B. S., and the professional degree at the end of 
six. For students who can afford it, a full college course of four years 
preceding the professional school work is recommended. 

The candidate for the B. A. degree is permitted to select from the more 
general studies of a professional school from one-eighth to one- fourth of his 
entire course. 


The graduate from the college of arts receives the degree A. B., regard- 
less of the special field of his studies; from the school of medicine, M. D.; 

Universities of Fifty Years Ago and To-day. 85 

from the school of law, LL. B. ; from the school of engineering, B. S. ; 
from the school of education, B. S. in Education; from the school of phar- 
macy, Ph. G. ; from the school of fine arts, Mus. B. or B. of Painting. 
Graduate study of one year or more leads to the degree of A. M., while the 
degree of Ph. D. is attained by original research during not less than three 
years of graduate study. Holders of the degree B. S. in Engineering may 
receive the degree M. S. after one year of graduate study, and C. E., E. E., 
M. E., Min. E. or Chem. E. after three years of professional work and on 
presentation of a practical engineering thesis. 

According to the constitution of the state of Kansas, the University 
must have departments of agriculture and teaching. Geographical reasons 
established the Agricultural College and Normal School at other points, but 
these are by the intent of the constitution parts of the University. Either 
this, or the University, which has indeed established a school of education, 
should open a school of agriculture also. 

The government of the University is vested in a board of seven regents, 
a chancellor and a faculty. Experience has distributed the functions of 
management as follows: The regents administer the general politics, the 
appointments and the finances of the institution; the chancellor'* is the ex- 
ecutive, ar,d by his membership in both bodies shares in the functions of 
both regents and faculty; the faculty administer the curriculum, the work 
of teaching, and the relation of students to the same. In all matters appeal 
lies to the regents, with whom final authority is lodged. 

The faculty has become, for practical purposes, the council and the fac- 
ulties. For general University afi'airs the faculty, which is too large and 
too transient to administer such matters, is represented by the council, 
made up of all heads of departments, now forty-five in number. The sepa- 
rate schools of the University have each its faculty, consisting of all in- 
structors in that school, with an executive officer called the dean at the 
head. Deans are appointed by the regents. 


The physical plant of the University of Kansas consists of about 171 
acres of campus, 164 being at Lawrence and 7 at Rosedale, and 21 buildings, 
as follows: North College, Eraser Hall, Blake Hall, Spooner Library, 
Chancellor's Residence, Natural History Museum, Green Hall, Snow Hall, 
Fowler Shops, Repair Shop and Water Laboratory, Heating Plant, Robin- 
son Gymnasium, Chemistry Building, Medical Hall, Haworth Hall, Marvin 
Hall, Power Plant and Mechanical Engineering Laboratory, Administration 
Building; and at Rosedale, Bell Hospital, Clinical Laboratory, State Hospi- 
tal. These buildings have a total of about 570 rooms, large and small, for 
laboratory, lecture and office purposes. 

In addition to the usual department apparatus, the University has valu- 
able collections in entomology, paleontology. North American mammals, 
ornithology, and mineralogy, some of these ranking among the best in the 
world. The library contains about 75,000 volumes. __^ 

Note 3.— The following have served as chancellors of the University : Richard W Oliver, 
Lawrence, 1865-'67. John Fraser, Agricultural College, Penn., 1868- 74 ; died June 4, 1878, 
Alleghany City, Penn. James Marvin. MeadviUe, Penn., 1874-'83; died July ?, 1901 Law- 
rence. Joshua Allen Lippincott, Carlisle, Penn 1883-'89. Wjlliam Cornelius Spi^ 
Lawrence, acting chancellor 1889-'90. 1901-'02 ; died, Lawrence, October 22 ISfV Francs 
Huntington Snow, Lawrence, 1890-1901 ; died September 20, 1908. Frank Strong, Uni- 
versity of Oregon, 1902 to present time. 

86 Kansas State Historical Society. 

The University buildings are heated by steam and lighted from a central 
plant, the tunnels and installation representing a very considerable invest- 
ment. The estimated value of the entire University plant is $1,500,000. 


The life of the students of the University of Kansas is as nearly as pos- 
sible that of high-minded young people of their age elsewhere. They aver- 
age a little above eighteen at entrance and twenty-two at graduation. 
They live in private homes in Lawrence, as the state has built no dormi- 
tories, and the Uhiversity supervision provides only that these homes shall 
be in good sanitary condition, and that men and women students shall not 
room in the same house. Whatever the tone and conduct of the students, 
it is largely what they bring from their homes; but they are a picked lot of 
young people, and their conduct is, as a rule, good. They go about their 
business and their amusements very much like other young people, only 
somewhat more earnestly. 

Their business is to study, but as this is the routine of life less is heard 
about it than of their avocations and their amusements. A broader inter- 
pretation of education than once prevailed properly includes much of what 
is sometimes called sport. Thus the systematic pursuit of physical culture, 
including even games; the cultivation of ability in acting and debating; even 
organized social intercourse— all contribute to the education of the student. 
But in these latter pursuits the students take more the initiative, and hence 
there exist some fifteen fraternities and sororities— self-perpetuating social 
clubs— three or four debating clubs, two literary societies, three dramatic 
clubs, a band, an orchestra, a mandolin club, a glee club, the athletic asso- 
ciation with branch clubs for each field of sport, the men's and women's 
government associations the graduate club, the archeological club; German, 
French, Spanish and Italian clubs, and department clubs in many other de- 
partments; a country club, class and school organizations, several social 
clubs, and a great number of dining clubs. With these and other transient 
organizations, opportunity is offered for every student to cultivate sidf s of 
his nature not represented by the work of the curriculum. 


The University of Kansas publishes a Science Bulletin, numbering with 
its predecessor, the University Quarterly, fifteen volumes ; the Geological 
Survey of Kansas, in ten volumes, No. 10 in press; the Mineral Resources 
of Kansas, in seven volumes ; entomological bulletins, in twenty-four num- 
bers ; University extension bulletins, in ten numbers. The Alumni Asso- 
ciation publishes monthly The Graduate Magazine. The undergraduates 
publish a daily. The University Kansan ; two monthlies. The Kansas Uni- 
versity Lawyer and The Oread Magazine; a quarterly. The Quill; an an- 
nual, The Jayhawker. 


The spirit of the University of Kansas is thoroughly democratic, both 
among students and faculty, and between students and faculty. There is 
none of the cloistered aloofness that was once characteristic of the scholar 
and the student. Rank signifies nothing save a greater demand for service. 
No lines are drawn between chief and assistant, between teacher and 
learner; all are Kansans, all trying to make themselves better men and 
tetter citizens. 

Universities of Fifty Years Ago and To-day. 87 


The University is undenominational. Tliis is far from meaning that it is 
nonreligious. The teachers of the University believe in religion in the life. 
Religion is everywhere treated as a prime interest of men, and serious 
thought about it is cultivated. Every department of instruction is a field 
for genuine, non- sectarian religious culture. But the time has long passed 
when church denominations tried to control or interfere with appointments 
or management. Catholic and Protestant, Jew and Buddhist find fair treat- 
ment and tolerant respect for their beliefs. 


It costs the state about $175 a year to educate each of the students, a 
per capita cost less by $75 than that of the average better universities of 
the country. Considering the standing of the University, it is beyond ques- 
tion that the state is receiving better returns for its money invested in 
higher education than most of the states. To each graduate, then, an edu- 
cation that costs in his four years $640 more than he personally pays is 
given. Are not these graduates worth much more than that to the state? 

In our own state the entire development of the institutions and stand- 
ards of higher education has been within the fifty-year period that we have 
been discussing; and it is gratifying to our state pride to say that the ratio 
of students in institutions of higher learning to the entire population of the 
state is larger than that of any other state in the Union. In Kansas one 
person in every 112 is in attendance at an institution of higher learning. 
In other words, almost one per cent of the population of Kansas is attend- 
ing college or university. The ratio in the United States at large is 1 to 
229, less than one-half of one per cent. The statement of such a fact about 
Kansas is a revelation of the character and a prophecy of the future of our 

^^^^^•. W. H. Carruth." 

Note 4. — William Herbert Carruth was born on a farm near Osawatomie, Miami 
county, Kansas, April 5, 1859. He is the son of James H. and Jane Grant Carruth. 
From his father he inherited a strong love for books and study, working his way through 
school and college and graduating from the University of Kansas in 1880. Having served 
as assistant in modern languages during his student days, upon the completion of his 
course he was elected professor of modern languages, which position he filled until the 
growth of the University required its division into two departments, French and German, 
he retaining the latter. In 1886 he studied German at the Universities of Berlin and 
Munich ; in 1889 he received his master's degree at Harvard, and doctor's degree in 1893. 
Doctor Carruth is a man of many activities and a delightful writer in both prose and 
poetry. He has been a member and director of the Kansas State Historical Society for 
many years. He was married in 1882 to Miss Frances Schlegel, who for eight years was 
professor of French and German at the University of Kansas. She died at Lawrence 
September 3, 1908. He married, June 10, 1910, Katherine Kent Morton, daughter of 
Howard Morton, of Tescott, Kan., one of the survivors of the battle of the Arickaree. 

Kansas State Historical Society. 


An address by Lyman B. Kellogg.' the first principal, delivered February 15, 1910, at 
Founders' Day celebration. 

FORTY-FIVE years ago to-day a small band of eighteen students and one 
teacher assembled for the beginning of the actual work of this Normal 

The school had no buildings nor grounds. It borrowed from school dis- 
trict No. 1 of Lyon county the use of the upstairs room of the stone school- 
house in the village of Emporia, then a town of about 400 or 500 inhabitants. 
The school had no seats, desks or other school furniture. Long settees 
were borrowed from the Congregational church for the use of the students. 
A small table from a notary's office and a yellow-painted arm chair from the 
county treasurer's office served the needs of the teacher. A Webster's un- 
abridged dictionary and a small Bible, the property of the teacher, were on 
the table, and constituted the Normal School library. ^ 

There was no speech making at the opening exercises that day, and no 
visitors But later in the day Rev. G. C. Morse, ^ secretary of the board of 
directors, and several citizens of the town came in to see how the new 
school was getting started. The parable of the sower was read from the 
Bible and the Lord's Prayer repeated by the teacher and students ; and so 
the State Normal School of Kansas commenced an educational work which 
has been going on ever since in a steadily increasing tide and volume. 

Two of the students of that first term, Mary Jane Watson and Ellen 
Plumb, were teachers of ability and experience before attending the Normal 
School, and constituted its first graduating class of 1867, and were after- 
wards members of its faculty, Miss Plumb in the model school and Miss 
Watson in the normal department. Another student of that opening day 

Note 1. — Lyman Beecher Kellogg was born September 28, 1841, at Lorain, Lorain 
county, Ohio, the son of Hiram Kellogg and Delia Beecher. The father was born in 
Cortland county. New York, and died at Fremont, Neb., in 1870; the mother was born 
in Connecticut and died in McHenry, 111., in 1863. Mr. Kellogg was educated in the public, 
schools and the State Normal University, Bloomington, 111. His first wife was Abbie 
Horner, who died in 1873. His second wife was Jennie Mitchell, the daughter of Rev. 
D. P. Mitchell. She was born March 4, 1850, and died at Emporia May 9, 1911. The 
following are his children by the first wife: Vernon L. Kellogg, Palo Alto, Cal., and 
Fred H. Kellogg, Santa Rosa, Cal. ; children of the second wife : Charles M. Kellogg, 
Santa Rosa, Cal., and Mary V. and Joseph M. Kellogg, of Emporia, Kan. Three are 
graduates of the Kansas University, one of Stanford, and one of Cornell. Mr. Kellogg 
has held the following positions in public service : Principal State Normal School, Em- 
poria, 1865-'71 ; member of the state house of representatives, 1877-'79 ; probate judge, 
Lyon county, 1879-'85 ; state senator, 1885-'89 ; attorney-general, 1889-'91 ; and regent of 
the State Normal eight years, ending in 1907. 

Note 2. — The Kellogg library, completed in 1902 at a cost of $60,000, provided with 
modern library equipment, is admirably adapted for research work. Over 27,000 books, 
selected with reference to the teacher's work, are catalogued and ready for instant refer- 
ence. The entire library force have had library training in the best schools of the country. 
This enables them to give helpful guidance to the students. — Forty-seventh Annual Cata- 
logue, Kansas State Normal School, p. 18. 

Note 3. — Rev. Grosvenok C. Morse was born at Acworth, N. H., April 19, 1827. 
Graduated from Dartmouth College and Andover Theological Seminary. He was married 
to Abby P. Barber, of Massachusetts. He arrived in Kansas October 1, 1857, and settled 
at Emporia. With the exception of two years, he labored under the direction of the 
Home Missionary Society. He was a member of the "Andover Band." He died July 
13, 1871. 

The Founding of the State Normal School. 89 

was Ellen Cowles, who is now on this platform as the presiding officer of 
the exercises of this day, Mrs. George Plumb.* 

Within a short time after that opening day there were more students- 
forty- two, all told— and the room in which the school was held was comfort- 
ably supplied with school furniture, and all were diligently at work. During 
that first fractional school year, beginning in February and ending in June, 
1865, Lee surrendered to Grant, Abraham Lincoln gave up his life, and the 
great War of the Rebellion was brought to a close. 

At the end of the school year in 1865 there were fitting pubhc exercises, 
including an anniversary address by Judge D. J. Brewer,"' of Leavenworth, 
then a young man, now one of the greatly honored justices of the supreme 
court of the United States at Washington. In order to reach Emporia, 
Judge Brewer was compelled to travel by stage, first from Leavenworth 
to Lawrence, one day, and then from Lawrence to Emporia, a night and a 
day. At that time Emporia's only connection with the outside world was 
a triweekly stage from Lawrence. The address of Judge Brewer on that 
occasion was a memorable one, and, if you will permit me, the Normal 
School has never had a more scholarly or eloquent address during all of the 

Note 4. — Ellen M. Cowles was born in Michigan, the daughter of Francis M. Cowles, 
and came to Kansas in 1859, settling in Lyon county. She was married to George Plumb, 
now railroad commissioner, August 22, 1867. She is the mother of eight children, five of 
them living, as follows: Mrs. Margaret P. Rodrick lives on the home farm with two 
children ; James R. Plumb is a farmer in Lyon county, married, with three children ; Miss 
Inez Plumb, a professional nurse, at home in Emporia ; Joseph C. Plumb, at Lewiston, 
Mont., a wheat raiser; Mrs. Kitty A. De Long and two children, living five miles north- 
east of Emporia, whose husband is a prominent horse and cattle raiser. The Plumb 
family reached Kansas in March, 1857, and they were the first to raise a board shanty on 
the town site of Emporia, while to-day the story of the Plumbs is wider than the state. 

Mrs. M. L. Hollingsworth (Maggie Spencer) writes a letter from Brownsville, Ore., 
and published in the Emporia Gazette of April 12, 1912, a portion of which is as follows: 
"I am a representative of one of the most "numerous" families of those early times in 
Lyon county- — the well-known Spencer family of twelve children, ten of them daughters, 
who bore their full share of taming the wilds and laying the foundation for a free state 
and a great commonwealth that were the common heritage of the pioneers from 1856 
through the thrilling times of the sixties. I think I am safe in saying that we furnished 
more pupils for the schools, more charter members for the State Normal, and later more 
teachers for the schools, than any other family in the county, if not in the state. I was 
a student at the old Congregational church before the days of schoolhouses, and remember 
with what anxiety we looked to the completion of the new stone schoolhouse on Constitu- 
tion street, where Mary Jane Watson and Ella Spencer were, I think, the first teachers. 
The upper room of this building was the cradle of the State Normal School, and I was 
privileged to be one of the "first eighteen" of that great institution, and I hope to be 
among those who celebrate its golden anniversary in a few more years. Those olden days 
— yet those 'golden days'^bring such a flood of memories, of joy and sorrow, of trials 
and pleasures, much greater than I could possibly recount on paper. I must, however, 
mention the names of a few, many of whom still are residents of the old campground. 
Maggie Brown, the belle of our young set, soon was claimed as a bride, and became Mrs. 
D. S. Gilmore. Ellen Cowles, Ellen Armor and I were left to 'chase the antelope over the 
plain.' The champion horseback rider became Mrs. J. S. Watson, and the prize student 
drew one of the prizes from the Plumb family and became Mrs. George Plumb. Last, and 
least, without charm or talent, the writer became Mrs. B. F. Hollingsworth, and is the 
mother of four daughters and a son, and while ministering to the family needs has been 
identified with all the interests, moral, religious and educational, in the communities in 
which she has lived. One of my earliest recollections of the new town was hearing of the 
marriage of Miss Anna Watson to Mr. Randolph, which seemed a great event to us. The 
marriage of Miss Murdock and Mr. Stotler seemed another important event in the com- 
munity life. In those days of the early sixties some of the brave boys of Emporia fell on 
the field of battle, while others came marching home victoriously. Among the victory- 
crowned were the Plumb boys, the Murdock boys, Lemuel Heritage, L. A. Phillips, I. N. 
Spencer and many others, with Colonel Plumb at the head. I think I heard Colonel 
Plumb make his maiden speech at a flag presentation ceremony in the early days of the 
Civil War, which stirred my soul and made me wish I could be a soldier, even timid girl 
that I was. Experience has taught me, however, that not all the battles were fought in 
the sixties, nor all the victories won, and that it is not necessary for all of courage ana 
valor to face the cannon's mouth. There is fighting all along the line, and real heroes 
are needed as much to-day as in the sixties." 

Note 5.— David Joeiah Brewer was born in Smyrna, Asia Minor, June 20, 1837, the 
son of the Rev. Josiah Brewer, who was missionary of the Congregational Church to 
Turkey. His mother was Emalie, daughter of Rev. David Field, of Sto<:kbridge Mass.. 
and a sister to Cyrus W. Field, of Atlantic cable fame, and Stephen J. Field, at one time 

90 Kansas State Historical Society. 

forty-five years of its existence than it had on that day. I say this with 
grateful recollection of the masterly address of President Richard Edwards, 
of the Normal University of Illinois, on a later occasion, and the long line of 
splendid educational addresses of later years delivered from this platform. 

And now, before closing this branch of what I am trying to say in this 
paper, let me stop long enough to pay my tribute to the students of those 
early years. I think they were equal to those of the present time in good, 
hard student work, in enthusiasm, and in devotion to the high calling of the 
teacher's profession. 

Kansas is both old and new^. Its soil was first trodden by white men in 
the winter of 1541. The Spanish flag accompanied the feet. This was the 
expedition of Coronado. Over a hundred years later, 1682, La Salle de- 
scended the Mississippi and took formal possession of all the country 
watered by it and its tributaries for his sovereign, Louis XIV of France, in 
whose honor it was named Louisiana. The first French expedition to 
actually set foot in Kansas was that of Du Tisne, in 1719, who was sent up 
from New Orleans to explore the new possessions. He is supposed to have 
entered the state in what is now Linn "county, and to have proceeded as far 
west as the Neosho river in this county, and then to have gone to the north- 
west beyond where Junction City now is. He set up a cross, with the arms 
of France on it, in this state not far from where Zebulon M. Pike later first 
raised the American flag at an Indian village in Republic county.** 

France ceded Louisiana to Spain in 1763; in 1801 Spain ceded it back to 
France; and in 1803 Thomas Jefferson purchased it from Napoleon. And 
so, after having been swapped back and forth between Spain and France, 
the ground upon which the Normal School buildings stand became American 
soil, as part of the Louisiana Purchase from France. Noble L. Prentis 
once said that as accurate a mathematician as Senator John J. Ingalls 
figured it out that the United States paid France for this land at the rate 
of one one-hundredth of a cent an acre. The original Normal School 
grounds of twenty acres, therefore, cost our government one-fifth of one 
cent, all told. 

After acquiring the Normal School grounds from France in 1803, the 
United States, by treaty with the Wyandot Indians at Upper Sandusky, 
Ohio, in 1842, agreed to give to certain members of the tribe, among them 
one Francis A. Hicks, ^ a section of land apiece, to be selected by them out 

chief justice of the supreme court. Soon after his birth the parents returned to Con- 
necticut. He graduated from Yale with high honors in 1856. He read law with his 
uncle, David Dudley Field, and took a course at the Albany Law School. He graduated in 
1858, practiced a few weeks in Kansas City, Mo., and after making a trip to Denver and 
Pike's Peak, settled in Leavenworth in September, 1859. In 1862 he was elected judge of 
the probate and criminal court of Leavenworth county. In 1865 he was elected judge of 
the district court, first judicial district. He next served as county attorney, and then as 
superintendent of city schools, and was the first president of the State Teachers' Associa- 
tion. In 1870 he was elected as associate justice of the supreme court of the state. In 
1884 he was appointed judge of the United States circuit court, and in 1889 associate 
justice of the supreme court of the United States. In 1896 President Cleveland appointed 
him to represent the United States upon the Venezuela Boundary-line Commission, and he 
was also one of the five members of the British-Venezuela Arbitration Tribunal. He was 
married October 3, 1861, to Miss Louise Landon, of Burlington, Vt. Mrs. Brewer died in 
June, 1899. Justice Brewer married June 5, 1901, Miss Emma Minter Mott, of Burling- 
ton, Vt. He died March 28. 1910, and is buried at Leavenworth. 

Note 6. — It is somewhat in question to-day whether Claude Charles du Tisng really 
entered Kansas. He came very close to the eastern boundary of the state, and may have 
crossed the southeastern corner. Research work in the library of the Historical Society, 
following the statements of du Tisnfv. would show that the Pawnee villages were, at the 
time of his visit to them, on one of the Cabin creeks near what is now Vinita, Okla. 

Note 7.- — Indian Affairs, Laws and Treaties, vol. 2, 1904, p. 536. 

The Founding of the State Normal School. 91 

of the public lands of the United States west of the Missouri river. Pur- 
suant to this treaty and a later one signed by representatives of the 
Wyandots at Washington, D. C, the remnants of the tribe were induced to 
leave their hunting grounds and villages and remove to a reservation set 
apart for them at the mouth of the Kaw river, where they estabUshed an 
Indian village upon the site of the old town of Wyandotte, now Kansas 
City, Kan. 

Francis A. Hicks having died, his right to select and locate the section 
of land was sold and transferred by the executor of his estate to George W. 
Deitzler, the first president of the Emporia Town Company, who located 
this Indian right, or "float," as it was called, upon section 10, in township 
19, range 11, in Lyon county, Kansas, and on May 7, 1860, the United States, 
by James Buchanan, President, issued a patent for this section of land to 
the "heirs of Francis Hicks." The original town site of Emporia occu- 
pies the south half of this section 10. George W. Deitzler deeded the portion 
of the land upon which the Normal School is located to Anna J. Allen on 
October 1, 1860; from her the land went to Giles T. Filley, of St. Louis, 
Mo., and on March 26, 1866, Mr. Filley deeded the original twenty acres to 
the state of Kansas for the Normal School. It consisted of a strip of land 
twenty rods wide, fronting on Twelfth avenue, at the head of Commercial 
street, and extending north 160 rods to the north line of section 10, the old 
* 'Indian float," and being a part of the Louisiana Purchase from France. 

I now invite your attention to the fact that not only did we acquire the 
Normal School grounds from France, but that we acquired the name "Nor- 
mal School," and also the very methods, foundation principles and scheme 
of organization from the same source. 

On February 18, 1909, just three days after we were assembled in this 
Albert Taylor Hall, celebrating the beginning of this school, a notable ban- 
quet and celebration of the fifty-second anniversary of the enactment of the 
law establishing the State Normal University of Illinois was held at Bloom- 
ington, in that state. The principal address at that banquet and celebration 
was by a man now of mature years, J. H. Burnham, a graduate of the class 
of 1861 of that normal school. I remember Mr. Burnham very well as a 
fellow student of mine in that normal school. He was senior classman 
when I was a member of the entering class. 

Mr. Burnham's address on that occasion was clean-cut, logical, accu- 
rate, and in every way a notable address for what I have already called a 
notable occasion. His subject was, "Some of the Influences that Led to 
the Founding of the Normal University." Mr. Burnham assumed in his 
hearers, as I shall here, a general knowledge on the part of his audience of 
the history of normal schools and normal education in Europe and in this 
country. But in the course of his address he called attention to a scrap of 
history not usually mentioned. I shall let Mr. Burnham tell this incident of 
history in his own words, by quoting literally from his address. Mr. Burn- 
ham said: 

"I have inherited from my grandfather a bound volume of the Massa- 
chusetts Monthly Magazine for the year 1795. This magazine, like all pub- 
lications of those times, gives its readers the very latest European news, 
which news had traveled, not under the waves by ocean telegraph or oyer 
the waves by wireless, but by the slow and tedious sail vessel, buflFeting 
against the waves of the stormy Atlantic 

"The dark and bloody times of that awful French Revolution were just 

92 Kansas State Historical Society. 

over, and the national convention had passed into the hands of energetic, 
enthusiastic, cultivated leaders of the best public opinion. With all of the 
faults of that frenzied convention, its members at times enacted some of 
the grandest laws the world has ever seen, and in spite of its bloody ac- 
tions this convention was really a powerful factor in the cause of human 
liberty. The reign of terror, after the passage of this act, never again be- 
came the terrible engine of the preceding years. In the April number of 
this magazine for the year 1795 I find this heading in capital letters : 'Nor- 
mal Schools: Account of a New Institution in France.' The word 'Nor- 
mal,' which has been applied to the newly established schools in France, is 
drawn from the dictionary of geometry. It expresses probably a level, but 
in the figurative sense it announces that in these schools all knowledge 
relative to arts, sciences, belles-lettres, etc., will be taught to every citi- 
zen, whatever branch he may choose to apply to. In order to obtain this 
grand object the convention wished the teachers and professors should be 
formed [organized], and these schools are thus established to qualify 
teachers for the whole republic." 

"The magazine then says: 'The following are the statutes resolved on by 
the representatives of the people with the normal schools of Paris, on the 
15th of January, 1795,' and I will quote from the statute as given: 

" ' Article third. The principal object of these conferences shall be read- 
ing and examination of the elementary schools or the republic. ' 

" 'Article fifth. The sittings of the normal school shall be employed 
alternately in unfolding the principles of the art of teaching, as explained 
by the professors, and in conference on these principles among the profes- 
sors and pupils.' 

"A list of the studies to be taught then follows, which is very similar to 
the studies pursued to-day in our own normal school, and it is added: 

" 'The second sitting of the normal school took place on the 22d of 
January. ' 

"A careful reading of article 3 and article 5 will show that the French 
national convention, in its normal and public-school act, gave the world 
almost identically the normal idea upon which our normal schools are acting 
to-day, which is, teaching our teachers to teach. Perhaps it will be proper 
to state that in 1795 the French people were magnetized and blinded by the 
idea of national and military glory, and that within a few months this new- 
born normal-school idea was buried under Napoleon's magnificent plans for 
European control. 

"Carlyle. in his 'French Revolution,' says: 'Gone are the Jacobins, 
into invisibility, in a storm of laughter and howls Their place is made into 
a normal school, the first of its kind seen ; it then vanishes.' 

"Looking backward, it seems as if France then stood at the parting of 
the ways; the way to peace and a magnificent future prosperity appeared 
to follow from their new public-school and normal-school law; the road to 
suffering, sorrow and despair certainly was followed by giving way to the 
blandishments of a Napoleon." ^IS >23 

This is the end of the quotation from the address. You understand that 
it is Mr. Burnham and his old Massachusetts Magazine and Carlyle that 
have been doing the talking. 

In the proceedings of the national convention of France of January, 1795, 
as contained in the Massachusetts Magazine. of the following April, Horace 
Mann, Edmund Dwight, Father Pierce and their educational friends may 
well have found the inspiration for their glorious fight and victory for nor- 
mal education in Massachusetts. 

The normal educational stream of life flowed from the Bridgewater 
Normal School of Massachusetts to the Illinois Normal School, two of its 
presidents, Richard Edwards and Edwin C. Hewett, having been graduates 
of the Bridgewater school. The same life-giving stream flowed from the 
Illinois Normal School to this Kansas Normal, two of its presidents, Albert 

The Founding of the State Normal School. 93 

R. Taylors and Jasper N. Wilkinson" having been students at the Illinois 
Normal, and also its first principal and associate principal, Henry B. Nor- 
ton,'" of blessed memory. 

In the course of years the Illinois Normal University has become a 
larger school than the Bridgewater Normal School, and this (Emporia) 
school is larger than the Illinois Normal. But the debt of gratitude of New 
England to Horace Mann and his associates, and, if you will permit the 
suggestion, to the national convention of France of 1795, and the debt of 
Illinois to Massachusetts, and of Kansas to Illinois, can never be adequately 

But we are doing our best to pay this indebtedness. On July 13, 1909, 
as you remember, J. M. Rhodes, a graduate of this school and one of its 
honored teachers, went to New England to start a new normal school 
at Keene, N. H., which is, figuratively, only a stone's throw from the old 
Bridgewater Normal School. You also remember that J. E. Clock, also a 
graduate of this school, went back to New England ten years ago as presi- 
dent of the State Normal School at Plymouth, N. H., a position which he 
still holds, greatly to the benefit of that state. You further remember that 
while Illinois gave to Kansas a president of this school for eighteen years, 
in the person of Albert Reynolds Taylor in his early manhood, Kansas has 
paid this debt by giving to Illinois the same Albert R. Taylor in his prime, 
as the honored president of the James Milliken University, at Decatur. 

On July 5, 1859, there assembled in a large hall over a warehouse, on the 
wharf or levee of the Missouri river landing at the then straggling village 
of Wyandotte, a body of fifty-two young men, nearly two-thirds of whom 
were under thirty-five years of age, who had been delegated by the voters 
at their homes to make a constitution for the state. This was the famous 
Wyandotte constitutional convention." It was in session for twenty-one 
days, and the result of their labor is now the organic law of this state. 
John J. Ingalls, father of Regent Sheffield Ingalls of this institution, was 
one of the active members of that convention. He was then a young man, 
twenty-six years of age, and afterward served with great distinction as 
United States senator for Kansas. W. E. Griffith, who was the first state 

Note 8. — Albert Reynolds Taylor, president James Milliken University, Decatur, 111., 
■was born at Magnolia, 111., October 16, 1846, the son of John Taylor and Mbary Ann 
Mills. He married Frances Minerva Dent, of Winona, 111., October 16, 1873. He was 
president of the Kansas State Normal from 1882 to 1901, lecturer before chautauquas, 
and the author of many publications. 

Note 9. — Jasper Newton Wilkinson was born in Vinton county, Ohio, September 19, 
1851, son of Jackson Wilkinson and Mary Morrison. He removed to Illinois in 1864, and 
graduated from the Illinois Normal University in 1874 ; married June, 1879, Nellie B. 
Reynolds ; taught district and high schools at several places in Illinois. He came to Kansas 
in 1884 and served as training teacher, Kansas State Normal, until 1901, and in this year 
became president of the State Normal. He resigned the presidency in April, 1906, and 
went to Oklahoma, where he engaged in business. 

Note 10. — Henry Brace Norton was born in Gaines, Orleans county. New York, 
February 22, 1836. He was educated at a classical school in Rockford, 111., at Beloit 
College, Wisconsin, and in 1858 entered the Illinois Normal University, where he gradu- 
ated in 1861 with high honors. He was principal of the model school in this institution 
one year, then taught a year at Warsaw, 111., and edited the Bloomington Pantagraph one 
year. He married Miss Marian Goodrich in 1864. He was county superintendent of 
schools of Ogle county, Illinois, and came from that position to Kansas as vice principal 
of the Normal School in 1865. Resigning in 1870, he became one of the founders of 
Arkansas City, but in 1873 he returned to Emporia and the Normal, remaining until 
1875, when he went to California, teaching in the San Jos6 State Normal School. He died 
June 22, 1885* 

Note 11. — For list of members of the Wyandotte constitutional convention, with bio- 
graphical data, see Kansas Historical Collections, vol. 11, p. 48, note 2. 

94 Kansas State Historical Society. 

superintendent of Kansas, and whose portrait is downstairs hanging on the 
walls of the general office, was a member of that constitutional convention, 
and served as chairman of its committee on education. 

The daily sessions of that convention were attended throughout the en- 
tire twenty-one days of its existence by a quiet, motherly, soft-spoken 
woman as an interested spectator. She was not a member of the constitu- 
tional convention, and had no vote nor voice in its proceedings. It is said 
that she frequently brought her knitting work, and would sit through a ses- 
sion, sometimes alone and sometimes with a neighbor woman, placidly 
knitting, but keeping a comprehending mind upon the proceedings. She 
had a purpose in being present. If you will turn to section 23 of article 2 
of the constitution of this state you will find the following: 

"Sec. 23. The legislature in providing for the formation and regulation 
of schools, shall make no distinction between the rights of males and fe- 

This was one of the things that Mrs. Clarinda I. Howard Nichols^^ sought 
to obtain by her attendance at the convention. You will find in the consti- 
tution a provision to the effect that mothers and fathers shall have equal 
rights in the custody and control of their children, and that men and women 
have equal property rights in Kansas— more of the fruits of this good wo- 
man's attendance at the Wyandotte convention. You understand now why 
women attend the State Normal School, the State University, and the State 
Agricultural College, and vote at school meetings, the same as men. 

But we are now more especially interested in the Wyandotte convention 
because it is in the proceedings of that body that we find the first official 
recognition of normal education, in Kansas. In section 2 of article 6 of the 
constitution there is a mandate requiring the legislature to establish a uni- 
form system of common schools and schools of higher greide, embracing 
normal, preparatory, collegiate and university departments. You observe 
that it is the normal departments that are first mentioned for the schools 
of higher grade. 

Note 12.- — Mrs. Clarinda Irene Howard Nichols was born in Townshend, Vt., Janu- 
ary 25, 1810. Her early efforts were directed in the cause of education, and she becanie 
a teacher in public and private schools, and founded a young ladies' seminary at Herki- 
mer, N. Y., in 1835. Her second husband being an editor, she was brought prominently 
into the newspaper field in her native state. She came to Kansas in 1854 to look at the 
country, with a view of finding a home for her children, and moved here in 1855, settling 
at Quindaro, Wyandotte county, in the spring of 1857. In territorial days her voice was 
ever ready to help for the freedom of Kansas. In 1871 she moved to California, where 
she resided until her death, which occurred at Potter Valley, Januai-y 11, 1885. She left 
four children, Mrs. Frank Davis, Cavendish, Vt. ; C. H. Carpenter, Kansas City, Kan. ; 
A. O. Carpenter, Ukiah ; and George B. Nichols, Potter Valley. 

In Susan B. Anthony's "History of Woman Suffrage," pages 171, 172, is the following 
tribute to Mrs. Nichols : 

"To Clarinda Howard Nichols the women of Kansas are indebted for many civil rights 
they have as yet been too apathetic to exercise. Her personal presence in the constitu- 
tional convention of 1859 secured for the women of that state liberal property rights, 
equal guardianship of their children, and the right to vote on all school questions. She is 
a large-hearted, brave, faithful woman, and her life speaks for itself. Her experiences 
are indeed the history of all that was done in the above-mentioned states" (Vermont, 
Wisconsin, Kansas, Missouri). 

Mrs. Nichols is quoted as follows : 

"From 1843 to 1853, inclusive, I edited the Windham County Democrat, published by 
my husband, George W. Nichols, at Brattleboro. Early in 1847 I addressed to the voters 
of the state a series of editorials setting forth the injustice and miserable economy of the 
property disabilities of married women. In October of the same year Hon. Larkin Mead, 
of Brattleboro, 'moved,' as he said, 'by Mrs. Nichols' presentation of the subject' in the 
Democrat, introduced in the Vermont senate a bill securing to the wife real and personal 
property, with its use, and power to defend, convey and devise as if 'sole.' The bill, as 
passed, secured to the wife real estate owned by her at marriage, or acquired by gift, 
devise or inheritance during marriage, with the rents, issues and profits, as against any 

The Founding of the State Normal School. 95 

By the Wyandotte constitution slavery was denied, and free schools, 
with provision for normal education, were provided. No educational propa- 
ganda was required, as it had been in Massachusetts and Illinois to educate 
the people in favor of professional training and special preparation for the 
teaching profession. Pursuant to the mandate of the constitution, the 
legislature passed an act in 1863, two years after Kansas was admitted into 
the Union under the Wyandotte constitution, establishing the Normal School 
at Emporia. 

The story of the location of the State Normal School at Emporia is sub- 
stantially as follows: The location of the State University was the prize 
contested for by several towns at the session of the legislature of 1863. 
The two towns receiving the greatest support for the University were Law- 
rence and Emporia. Upon the final vote Lawrence had one more vote than 
Emporia, and was successful. Hon. C. V. Eskridge i^ was a member of the 
house of representatives from Emporia that winter, and made a gallant 
fight for the University for Emporia. After the University was lost to 
Emporia, Judge L. D. Bailey, i< then a justice of the supreme court, who 
had come to Kansas from Massachusetts, and knew about normal schools, 
suggested to Mr. Eskridge that, having lost the location of the University, 
he might have the legislature establish a normal school at Emporia. It is 
said that Mr. Eskridge inquired, "What is a normal school?" and being 
assured that it was something the state could establish as a state institu- 
tion, fell into the plan with good will. Judge Bailey drew up the law, 
copied largely from the normal-school law of Massachusetts, and the next 
day following his defeat for the University Mr. Eskridge introduced the bill 
locating the Normal School at Emporia. 

The legislature was willing to do anything it could to salve the defeat, 
and the bill was passed without opposition and with very little considera- 
tion, the legislature believing a normal school to be a good thing if Massa- 
chusetts had it. And so the Normal School was located at Emporia, and 
the legislature proceeded to other business. Whatever may be said about 
Mr. Eskridge 's previous knowledge of normal schools, it is to his credit 

debts of the husband ; but to make a sale or conveyance of either her realty or its use 
valid, it must be the joint act of husband and wife. She might by last will and testa- 
ment dispose of her lands, tenements, hereditaments, and any interest therein descendable 
to her heirs, as if 'sole.' A subsequent legislature added to the latter clause moneys, 
notes, bonds and other assets accruing from sale or use of real estate. And this was the 
first breath of a legal civil existence to Vermont wives. 

"In 1849 Vermont enacted a homestead law ; in 1850 a bill empowering the wife to 
insure in her own interest the life or a term of the life of her husband, the annual 
premium on such insurance not to exceed $300 ; also, an act giving to widows of childless 
husbands the whole of an estate not exceeding $1000 in value, and half of any amount in 
excess of $1000, and if he left no kin the whole estate, however large, became the property 
of the widow. Prior to this act the widow of a childless husband had only half, however 
small the estate, and if he left no kindred to claim it the remaining half went into the 
treasury of the state, whose gain was the town's loss, if, as occasionally happened, the 
widow's half was not sufficient for her support. 

"In 1852 I drew up a petition, signed by more than 200 of the most substantial busi- 
ness men, including the staunchest conservatives, and taxpaying widows of Brattleboro, 
asking the legislature to make the women of the state voters in district-school meetings. 

"Up to 1850 I had not taken a position for suffrage, but instead of disclaiming its 
advocacy as improper I had, since 1849, shown the absurdity of regarding suffrage as 
unwomanly. Having failed to secure her legal rights by reason of her disfranchisement, 
a woman must look to the ballot for self-protection. In this cautious way I proceeded, 
aware that not a house would be open to me did I demand the suffrage before convicting 
men of legal robbery through woman's inability to defend herself. ' 

Note 13.— For biographical sketch of Hon. Charles V. Eskridge see Seventeenth Bien- 
nial Report, 1909-'10, Kansas State Historical Society, p. 90. 

Note 14.— For biographical sketch of Judge Lawrence D. Bailey, see Historical Collec- 
tions, vol. 8, p. 133. 

96 Kansas State Historical Society. 

that in the early days of the school the institution had no better friend 
than he, and that his services as a member of the board of regents were of 
the greatest possible service to the school. 

In 1864 another act was passed, providing for a governing board, then 
called a board of directors, now a board of regents, and setting forth the 
work to be done by the school. I invite your attention to the following 
sections of these acts of the legislature, in order to show how well the 
framers of these organic acts understood the true purpose of a normal 
school. Section 1 of the act of 1863 is as follows : 

' ' Section 1 . That there be and is hereby established and permanently lo- 
cated at the town of Emporia a state normal school, the exclusive purposes 
of which shall be the instruction of persons, both male and female, in the 
art of teaching, and in all the various branches that pertain to a good com- 
mon-school education, and in the mechanic arts, and in the arts of hus- 
bandry and agricultural chemistry, and in the fundamental laws of the 
United States, and in what regards the rights and duties of citizens." 

Section 12 of the act of 1864 is as follows: 

"Sec. 12. Lectures on chemistry and comparative anatomy, physiology, 
astronomy, and on any other science or any branch of literature that the 
board of directors may direct, may be delivered to those attending the said 
normal school in such manner and on such terms and conditions as the said 
board may prescribe " 

You have noticed, of course, that the primary object and purpose of the 
Normal School, as shown by these early laws of 1863 and 1864, is the in- 
struction of both men and women in the art of teaching. All else clusters 
around this idea of teaching the teachers. Their minds are to be improved 
by an enlarged and liberal course of study; but it is all for the purpose of 
adding to their efficiency as teachers. And I am hapi y to record that this 
Normal School through all the years of its existence has never departed 
from the true and exalted purpose of the professional training of good 
teachers for the schools of this state. But did you also notice how closely 
the Kansas laws founding this school follow the proceedings of our old edu- 
cational friends of the national convention of France of 1795 (as shown by 
the old Massachusetts Magazine of April, 1795) in mapping out the work of 
those normal schools of the French Revolution— "the first of-their kind," 
as stated by Carlyle? 

The first appropriation bill for the Normal School was passed by the 
legislature of 1864. The amount of the appropriation was $1000. It was 
to be used exclusively for the salaries of teachers. 

The Rev. G. C. Morse, Congregational minister of this town, was chosen 
secretary of the board of directors at its first meeting, which was in Octo- 
ber, 1864, and authorized to employ a principal for the school. This he did 
in December, 1864, by coming to the Bloomington, 111., Normal University 
where I was then teaching and hiring me to come to Emporia to serve in 
that capacity. It was the understanding that I should come to Kansas in 
January, 1865, and we were to get the Normal School going as soon there- 
after as possible. I came accordingly, and on February 15, 1865, forty-five 
years ago, this institution began its actual work of trying to educate teach- 
ers for the schools of Kansas. 

This bring us to the date which we are in the habit of celebrating as 
Founders' Day, February 15 of each year. On the twenty-fifth anniversary 
of this date special exercises were planned and carried out, including a his- 

The Founding of the State Normal School. 97 

tory of the State Normal School from its beginning to that date. This 
history was printed in a book of something like 200 pages, and may be 
found in the Library building. Attorneys have a habit of incorporating in 
their pleadings other documents by reference thereto as exhibits. With 
your permission, and following the lawyer's habit, I now make that book a 
part of this document, as fully and completely as if herein written out in 
full. Of course, I spare you the reading of that history at this time. 

What I have said in this paper will, I trust, point out that some of the 
influences that led to the founding of this school began prior to February 
15, 1865. You will also permit me to say that the founding of this institu- 
tion is now in progress; to be strictly accurate. I consider that it has only 
fairly begun. Forty-five years in the history of an institution of learning 
is not very long. Last summer President Schurman of Cornell University 
received and accepted an invitation to attend the 500th anniversary of the 
founding of the University of Leipzig, in Germany. The two-line newspa- 
per item to this effect probably attracted my attention more than it other- 
wise would have done from the fact that one of my sons had been a student 
of the Leipzig school and another son is now studying at Cornell. But the 
item in question led me to reflect somewhat upon the life and growth of ed- 
ucational institutions as a part of the life and growth of states and nations. 
Harvard University, at Cambridge, Mas.«., was opened to students in 1636; 
Yale, at New Haven, Conn., was started in 1700; Columbia University, at 
New York, was founded in 1754. None of the schools I have mentioned 
shows signs of decrepitude; all are in full vigor of youth, as compared with 
the Mahommedan University at Cairo, Egypt, with its 8000 students, which 
was founded in 975 A. D., and is just now bestirring itself to found advanced 
courses of study and take on a new and more vigorous growth. 

The great forward movement of this institution, now in active progress, 
including the expansion of its courses of study to meet the growing needs 
of the state; the erection and equipment within the past few years of the 
Library Building, the Training-school Building, Norton Science Hall, and 
the new Physical-training Building, or Gymnasium; the splendid attendance 
and good work of the students, the great ability and harmonious working 
together of the faculty— all constitute a part and portion of the founding oi 
the school. 

The seers and prophets of this institution, Henry B. Norton of the past, 
and Joseph H. Hill of the present, beckon the Normal School on to the 
glorified coming of its future days of strength and usefulness. 


By legislative act of February 26, 1901, the Western State Normal 
School was created as a part of the normal-school system of Kansas. No 
action was taken toward starting the school that year because of the con- 
troversy over the title to the land. This was settled so that the school 
could begin work in the summer of 1902. On June 23 the formal opening 
occurred, with William S. Picken and Anna Keller as teachers. Thirty-four 
students were present. 

Work was begun in the old fort hospital building, which served its pur- 
pose until the autumn of 1904, when the school moved into a building pro- 

98 Kansas State Historical Society. 

vided by the legislature of 1903. The present buildings have cost $75,000, 
and $30,000 more is to be spent the coming summer for an electric light, 
heating and water plant. 

The first course of study provided for two years' work. This was 
lengthened to three years in 1905, and to four years in 1908. In 1907 a 
model district school was established especially for the training of teachers 
who are to work in the rural districts. A building is now being erected for 
its use on the reservation. 

The first legislature gave $12,000 for the support of the school for the 
biennium 1901-'03. The appropriation for 1910-'ll is $98,000. The institu- 
tion has in addition the rentals from the reservation. 

The total number of students in attendance for the year 1902-'03 was 
121; for the year 1908- '09 was 402. 

There are at present fourteen teachers. —Kansas Historical Collections, 
vol. xi, p. 577. 

The appropriation for 1912-'13 is $129,500, $40,000 of which is for the 
erection of a building to be used as a model agricultural high school, dining 
hall and library. The total enrollment in 1911 was 464. 


The Elements. 



Written for the Kansas State Historical Society by O. P. Byers, of Hutchinson. - 

rpHE autumn and early winter of 1885 were of the grandeur possible only 
-•- to the western plains. The enchanting haze of the Indian summer 
was never more resplendent, thrilling the soul of the lover of nature and 
making the distant landscape seem a phantom. 

The morning of December 31 dawned clear and mild, with a low barom- 
eter, and a peculiar yellowish purple bordering the northern horizon. Early 
in the forenoon a single fleecy cloud from the northwest and a very rapidly 
rising barometer foretold a coming storm. By noon a light rain was falling. 
The temperature in a few hours had fallen below zero. The storm, gaining 
force hourly, continued throughout the night, and by morning it might very 
truthfully be said the state was frozen solid. This in itself was not unusual, 
nor was it seriously feared, but as the storm did not abate during the 
second day or the following night the situation became alarming. The 

Note 1.— Notwithstanding the word "blizzard" is generally taboo in Kansas, there is 
an occasional atmospheric condition which attracts local and temporary attention. At the 
present writing, about March 1, 1912, this contribution of our friend at Hutchinson con- 
cerning experiences in January, 1886, emphasizes and brings to mind a condition of vital 
historical interest if not of value. The latest edition of Webster's Dictionary gives this 
definition: "Blizzard: A dry, intensely cold, violent storm, with high winds and fine, 
driving snow, such as those which originate on the eastern slope of the Canadian Rocky 
Mountains." This definite location of the origin of the nasty thing relieves Kansas of all 
responsibility. But a comparison between January, 1886, and January and February, 1912, 
shows a remarkable gain in Kansas in preparedness for such buffeting from without. The 
record for January, 1886, shows from fifty to one hundred people frozen to death — nearer 
the latter number — and cattle by the tens of thousands destroyed in two weeks of zero 
weather, while in practically two months of greater snowfall and more continuous zero 
temperature we can learn of but a half dozen deaths and the loss of but a few hundred 
head of cattle in January and February, 1912. This shows a great gain in Kansas in 
conquering the plains, and by these comparisons in recorded history we learn. The first 
news of any seriousness concerning the blizzard of 1911-'12 was from Hutchinson, De- 
cember 29, 1911, announcing that W. D. Nifton had found the dead body of his wife near 
Fowler, in a snow-storm, with a five-year-old son clinging to her breast. Mrs. Nifton 
taught school a few miles from home, and attempted to reach home with a horse and 
buggy on the afternoon of the 28th. Her husband and the neighbors searched all night 
for her. Rough weather began with an all-day snow Saturday, December 30, 1911. Sun- 

NOTE 2. — Otto Philip Byers was born at Tampico, Howard county, Indiana, May 2, 
1863, the son of Jasper J. Byers, M. D., and Sarah E. Byers. He was educated in the 
high school at Russiaville, Ind. Before coming to Kansas he lived at Kokomo, Ind. He 
located in Kansas August 31, 1878, and has lived at Brookville, McPherson, Carbondale, 
Detroit, Wamego, St. Marys, Solomon, Abilene and Hutchinson, in various railroad 
capacities on the Union Pacific, Rock Island and Hutchinson & Southern. He has been a 
telegraph operator, station agent, train dispatcher, train master and superintendent. He 
was with the Union Pacific from September 10, 1878, until July 23, 1887, when he became 
connected with the Rock Island. December 15, 1905, he resigned to become general agent 
of the Dawson Fuel Company, of Dawson, N. M., for Kansas and Colorado. He is also 
interested in the Kansas Flour Mills Company and in the Pratt Light and Ice Company. 
January 8, 1885, he was married to Mary Rowe, at Solomon. They have a son and. 
daughter. Their home is in Hutchinson. 


100 Kansas State Historical Society. 

temperature continued to fall until it then reached twenty degrees below 
zero. Neither had the terrifying wind abated in the slightest. The atmos- 
phere had assumed a peculiar blackness characteristic of such storms, and 
the fine, driven snow made breathing most difficult. Day after day the 
storm continued, each cessation quickly followed by another storm, mak- 
ing it practically continuous. The temperature did not rise to zero from 
,the first night to the last, the latter part of the month, and generally ranged 
from fifteen to thirty below. 

A complete failure of crops the previous season had left the settler on 
the high prairie in no position to provide against such an emergency, even 

■day morning-, December 31, it was 3 degrees below zero. The first instance of rail- 
road trains stalling was on the 80th of December. Not a single train moved on the Great 
Bend and Scott City branch of the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe railroad for three days. 
Trouble began on the railroads Tuesday, December 26, 1911. January 1, 1912, the snow 
was nineteen inches deep on the level, and the drifts before the week ended were twenty 
feet deep. Two feet of ice and snow was reported from all parts of western Kansas, and 
■drifts of ten and twelve feet everywhere. A boy in Morton county spent two whole days 
in a snowstorm going seven miles, January 5, 1912. About the same date over 300 head 
of cattle were lost in the neighborhood of Dighton. Near Sharon, January 5, 
two engines collided on the Union Pacific, with three engines and a snow plow. Aloout 
January 4 the mercury was 7 degrees below zero for five days at Dodge City. A Santa Fe 
train that had been snow-bound since December 26 was released on the 4th of January. 
On the morning of January 6, 1912, at Topeka, it was 14 degrees below zero. Weather 
so cold, snow so solid, that flocks of famished jack rabbits were raiding farmyards and 
feed lots and invading granaries in Lane, Ness, Hodgeman and other counties in western 
Kansas. January 6 eleven deaths occurred in New York city from cold during the night. 
Sunday, January 8, several of the churches in Topeka were closed. That morning it was 
'6 degrees below zero. On the 11th the worst blizzard prevailed in southwestern Kansas, 
with wind from fifty to sixty miles an hour, and the temperature reported from 5 to 15 
below. One cattleman" says : "There are 400,000 head of cattle in western Kansas in the 
same condition as ours. They represent a valuation of approximately $40,000,000. In the 
last three weeks the owners of these cattle have suffered a loss of not less than $4,000,000." 
Loss from dying cattle seemed much greater along the southern line of the state than 
farther north. In the isolated farmhouses about the western part of the state the full 
extent of the damage done the cattle interests will never be known. At Topeka the 
mercury was 19 below at eight o'clock A. M. on January 12 ; January 13, at Topeka, eight 
P. M., 5 below. About January 12 the mercury at Great Bend and Rush Center was 22 
degrees below, and farther to the west it was a couple of degrees lower. Up to January 
19, Ness City had no train for twenty-three days. The first train in carried sixty-five 
sacks of mail. Some fine stories of generous hospitality by the settlers toward belated 
travelers came from all along the road. The railroad companies bountifully supplied all, 
but frequently, where trains could be reached, wagonloads of fried pork chops, coffee and 
bread were carried to the passengers by farmers. The Santa Fe alone paid $35,000 for 
feeding passengers. Sunday, February 25, brought another great snowstorm, covering the 
ground from six to eight inches ; a gale of wind also prevailed, and the snow was heavy 
with water. Railroad officers said it was the worst storm of the season. The street-car 
service in Topeka was closed practically for forty-eight hours, and one hundred men with 
picks and shovels were engaged night and day in opening the tracks. Seven inches of 
snow fell on this Sunday. On the Missouri Pacific, near Hoisington, February 28, five 
locomotives used in bucking snow toppled over, all being chained together. Saturday 
morning, March 2, there was another fall of snow ; 7.7 inches came again, demoralizing 
the roads. At the end of this storm, or for the week following, there was fifteen inches 
of snow in Topeka, and to the westward a much greater covering. As near as can be 
ascertained, there were but seven lives lost in western Kansas because of the storm : 
Jacob Brunk and T. C. Bidwell, near Lamed ; Walter Falls, a ranchman, and Mrs. Nifton 
and son, in Clark county ; E. S. Taylor, in Ness county, and J. P. Smith, of Liberal. 
Near Wagon Mound, in New Mexico, a freighter or farmer was found, March 5, sitting 
upright in his wagon, dead, with the team still attached. 

S. D. Flora, the weather observer at Topeka, says the total recorded fall of snow from 
October 27, 1911, to March 5, 1912, was 32.1 inches. The second greatest fall was 
recorded in 1900-'01, when 29.1 inches were recorded. The third greatest was in 1892-'93, 
and the amount was 28 inches. In 1904-'05 the fourth greatest fall was recorded ; it 
amounted to 25.7 inches. The record extends over a 25-year period. There have been 
some single instances of heavy snowfalls in the state. On November 9, 1888, a fall of 9.5 
inches was recorded ; February 17, 1893, the snow reached a depth of 9 inches ; February 
27 and 28, 1900, a total of 18.7 inches fell within 24 hours ; March 6, 1912, was the coldest 
March 6 in the past 25 yeai-s. He further says that the winter of 1911-'12 has not ranked 
high as the coldest. The year 1911 was the warmest twelve months on recoi'd. On Janu- 
ai-y 15, 1888, the minimum temperature was 20 degrees below zero ; February 20, 1889, 
13 below; January 19, 1892, 23 below, January 24, 1894, 14 below; February 7, 1895, 14 
below ; February 12, 1899, 25 below ; and February 13, 1905, 22 below, while in Smith 
county on that day the mercury fell to 40 degrees below zero, the coldest weather ever 
recorded in Kansas. 

The six coldest winters in the past twenty-five years, as shown by the records of the 
Weather Bureau, follow: 1898-'99, average temperature, 25.7; 1909-'10, 26.1; 1908-'10, 
26.1; 1887-'88, 26.2; 1892-'93, 26.5; 1911-'12, 26.7. 

Recollections of the Blizzard of 1886. loi 

had he been forewarned. Never before had a storm of such intensity or 
duration been experienced. 3 But little provision was made by the average 
man of that day for wintering his stock; in fact, because of the scarcity of 
feed, the animals were generally turned out to shift for themselves. It 
was as much as the homesteader could do to provide for his family, meager 
as their requirements were. Thus, in the sparsely settled western half of 
the state, in such a storm there was almost no chance of life for stock, and 
but little for man, except those who had dugouts, and only then when they 
were fortunate enough to reach them before the storm attained its height. 

Individual cases of perishing, suffering, escaping and heroism in well- 
known instances would fill a volume.^ A systematic search of dugouts, 
shanties and prairie was made as soon as possible. A number of people 
were found in their homes frozen to death, and the ones alive were in bed, 
where they had been for days, as their only means to escape freezing. 
Many were found on the prairie, where they had become lost and perished. 
Much as the town people suffered, they fared well compared with the set- 
tler. Widely separated from one another, in the desperation of almost cer- 
tain death, many attempted refuge with more fortunate neighbors, and 
generally with disastrous results. Several perished attempting to reach 
home. One of the most remarkable cases was a homesteader in north- 
western Kansas. He and his team of two horses were found frozen to 
death within fifty feet of his dugout. Animal instinct had guided the 
horses home, but so impossible was it to see even a few feet, he either be- 
lieved himself lost on the prairie and the animals unable to go further, or 
he perished on the road home. His family, in the dugout only a few feet 
away, knew nothing of his presence for two days. 

A well-known case of an entire family perishing was that of a farmer 

Note 3. — "The most fatal storm known in the history of Republic county was the 
great Easter storm of April 13, 14 and 15, 1873. The wind blew like a hurricane from 
the north, with rain and snow, and the thermometer for the first day stood at freezing 
point. One family, six miles east of Belleville, fearing that their frame house would be 
carried away, went to a neighbor's, who lived in a stone house, for safety. The husband 
of one of the families was in Waterville, and the other had gone to another neighbor for 
assistance, but the latter, believing there was no danger, would not take his team from the 
barn. When the husband returned he found his house blown down and the two families, 
seven in all, scattered about the prairie, frozen to death. The pouring rain had saturated 
their clothing, which was soon frozen, encasing their bodies in ice. One woman was 
found, with a babe in her arms, sitting against a wagon wheel, around whose spokes her 
hair had been caught and fastened with sleet. She was dead, and the child, which was 
still alive, soon expired. The frame house that was deserted was not materially injured 
by the storm. The wind blew so strong that no beast could face it without soon becoming 
exhausted." — Cutler's History of Kansas, 1883, p. 1033. 

Note 4. — "Mayor W. A. Miller, of Anthony, does n't think that the recent cold spell 
was much to talk about. Still, it was enough to remind him of the winter of 1885-'86, 
which he spent on a claim south of Ashland. January 8, 1886, he took Mrs. Miller to 
town for a visit with friends in Ashland. Returning, he went duck hunting along the 
Cimarron, took off his shoes and waded across to a friend's home on the south side, where 
he took supper and visited until 11. They were in a dugout and heard no storm; but 
when his host looked out and reported a bad storm blowing, Mr. Miller started for home 
in spite of his host's protests, and, arriving at his 10 x 12 sod house nearly frozen from 
facing the icy gale from the north, built a fire in the stove and turned in after he was 
thoroughly warmed. He put his clothes in bed to keep them warm, so dressing would not 
be so chilly in the morning. Sometime in the night he was awpkened by an unusual 
noise, and found that the roof had blown off his sod shanty and the snow and crumbly 
dirt from the sod roof was sifting in in great style. He got into his clothes and reached 
for his woolen comforter to wind about his neck, and found it had gone with the roof. He 
started for a neighbor's house, that was 200 yards distant in a protected place, and lost 
his bearings in the flying mist of dust, ice-like needles, and a wind that hurt every breath 
he took. He finally groped his way back to his house ; then he got down on his hands 
and knees, growing with his bare hands in the blood-congealing darkness for the litt'e 
path worn in the buffalo grass that led to the neighbor's house. He found it and crept 
along it to light and warmth. His left cheek and ear were badly frosted and it was a 
long time before they were healed. Twenty-four people were frozen to death m that 
county that night." — Anthony Republican, January 19, 1912. 

102 Kansas State Historical Society. 

who started from the little town of Oberlin, in northwestern Kansas, for his 
claim, with his wife and six children in a wagon. A few days later all were 
found on the prairie frozen to death. 

A pathetic case was discovered of two girls who lived with their mother 
on a claim in western Kansas. The girls attempted to go to the house of 
their brother on an adjoining farm, but became lost and perished. The 
mother was found in her home several days later, so badly frozen that she 

One evening a man was reported lost at Wallace. A coil of rope was 
secured, one end tied around the body of a volunteer, who made a circle of 
probably two hundred yards. The other end of the rope was held inside the 
building. Fortunately the lost man was within this radius, and was brought 
in almost frozen stiff; in fact, amputation of a limb was afterwards neces- 
sary. The searcher knew that without this rope, if he got ten feet away 
from the building he would never find it again. 

Jack rabbits and birds of every description were found all over the prai- 
rie frozen to death. Almost every town was destitute of fuel. Corn soon 
became the substitute for coal, and toward the end of the storm even that 
was becoming exhausted. It finally became a question of provisions. Busi- 
ness was suspended and schools dismissed almost the entire month. Water- 
works systems in the various cities and towns were frozen and useless; 
newspapers published could not be delivered by carrier, and even the post 
offices were idle. Telephone systems were at that time confined to cities 
entirely, and were practically of no service. Famihes huddled together in 
one room, with the balance of the house battened in every way possible, 
against the raging storm, passed anxious days in isolation. From the third 
day it was realized live stock on the wind-swept plains would be almost a 
total loss. The snowfall was not extraordinary in depth, except drifts, 
which were frequently ten feet high. 

Every railroad in the state was completely paralyzed. ^ Cuts were 
drifted full of fine snow driven by the high north wind. Trains were 
stalled, and the crude appliances for clearing the tracks were useless. Be 
it remembered, the modern rotary snowplow of to-day was as unknown 

Note 5. — Specials to the Topeka Capital show the condition of railway traffic from 
January 4 to 17, 1886: 

"Colby, Kan., Jan. 4. — On account of the fury of the storm all travel has ceased." 

"Kansas City, Jan. 4. — The overdue trains are delayed on account of the storm west 
of here. Trains were made up on the Santa Fe and Union Pacific in western Kansas to 
bring in passengers from the blockaded through trains. The weather is growing colder 
here to-night" 

"Brookville, Kan., Jan. 6. — One of the most disastrous snow blockades in the history 
of the Union Pacific railroad has just been cleared away, although it required the com- 
bined efforts of all the section men between Lawrence and Brookville for nearly sixteen 
hours with shovels and picks to clear the track. The scene of the blockade was in a deep 
cut of about twenty feet and a quarter of a mile in length, just west of here, where the 
snow had drifted before the blizzardous gale that swept over this part of the country last 
Sunday, filling the cut up level with the high bank on both sides, and delaying all trains 
for the past three days. Eleven engines with their combined force could not effect a 
passageway through the snow bank, but were effectively deadened, as they could neither 
move forward nor backward on account of "bucking' the solid mass of snow too fast. One 
engine was so completely buried in the snow that you could not even see its smokestack, 
and another, in the effort to force a passage, was butted square across the track. A 
passenger train of several coaches was sandwiched in the line of engines, causing much 
inconvenience to the passengers, who were compelled to take refuge at the hotels. But 
now all the engines have been extricated and the track completely cleared, and the trains 
will be run on usual time in a day or two." 

"Kansas City, Jan. 6. — The snow blockade on the western roads has been raised. 
The last of the delayed trains arrived to-day." 

"Council Grove, Kan., Jan. 8.— The Missouri Pacific passenger train was wrecked by 
the snow in Downing cut, eight miles north of town, after passing here last evening. 

Recollections of the Blizzard of 1886. 103 

then as the wireless telegraph or airship. Some four or five days after the 
beginning of the storm the tracks were partially cleared, but before trains 
could be moved into division points they were again blockaded. Engines 
were off the track and so disabled from snow service that the attempt to 
use them further in cleaning tracks was abandoned altogether, and the 
slower method of shoveling out the cuts resorted to. So deep were the 
drifts, it was frequently necessary to form '-benches," the man down on 
the track pitching the snow up to a man standing on the first bench, he in 
turn pitching it to another man on a bench higher up, who cast it out. 
Oftentimes a cut thus cleared would again be drifted full within a few 
hours by the high wind. No attempt was made to run freight trains after 
the first day, and after the first week all effort to move even passenger 
trains across the western half of the state ceased entirely. But three pas- 
senger trains entered Denver from the east during the entire month. 

Old engineers, who had for years passed over the same track daily, be- 
came lost before they had gone five miles from their starting points. Not 
a marker could be seen in broad daylight. In numerous cases they ran by 
the stations, unable to see the depots twenty feet away. Because of the 
great danger of running by or the impossibility of seeing signals, the 
dispatchers were obliged to abandon the telegraph as a means of moving 
trains. It became a custom for engineers to ride facing the rear, and 
through the vacuum created by the movement of the frain, locate them- 
selves by some familiar telegraph pole. They had no other means of form- 
ing any idea whatever as to where they were. Probably not in the history 
of railroads has a similar condition existed. 

Men soon became exhausted from working day and night. Employees 
in all capacities were pressed into snow service. Box cars heated with 
temporary stoves were the sleeping quarters, and the subsistence such eat- 
ables as could be found. So crowded were the cars, unbelievable as it may 
seem, men were frequently seen standing perfectly upright, sound asleep 
and snoring. 

Ten or twelve full-grown steers were found standing frozen to death on 

and Conductor John A. Browne and Mail Messenger John Pullman started to walk back to 
this town for assistance. In walking over the bridge near town Pullman slipped and fell, 
breaking the bone of his left leg. Conductor Browne carried him to the city, a distance 
of several miles. The wind was blowing a blizzard, and the thermometer this morning 
indicated 22 degrees below zero. The train was imbedded in a snow bank all night, and 
was brought back to this place this morning. The passengers were all comfortably cared 
for by the trainmen." 

"Kansas City, Jan. 8. — The mercury reached 15 degrees below zero here this morning. 
Through traffic is entirely suspended on the overland roads, though several local trains 
are kept moving." 

"Kansas City, Jan. 11. — Notwithstanding the statement current to-day that the snow 
blockade on the western roads had been raised, it appears that the difficulty has not been 
removed. Another snowstorm was reported to-day from the vicinity of Emporia and 
Ellsworth, Kan. The Missouri Pacific and the Southern Kansas roads are cleared, but 
the overland through trains are still blocked." 

"Dodge City, Kan., Jan. 11. — The heavy snow and bitter north winds of the past ten 
days have caused the most serious apprehension among cattlemen as to their probable 
losses. Up to this time but few have come in from the range country, but within a few 
miles of here no less than five hundred head have drifted to the river, where they per- 
ished in attempting to cross, or drifted up to fences, where they remained until frozen to 
death. A gentleman in from a ranch south of here reports seeing cattle on his way up 
that were standing on their feet, frozen. The water holes are frozen over, the grass is 
snowed under and the weather is cold, with every prospect for more snow. The loss of 
live stock is bound to be very heavy on the Arkansas river, as cattle are drifting down 
from the Kansas Pacific road." 

"Kansas City, Jan. 16. — The additional snowfall yesterday and last night in western 
Kansas caused fresh trouble on the Santa Fe and Kansas Pacific roads, and both were 
blockaded to-day some 200 miles west of here. The Burlington & Missouri River from 
Denver, due here this morning, arrived this afternoon." 

104 Kansas State Historical Society. 

the track in a cut in the Harker hills. They had drifted in with the storm 
and became covered with snow. A snowplow was stalled but a few feet 
from them. 

In western Kansas a passenger train was stopped on the level prairie by 
an obstruction ahead. Snow began drifting around the wheels, and in a 
few hours there was a solid drift up to the windows of the coaches the full 
length of the train. Several days later, when it was released, it was found 
the wheels were frozen to the rails. The cars had to be uncoupled and 
broken loose one at a time. 

The morning of the second day of the storm the Santa Fe had several 
trains of cattle in western Kansas, east bound, in the usual course of busi- 
ness. They were rushed to Dodge City and unloaded for safety. The man- 
agement congratulated itself upon thus getting them into a feeding station, 
which Dodge City was at the time. The next morning less than twenty- 
five per cent of the animals unloaded were alive. Leaving them in the cars 
meant certain destruction, and the railroad followed the only course that 
offered even a hope of saving them. 

Each railroad issued a general order on the third day, refusing shipments 
of freight of every character. This order remained in effect almost the en- 
tire month. 

Many farmers reversed positions of animals each day, where more than 
one stood in a stall, to prevent one side becoming frozen. With all the pro- 
tection possible to give them, their eyes, nose, ears and hoofs were frozen. 
For days at a time it was impossible to get out to feed sheltered stock, and 
watering them was not attempted. 

Numerous stage routes were still in operation at that time. A number 
of stages became lost and wandered miles from their routes. A stagecoach 
came into the military post of Camp Supply, Indian Territory, with the 
driver sitting on the box frozen to death. The passengers inside knew 
nothing of the death of their driver until after they had alighted at their 

Freighters plying between the railroads, interior towns and remote mili- 
tary posts were caught on their routes and obliged to seek any possible 
shelter. Many turned their animals loose, and even then perished. 

The entire country south of the Platte river was open. Nothing was left 
any animal but to drift with the storm. When they reached the right-of- 
way fence of the Union Pacific railroad they could go no farther. There 
they froze to death in drifts along the fence. For several yea,rs afterward 
it was a matter of common remark that one could have walked from Ells- 
worth to Denver, a distance of more than four hundred miles, on the car- 
casses. Skinning these animals for their hides became an industry the 
following month. 

South of the Santa Fe railroad there were no fences. From the south- 
western ranches animals drifted across the Rio Grande river into Mexico 
and were never recovered. Range animals found after the storm, in many 
well-authenticated cases, had drifted several hundred miles. The canyon or 
ravine was their only possible refuge. Into these they drifted and piled up, 
too weak to go farther. If not smothered by other animals piling on them 
or being covered with snow, they were imprisoned by snow drifting around 
them until they could not move. Many thus starved to death before they 

Recollections of the Blizzard of 1886. 105 

were found. Antelopes, and even wolves, drifted with the cattle and piled 
up with them. 

A well-known firm of southern Kansas ranchmen had a few weeks prior 
to the storm purchased 2500 cattle and placed them on their ranch for the 
winter, giving their notes in payment. A week after the storm struck, 
when it was possible to get out on their range, they found the cattle all 
dead, themselves $45,000 in debt and with no means of paying it. Not even 
the hides were saved. Of 5500 cattle on a ranch in southwestern Kansas, 
5000 perished, entailing a loss of more than $100,000. The loss of entire 
herds was not uncommon, and fortunate was the man who did not lose more 
than half of his herd.'' Another ranchman was offered $25,000 for his cat- 
tle a few days before the storm. After the blizzard he sold the remnants 
for $500. 

That commercialism will invade misfortune, and even death, was never 
better illustrated. Speculators originated the plan of buying of the unfor- 
tunate ranchmen, for a very small sum, all the cattle of their brand they 
could find alive. Such contracts were freely executed, the plains searched 
and cattle gathered. The animals found alive were so weak, however, that 
it is doubtful if the ones seeking to profit by the misfortunes of others 
actually made anything. 

The net result of this storm was the most unprecedented loss of live 
stock ever experienced on the plains. The history of the state tells us of 
no catastrophe that has ever cost the loss of life and suffering produced by 
that terrible January, 1886.^ What planetary or atmospheric situation may 
have arisen, beyond the well-known barometric condition of the time, to 
have produced such an intense and continued blizzard has never been known. 
A weird story and sad commentary upon a land heralded everywhere as one 
of mild winters of short duration !« 

The pioneer- of that day, of limited means at best, constructed but a 
makeshift upon his claim, which was for barter always. The "move on" 

Note 6. — The Topeka Capital in one issue, January 16, 1886, chronicles the loss, by 
freezing, of nearly 1000 hogs and of twenty-four horses owned by a man in Mitchell 
county. "Quail, prairie hens and rabbits in large numbers are reported to have been 

A notice in the Newton Republican, republished in the Capital of January 17, says : 
"Capt. Reuben M. Spivey is in from the west. He reports great losses in stock. Cattle 
and sheep wandered with the stoim to the wire fence by the side of the railroad, and 
there perished by hundreds and thousands. He saw 1500 dead sheep at one place." 

A special from Garden City to the Capital of January 19 says: "It is estimated that 
there are 10,000 dead cattle between this city and the White Woman river." 

Note 7. — J. C. Emahizer, a prominent business man of Topeka, says: "I was living 
in western Kansas at that time [January 9, 1886]. It was one of the worst blizzards 
Kansas ever experienced. In one county, Thomas, there were thirty-five persons frozen 
to death during that storm. The temperature was 16 degrees below zero, I believe, but it 
was the terrible wind that made the storm so bad. There was snow on the ground, and 
the wind stirred this up and blew it through the air like it was snowing. One could 
travel with the wind pretty well, but one could not go against it and live. In Thomas 
county three men were frozen to death in a wagon, in spite of the fact that they huddled 
up together in the bottom. The horses found their way home, but the three men were 
dead. The day after the storm two boys who had gone out to look after the family's 
stock the night before were found frozen to death, sitting back to back in an effort to 
keep warm." 

Note 8. — A diary kept by Mrs. Sarah P. Ladd, a pioneer of Wyandotte county, shows 
that in December, 1855, the temperature fell below zero seven mornings ; in January of 
the same winter zero weather was recorded ten mornings. In December, 1856, the Mis- 
souri river was frozen over for twenty days ; in January of the same winter the mercury 
was below zero si.x times. In 1859 the Missouri river was closed to navigation on account 
of ice as early as December 2. The following winter the Kaw river was filled with ice on 
November 24, and boats could not run on the Missouri after December 22. In 1862 both 
rivers were icebound from Christmas to March 10. 

106 Kansas State Historical Society. 

spirit was his religion. A 10 x 12 shack of cheapest material, poorly put 
together and scantily furnished, was his domicile. No human being could 
have survived this storm in them, and many of the fatalities were directly 
due to this fact. 

The uninviting dugout, of rattlesnake and other reptile legend, alone 
could provide security in such a storm. Families living in them, having 
sufficient provisions and fuel, suffered but little discomfort. 

The February following was comparatively mild and bore little evidence 
of the arctic conditions of the preceding weeks. The writer, an eyewitness 
to many of these scenes and tragedies, hesitates to record them, the ex- 
traordinary nature, severity and duration of the series of storms that 
memorable month make the well-established incidents resulting therefrom 
almost beyond belief. In a continuous residence of more than a third of a 
century upon the Great Plains, never has he, before or since, seen anything 
that even remotely approached it.^ 

Even such extraordinary disasters are not without their moral. While 
the result of this storm was to largely depopulate the plains and to finan- 
cially ruin almost every ranchman, its lesson has never been forgotten by 
the ones who remained. It has resulted in the settler making proper pro- 
vision for the winter, and has marked the end of the open-range method of 
turning animals loose at branding time in the fall, to care for themselves as 
best they can during the winter, the survivors being gathered at the spring 
roundup. The ranchman of to-day has his range fenced, hay provided, and, 
with the advent of cottonseed cake in abundance, has little fear of storms 
or cold weather. 

The modern rotary snowplow, with a capacity of moving at a speed of 
four miles an hour through the deepest drifts, instead of the dangerous and 
uncertain wedge plow attached to the front of a locomotive, together with 
the vast improvement in the government Weather Bureau, especially in the 
dissemination of storm warnings, have made the railroad of to-day practi- 
cally immune from snow blockades.^" 

Note 9. — In a paper before the Kansas Academy of Science, 1907, on the "Climatology 
of Kansas," Mr. T. B. Jennings, director of the Weather Bureau in Kansas, says : 

"In 1780 the Kaw river remained frozen from one full moon to the next. During the 
winter of 1796-'97 'all streams remained frozen for thirty suns.' These traditions are 
borne out by conditions that prevailed in our neighborhood: In the cold of 1780 Bayou 
St. John (New Orleans) was frozen over. In 1796-'97 the Ohio and Mississippi rivers 
were frozen over below Cairo, 111., the minimum temperature at Cincinnati being 14 
degrees below zero in December and 18 degrees below in January. January and Februai^y, 
1831, were 'bitter cold,' and in December, 1831, 'all streams were frozen,' and at the 
same time the Mississippi was fi'ozen over for a distance of 130 miles below the mouth of 
the Ohio river. February, 1838, was always referred to by Indians as a 'cold moon.' The 
mean temperature at Fort Gibson, I. T., was 15 below the normal for that month. The 
winter of 1855-'56 was one of the severest ever known in this latitude. The mean tem- 
perature for January, 1856, at Fort Leavenworth was 10.1 degrees, and at Fort Riley it 
was 11 degrees. January, 1857, was also cold, the mean temperature at Fort Leavenworth 
being 12.1 degrees, and at Fort Riley it was 9.4 degrees. January, 1862, 1868, 1873, 1875 
and 1886 were exceptionally cold, as shown by records at Forts Leavenworth and Riley." — 
Topeka Daily Capital, December 8, 1907. 

Note 10. — Among many interesting stories of the condition in western Kansas the 
past winter is that of Ben Starr, the veteran trapper of Pawnee creek, who came into 
Larned March 1, 1912, with his dog team and sledge on his annual trip to market his 
furs and pelts. 

The great snow made conditions in central and western Kansas similar to those of 
Alaska, and Larned was suddenly transformed into a Hudson Bay trading post, which 
gave Starr and his dogs a proper setting. Two hundred and fifty furs were in the sled 
load. Hides of skunk, mink, muskrat and badger, with a few civet cats and coons, made 
up the cargo. More often Ben Starr takes them to his nearest railway station, which is 
Burdette. Not a train moved on the Jetmore branch of the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe 
for a week, and snow drifts from four to twenty feet deep in the highways blocked all 
vehicle traffic in western Pawnee and Hodgeman counties. Being under contract to deliver 

Recollections of the Blizzard of 1886. 107 

Likewise are the settler and ranchman protected byradvance notice of 
approaching storms, through the medium of the rural telephone system now 
found in even the most remote sections of the country, and by the intel- 
ligent reading of his own barometer. 


I begin on December 31, 1885, and continue, for it is not possible to un- 
derstand why I called ten to twenty above zero warm without knowing the 
state of the weather I had been used to that winter. 

December 31, 1885.— Left Atlantic, Iowa, for Dodge City, Kan., via 
Des Moines and Kansas City, thermometer marking twenty-five degrees 
below zero. 

January 1, 1886.— Arrived at Kansas City at 7:30 A. M. Weather warm 
and hazy. Put in time seeing the city. Drizzling rain began at 8:30; had a 
tedious wait at depot for train west, which left at 10:30, and at 10:10 went 
aboard Pullman and ordered bed made, retired at once and was soon asleep. 

January 2, 1886. — Woke at 6 a. m. After a good wash and a brushing 
up, felt better than I have for months. At Newton, Kan., had breakfast. 
Country level, wind blowing hard, some snow falling. . . . Hutchinson 
is favored with good building stone, and has some fine stone buildings. 
Snowing. At 10 : 15, Raymond: A frontier town in appearance; and here 
we passed the first cut since daylight, about six feet deep. It is now snow- 
ing big flakes, thick and fast; a regular bhzzard to look at, but not cold. 
Word came here that the road is blocked between here and Dodge City; 
that it snowed all day yesterday in the mountains and western plains; that 
the storm is traveling east, while we are going west, plunging into it. The 
snow is worse as we progress, the wind now blowing a gale; at every stop 
the car rocks as though it would leave the track. It is hard work to get 
through the drifts with two engines. Kinsley: Word comes that we can not 
possibly get through to Dodge City. I just talked with Buffalo Jones, who 
knows the track from here west, and he says we will sure stick near old 
Fort Dodge. Toot! stop— what is up now? Back up and gather headway 
for a drift, says a brakeman. Forward, full speed, with our two engines 
[it is not recorded in th^ journal, but a snowplow was placed on the front 
engine some distance east of here]. The snow flies off in fine shape; we 
slacken speed, almost stop, barely move; we are stuck. No, on again— we 
are safe now, says Jones — and soon the roundhouse at Dodge appears 
through the driving, howling blizzard. 

We stop as the engines scream a warning. What is up now? Only a 
train on this track, and only about twenty feet ahead of us. (The snow 
was blowing so thick that the light from a headlight could not be seen a 
hundred feet.) They are stuck, snowed fast, and we back up to take a 
siding to reach the platform. But, as there is a drift on this track, we 
stop, and after waiting some time we (Cummins, a friend of mine) catch 

his pelts by March 1, he loaded them on a home-made sledge and harnessed his big coon 
dogs and started on the trip, leaving his home near Burdette at 7 :30 o'clock in the morn- 
ing. Starr made the twenty-four-mile drive to Larned in just nine hours, arriving with 
his strange team and cargo at 4 :30 o'clock in the afternoon. Ben Starr makes a good 
living trapping for furs and pelts along the Upper Pawnee, in connection with a skunk 
farm, where he has about two hundred of the animals. For the skunk pelts he gets $1 to 
$4 ; mink, $2.50 to $8 ; coon, $1 to $3.50 ; badger, 50 cents to $1 ; opossum, 50 to 60 cents ; 
muskrat, 15 to jO cents ; civet cat, 15 to 40 cents. 

lOS Kansas State Historical Society. 

our grips and plunge out into the snow and storm. (This was about 4:30 
p. M., but the trainmen and others were carrying lanterns, and lights were 
burning in the buildings.) About one hundred yards from our engine we 
strike the station platform. Good, we are in Dodge ! Now for a hotel. 
We are told that there is a first-class house just across the street. (This 
was the old Cox place.) After two or three trials we get started, and soon 
find ourselves in a drift waist deep, but finally get through safe. But my ! 
how it snows ! and the wind— well, I have lived twenty years on the prairies, 
but never saw anything to approach this." 

January 3, 1886. —Still blowing, and the trains all on the track just as 
they were last night ; drifts everywhere ; the snow as fine as flour, and 
sticks like glue. Get a good breakfast and try to look around at the town, 
but the snow is too deep. The railroad hands are busy rigging a snowplow 
onto an engine to clear the tracks in the yards. It is finished at noon.. 
Three engines, big six-wheelers, start to clear the tracks near the depot. 
Many of the passengers have never seen a snowplow at work, and get 
places to see the machine work. One man stands on the bottom step of a 
passenger car, just by a deep drift. Here they come, throttles wide open, 
and strike the drift. It is a grand sight ; the flying snow hides the engines. 
I imagine it resembles a monster whale thrashing the water into foam. 

In the midst of this scene, and while we are enjoying the sight, a scream 
heard above escaping steam and the rush of snow from the plow— a scream 
as of some poor human in mortal agony— pierces the ear, causing the heart 
to stop beating, as the thought of some poor mortal crushed under the wheels 
crosses the mind. But the plow is gone, and the passenger car on the siding 
is buried nearly to the tops of the windows with snow; and now our traveler 
who stood on the car step crawls out from under the snow; it was his voice 
which rose in that awful scream as the plow went by. He has seen a snow 
plow in action. 

The stage which should have arrived from Meade last night has not been 
heard from. Two corpses of men who perished in the storm last night have 
been brought in, and another man is so badly frozen that he is not expected; 
to recover. 

This storm is nothing like an Iowa blizzard except to look at, for it is 
not cold; the mercury stands at 20 above (this thermometer was under a 
porch on the south side of the hotel, and I heard some say that out in the- 
open the cold was as low as zero) ; the snow is soft and very fine. 

January 4, 1886. —Still in the snow, and won't be able to get away to- 
day; am putting in the time seeing the town. There are some good build- 
ings here and a good business is being done. This is a loading point for the 
freighters to the south, the territory, and also to northwest Texas. To- 
day the freight wagons are coming in in long strings, some loaded with 

Note 11. — According to S. D. Flora, the windiest day in Kansas on record at the- 
Weather Bureau was March 27, 1890, when the wind blew exactly 96 miles an hour for five- 
minutes. Quoting the record book, Mr. Flora says : 

"This will ever be remembered as the day of the great storm. From eight o'clock in' 
the morning until one o'clock in the afternoon the wind blew at a rate from 15 to 36 
miles an hour from the south. Suddenly it shifted to the northwest, and from 2 :30 o'clock 
until 3 o'clock blew at the rate of 64 miles an hour. At 3 o'clock it was blowing 72 miles, 
and at 3 :10 it reached the maximum of 96 miles an hour. Five minutes later it had" 
dropped back to 84 miles an hour, and from 3 :30 until 6 the velocity was 60 miles an 
hour. The air was filled with dirt, gravel, cornhusks and twigs. Later in the day a small 
rain fell, mixing with the dirt in the air. The west and north sides of buildings wero 
plastered with the mixture, giving them a muddy appearance." 

Januai-y 29, 1909, was another windy day, the maximum reaching 58 miles an hour.- 
Plate glass windows were blown in and much other damage done. 

Recollections of the Blizzard of 1886. 109 

bones to sell at $6 per ton. (These wagons had been caught in the blizzard 
on the south side of the river, where there was a road house, or trail stop- 
ping place, with corrals, and a dance house.) [Here I leave out a portion 
of the diary, which is only of my personal adventures and of no interest to 

January 5, 1886. —And yet we can not go, as the snow is still deep in the 
canyons of Crooked creek and the Cimarron. A dull day and nothing hap- 

Januarys, 1886. — Started to Meade Center this morning in a three- 
seated hack, with four horses. It is frosty, wind in the south. I am well 
wrapped up (this last observation means that I was dressed for a day's 
drive with thermometer at thirty degrees below zero). I have a seat in 
the back of the covered hack, where the wind can't reach me. The pas- 
sengers consist of a traveling man from Wichita, a wholesale tobacco man 
from St. Louis, and a real estate man who lives in Meade Center, with 
-Cummins and myself. We made the trip from Dodge to Meade Center in 
about eight hour^; changed horses twice— once at Mulberry and again at 

January 7, 1886. —Got here, Meade Center, last night just at sundown. 
Found the town rejoicing over the location of the county seat at this place. 
The citizens of the town, assisted by a few cowboys, were celebrating and 
proceeded to paint the town red, and they got on the finest and richest coat 
of vermilion I ever saw. If there was a sober man, except three who came 
in ou the hack, he was not in evidence at the hotel. Woke up this morning 
to find the worst blizzard blowing which I ever saw. Chimneys blown off 
the hotel and no fires. Went out in the storm to find breakfast; found a 
restaurant, about 10 A. M., firing up. Ate in a room, with snow on the 
floor; only removed my gloves; had my breakfast with overcoat, cap and 
heavy woolen scarf on. Snow in every room in town except the one I have. 
. . . There had been much suffering from the cold, many deaths from 
freezing, and thousands of cattle have perished in the storm. 

January 8, 1886. — Storm abated; still cold, but the men are opening the 
street and looking over the results of the election of the 5th. 

January 9, 1886. — A little warmer, but still cold. Found to-day that 
Heber, a land attorney here, is from Audubon and acquainted in Atlantic. 

January 10,' 1886. —No change and no mails; drifts as high as the houses. 

In March, 1886, after the unprecedented and wide-area "blizzard" of the 
preceding winter. Colonel Jones, in his itinerary, says: 

"As I drove over the prairies from Kansas into Texas I saw thousands 
upon thousands of carcasses of domestic cattle which had 'drifted' before 
the chilling, freezing 'norther.' Every one of them had died with its tail 
to the blizzard, never having stopped except at its last breath, then fell 
dead in its tracks. When I reached the habitat of the buffalo not one of 
their carcasses was visible except those which had been slain by hunters. 
Every animal I came across was as nimble and wiry as a fox. As Watt 
meditated over the mystery of steam liftmg the lid of the teakettle, I com- 
menced to ponder upon the contrast between the qualities of the white 
man's domestic cattle and those of the red man's cattle (buffalo). Young 
Watt exclaimed, as he watched the effect of the powerful vapor, 'Why not 
chain this great giant?' I thought to myself, 'Why not domesticate this 
wonderful beast which can endure such a blizzard, defying a storm so de' 
structive to our domestic species? Why not infuse this hardy blood into our 

110 Kansas State Historical Society. 

native cattle, and have a perfect animal— one that will defy all these ele- 

"I was in the right mood to thus soliloquize and appreciate an animal 
which could withstand such a terrific ordeal, having personally suffered se- 
vere lobses in the great storm of the previous winter. I had been caught 
out in it myself at its beginning while hunting antelope. The wind blew a 
perfect hurricane; the snow was twisted and hurled in all directions until 
its initial mass, a foot in depth at least, was blown in the air, leaving the 
ground bare, where it was completely pulverized by the energy of the con- 
tending elements into an impalpable powder, filling the lungs of everything 
animate; drifting through their hair, alternately melting and freezing, until 
horses, mules and domestic cattle perished by tens of thousands. Woe unto 
the man who chanced to be caught in its mad career! Many did it overtake 
who yielded to its fury. By good luck, familiar with the nature of these 
terrible storms, I made my way to a 'claim-shanty,' leaving five dead ante- 
lope on the prairie, not daring to linger a minute to gather them in. I was 
just in time to save myself and team. 

"I remained there as long as the fearful storm lasted— two nights and a 
day— and saw everything had to be protected or yield to its fury. Imagine 
my astonishment when I discovered that the buffalo alone were exempt ; 
and I then commenced to calculate the worth of this remarkable but almost 
extinct animal. With my pencil I noted these points: The buffalo is king 
of the blizzard ; he was constructed for the fitful climate of the Great 
Plains ; he was made for the use of a racfe that had nothing else to depend 
upon, and must surely be nearly a perfect creation. His flesh is far supe- 
rior to that of any domestic animal under similar conditions; his robe is a 
'solid comfort' when the wintry blasts howl. The hair of the animal's head 
and forehead is heavy and springy, serving perfectly the office of a mat- 
tress and pillow. Its tallow is as rich and palatable as butter; the flesh, 
when dried, serves for bread ; the hide, when tanned, makes good shoes, 
rope and leather. Its fur is softer than lamb's wool, and when woven into 
cloth is the lightest and warmest fabric ever manufactured. The under fur 
is like swan's down, and makes a perfectly waterproof hat when converted 
into that article. The rain is shed from it as rapidly as from a duck's back; 
it IS this wise provision of nature so close to their bodies which keeps the 
animal constantly dry and warm. While domestic cattle are stricken down 
by the deadly venom of the rattlesnake, the buffalo receives its fangs in 
the long hair and wool covering their head and legs, and then trample the 
serpents into the earth with their sharp hoofs. Its fleece may be carded 
off every spring, after having fulfilled its purpose of a winter's protection 
to the animal, woven into the finest fabrics, knitted into hosiery, and made 
into robes and blankets which kings and princes delight to recline under. "12 

The following newspaper accounts of the blizzard of 1886 tell a terrible 
story of suffering and death in some of the western counties of the state: 

"The weather the past week has been somewhat "eccentric" for Kansas 
weather, being most of the time unusually disagreeable. On Saturday, 
January 2, the first snowstorm of the season set in and lasted for nearly 
twenty four hours. Some four or five inches of snow fell, accompanied by 
heavy wind, making travel impossible until Sunday afternoon. The weather 
settled somewhat on Monday and remained pleasant until Wednesday night, 
when another storm, perhaps a little more severe than the first, began. It 
also lasted nearly twenty-four hours, and on Friday morning the weather 
again assumed its usual serenity. Both storms appear to have been gen- 
eral, not only throughout the southwest, but all through the Missouri and 
upper Mississippi valleys. Trains were everywhere delayed, and on many 
of the western roads travel was entirely suspended. A number of wrecks 

Note 12. — "Buflfalo Jones' Forty Years of Adventure," Henry Inman, comp., pp. 47-49. 

Recollectio7is of the Blizzard of 1886. m 

are reported on railroads in the northwest, due to the excessive snowfall 
and consequent bad condition of the roads. Altogether the storm was the 
most severe that has visited the west and northwest in many years." 

"One of the most remarkable cases of endurance on record is that of 
Frederick Arning, an old man who became lost in the snow last week and 
for nearly four days and nights was out on the prairie without shelter and 
without food. Mr. Arning, who was fifty-nine years old on the 6th of Jan- 
uary, is naturally somewhat feeble, and for that reason his exploit seems 
all the more wonderful. 

"On the evening of January 1, shortly after the sun went down on the 
first day of the new year, Mr. Arning, who had been visiting a neighbor 
some three miles northwest of Ivanhoe, started for his son's house, about a 
mile distant in a southwesterly direction. The evening was clear and pleas- 
ant, and he walked carelessly on until he finally thought he had traveled 
about far enough to reach his destination. Then he noticed that he had lost 
his bearings and had missed the trail. He turned to retrace his steps, and 
started in what he supposed was the direction of his son's house. He again 
missed the trail, and then realized that he was lost. Wandering about for 
several hours, he was unable to find the house; and then, about nine o'clock, 
to make matters worse, the snowstorm came up. The atmosphere grew 
suddenly cold, and the air was soon filled with blinding snow, making it 
impossible to distinguish objects even a few feet distant. Striking out, in 
what direction he did not then know, Mr. Arning kept walking until day- 
light. When day dawned on Saturday morning the storm was still raging 
with all its intensity. Hungry, cold and weak, the old man realized that to 
pause would be but to die, and with the fortitude of a stoic he pressed on 
through the blinding storm. 

"All day long he walked, never halting until, late in the evening, he found 
himself in front of a deserted sod shanty. He entered, and found nothing 
inside except the bare walls and fioor, but he felt that any shelter was 
better than none, and he took possession. Part of the roof was gone, and 
the snow blew in with every gust of wind. Taking a part of the roof 
boards, he made himself a bed consisting of a solitary pine plank, and then 
improvised covering out of similar material. In these quarters and in this 
manner he passed Saturday night, his extreme weariness inducing the sleep 
which otherwise would have been denied him. Sunday morning the storm 
had ceased, and Mr. Arning on looking around discovered that he was in the 
sand hills, although he did not know whether near the Cimarron southwest 
of Ivanhoe or the Arkansas north of town. However, he again struck out 
toward the rising sun, and spent Sunday in trying to find some ranch or 
settler's shanty. For three days and two nights he wandered among the 
sand hills endeavoring to find his way out; but, as he now supposes, he con- 
tinually doubled upon his tracks until he was completely bewildered and lost. 
With not a moment's sleep during this time, not a bite to eat, nor a drink 
of water, since he began his unwilling journey, he sufl^ered the most extreme 
pangs of hunger. Besides this, the snow and continued cold weather chilled 
him through, and the second day his feet became frozen. 

"With death almost staring him in the face throughout his entire jour- 
ney, no one but himself can realize the thoughts he must have endured. 
But he did not despair nor falter, and with an energy that would have been 
almost miraculous in men of younger years and greater vitality, the old 

112 Kansas State Historical Society. 

man passed on, hopeful to the end, until on Tuesday evening he came in 
sight of a ranch about twenty-five miles south and a few miles west of 
Ivanhoe. Here he saw the first human being and tasted the first food since 
he left his friend's house ninety-six hours before. The men at the ranch 
kindly cared for him until Wednesday, when he was taken to Loco, a few 
miles distant on the stage route. From there he took the first stage for 
home, and arrived at Ivanhoe Wednesday afternoon. 

"Mr. Arning was missed the first day after the storm, and searching 
parties were out looking for him until his return. Notwithstanding his 
perilous experience, he is now apparently in his usual good health, with the 
exception of his feet, which are both frozen. " ''—Ivanhoe Times, January 
16, 1886. 


"The Colby Cat of the 14th inst. gives the details of the freezing to 
death of Isaac Griffith, Alfred and Fred Gould and Samuel Stewardson. 

"Wednesday evening, the 6th inst., while returning from Colby to his 
home, near Otterbourne, Mr. Griffith approached his house within one 
hundred yards; his mule team then made several circles and drifted south 
with the storm. The neighbors turned out Friday to hunt for him. He 
was not found til) Saturday. He was in his wagon, about three miles from 
home, stiff in death. Mr. Griffith was about forty years of age, a disabled 
Union soldier, industrious and strictly temperate, and well thought of by 
all his neighbors. He leaves a wife, mother and five children. Funeral 
services took place on Monday at the residence of the mother of the de- 

"Alfred and Fred Gould were brothers, age seventeen and nineteen 
years. They had just moved down from Oberlin with the household goods 
of their father's family. The night of Tuesday, the 5th, they stayed at Colby. 
The next day they started, with their mother, for their claim in the western part 
of Thomas county, the father already being there. Before the storm com- 
menced they had reached the place of J. D. Hughes, twelve miles from 
Colby, where they determined to put up for the night. After supper the 
boys decided to walk to the claim, a distance of four miles, to spend the 
night with their father, taking with them a lantern. They went in the di- 
rection of the claim, but the storm being so severe, turned them, and they 
went with the storm, leaving their lantern within a few feet of a deserted 
sod house. On Friday searching parties were sent out, but the search de- 
veloped nothing until Sunday at 11 o'clock, when the bodies were discovered 
by Sheriff Kingery, about four miles from their father's claim. A jury was 
summoned and the verdict was 'Frozen to death.' 

"As many of our readers as have been used to attending the different 

Note 13. — In the summer of 1871, H. C. Friedt and U. S. Fordyce, young men from 
Fort Wayne, Ind., went into camp on the Solomon river near Stockton. On Thursday, 
the 16th of November, a hurricane of wind from the northwest came up. The men made 
the best preparation they could, but Fordyce was frozen to death the first night. To 
keep from freezing Friedt walked all day Friday and all that night. When Saturday 
morning came there was no abatement of the storm. Saturday night the wind seemed to 
be stronger than ever, and Friedt was compelled to keep moving without nourishment. 
Sunday morning the storm ceased, and by noon the sun was shining and so warm that 
the ice began to melt from his hair and beard. Knowing there was a camp of herders 
thirty miles to the north, he started to find them, and crept the distance with hands and 
feet frozen. He was delirious when found by the herders, who took him to their camp and 
thawed his feet with snow. His high boots, trousers and stockings were frozen so they 
had to be cut ofl', and the flesh of his feet and ankles was frozen so hard that it rang like 
solid ice when a knife was struck against it. For three months he was blind. He is a 
shoemaker to-day in Osborne, and moves about on his knees. 

Recollections of the Blizzard of 1886. 113 

district and state conventions will readily recall Samuel Stewardson, who 
for years has been Thomas county's delegate. He had red hair, and seemed 
possessed of a sunny disposition. Mr. Stewardson had been in Colby, and 
on Wednesday night started for home, nine miles east, on horseback. He 
stopped at the residence of A. B. Jardine, three miles east, and this was 
the last seen of him. The eastern portion of the county was aroused, and 
search commenced on Friday, and has continued up to the present date 
without result. His horse was found on the south Solomon, near Nathan 
Byars', with the bridle tied to the tree of the saddle, and also the place 
where he had turned his horse loose; and his tracks were found, evidently 
beht in the direction of home, but the tracks were lost in a gulch. There 
is hardly a question of doubt that he has perished and is covered with snow. 


"Henry Upson, a young man who has made his home with C. Geisen- 
heimer, on Prairie Dog creek, in the northwest part of Sheridan county, 
was frozen to death on the prairie during the gale of Wednesday of last 
week. His body was not recovered until four days later. He was un- 
married, but has relatives residing in Oberlin. Mr. C. E. Mathews brought 
the information to Coroner Robinson on Tuesday evening, who left immedi- 
ately for the scene and held an inquest on Wednesday. Mr. Mathews also 
reports that on the same night an unknown man and a span of horses were 
frozen to death on the prairie in the northeast part of Thomas county. 

" The World presumes that the man referred to in the northeast part of 
Thomas county was the Mr. Griffith, who has been noticed by the Cat. 


"H. 0. Ward and George Chapman, of Syracuse, and Isaac Staffle, of 
Windom, Kan., started Wednesday, the 6th, for Greeley county. They were 
caught in the storm twenty miles from Syracuse. After turning their teams 
loose they started to walk back. Chapman perished from the cold shortly 
after starting, and Staffle got within five miles of town and died. Ward got 
in at four o'clock Thursday evening with both feet frozen, and will lose 
them. Staffle's body was found yesterday. Chapman's body and the team 
are still out. Hundreds of cattle have perished. Twenty-five head can be 
counted from the bridge, frozen in the ice. Geo. L. Chapman, of Hector, 
in Greeley county, whose untimely death by freezing was mentioned in the 
daily Sentinel of yesterday, was well and favorably known in this city, be- 
ing an enterprising young man. He was one of the proprietors of Hector, 
Greeley county, and only a few days ago received his commission as post- 
master of said town, the first and only post office in the county. His pros- 
pects for a bright arid prosperous future were flattering and his loss will 
be deeply felt in that county. 

"M. F. Israel and two other men, one of whose names was Bodeck, 
started on the 6th inst. from Leoti City, Wichita county, to Horace, in 
Greeley county, where Mr. Israel had some land and was interested in the 
town site. They traveled until the storm set in so severely as to cause 
them to stop. Our informant, Mr. Vanlandingham, of Greeley county, says 
they then took off two wheels of their spring wagon, thus letting down one 
side of the vehicle and forming as effective a windbreak as was possible 
under the circumstances. The three men then lay down. One of them had 

114 Kansas State Historical Society. 

no overcoat. Israel and Bodeck survived until well along in the night. The 
survivor hugged the ground closely. The other two did not. He was badly 
benumbed, and could scarcely extricate his hair and clothes from the frozen 
ground; but when the storm had cleared away on Thursday, and he saw his 
shanty at Horace, he managed to ri^e, go to it, knock in the door, build a 
fire, and go to living again. 


"We are without the particulars. The Garden City Sentinel says that 
a family of seven— father, mother and five children— were frozen to death. 


"Elmer E. Smith, a young man about twenty- eight years of age, who 
came here last August and took a claim about five miles southwest, was in 
town Wednesday, the 6th, to get his mail and do some trading, and, although 
friends advised him not to go until morning, he started out on foot to his 
claim about dark. Nothing was heard of him up to Friday night. A party 
was made up of about sixty of our citizens Saturday morning to search for 
the missing man, when, after a search of about two hours, the body was 
found, cold and stiff. 

"John Miller, of Cimarron, and M. H. Powlson, of Comanche county, 
were on their way to this place from Cleveland, having been to Wa Keeney 
to file on land. They camped about thirty miles north of here on Wednes- 
day evening, and when they arose next morning the snow was so deep and 
the wind blowing such a gale they could make no headway with the team, 
and, cutting the halters, left the horses to take care of themselves. Wrap- 
ping their blankets around them, they proceeded on foot for some distance, 
when Mr. Miller's strength was exhausted and he dropped down in the 
snow, saying that if he must die he would die where he was. Powlson did 
all he could to encourage him to go on with him, but it was to no avail. 
Powlson then proceeded on his weary journey, hoping to find help and then 
return to his companion. Miller crawled into a snow drift and fell asleep. 
Waking up next morning, he found that both his feet and his right hand 
were frozen. He traveled for a few miles and came up on Smoky Hill river, 
where he found the camp of Isaac Ruddock, Wm. Copeland and Charley 
Bailey, of this city, who are prospecting for coal. Mr. Ruddock, on hear- 
ing his story, came to Scott City to procure aid for the relief of the suf- 
ferer and to search for the missing man. A number of our citizens turned 
out, and diligent search failed to find the body of Powlson, but it is believed 
that his fate is the same as that of Elmer Smith. Mr. Miller was brought 
to town and is receiving proper attention under the care of Doctor Mitchell. 
Robert Creamer, while coming from Israel's place, two miles east of town, 
Thursday evening, lost his way and froze both feet and one hand. He will 
not lose the use of both of them, however, as they are not frozen to the 

"Fred Boyd, aged about twenty three, who came there from Saginaw, 
Mich., and Jacob Koeningheim, aged twenty-two, formerly from Lancaster, 
Ohio, left Gandy Wednesday afternoon, the 6th, in a one-horse sled to go to 
Voltaire, a distance of six miles. Returning in the evening, they were over- 
taken by the storm. They stopped at the house of Mrs Douglas, not far 
from Gandy, and were urged to turn the horse loose and stay, as it was not 


Recollections of the Blizzard of 1886. 115 

safe to proceed. This they refused to do, and, having obtained a lantern, 
set out for Gandy. They soon lost their way, however, and went adrift 
with the storm. The horse has been found, some distance from the road, 
in a creek, where he had broken through the ice and then froze to death, 
standing with the harness and the lines stretched behind as if the driver 
had dropped them shortly before. Koeningheim, who owned the horse, 
has not been found. Boyd drifted with the storm almost due south about 
twelve miles, when he succumbed, and was found yesterday, lying on his 
back with his hands and feet thrown up. His features are so deformed and 
swollen that he could not be recognized by them, but papers on his person 
told who he was. His remains were taken back to Gandy, and Mr. J. 
Mourer came through to Wallace and telegraphed to the friends of Boyd 
and to the postmaster at Lancaster, Ohio. Boyd's brother replied: 'Bury 
the body, particulars by letter.' The postmaster replied: 'Koeningheim 
left here three years since for Iowa City, Iowa. ' 

"The other two are from Voltaire, which place they left shortly before 
noon on Wednesday to come to Wallace for lumber, each driving a team to 
a two-horse wagon. The elder of the two was a man named Kerns, aged 
about twenty-four, and the other a boy named Harper, about fourteen. 
They passed through Gandy about noon on their way. They had but thir- 
teen miles to come to reach Bowling's ranch, where they could have found 
shelter, and the storm did not strike until six o'clock or after, central time, 
so the conclusion is that they had lost their way. All that is known of 
them is that their wagons were found at the gate to Dowling's pasture, 
about three miles north of the ranch. From there they had gone with their 
horses to an old sod house, some distance from the gate, where one side of 
each harness was found, but nothing else. Two horses, one from each 
team, were found at the ranch when the storm had abated, one of them 
with the harness on and reined up, the other with the bridle on. What be- 
came of the men or the other two horses is as yet a mystery. Kerns came 
from Missouri, and young Harper has friends in Atwood, Kan. In addition 
to the above, three men left Voltaire the day before New Year's to go to 
Colby, and have not returned or been heard from. Fears are entertained 
that they are lost. They are Bert Hendricks, Monte Brashier and John 


"On the 6th inst. August Johnson, a Mr. Wright, and a man whose 
name we have not learned, were hunting close to where Gove, Lane, Scott 
and Logan counties come near cornering, but in which one of the counties 
is not known. Wright has started, or is about to start a mule ranch in that 
locality. The men were lost in the storm. Johnson froze to death, Wright's 
right hand was frozen so as to render necessary the amputation of the 
fingers, and the other man's feet and hands have been amputated. The 
amputation in these cases was deferred, we hear, until Monday of this week. 


"Mr. W. A. Owens, the mail carrier between Ness City and Buda, was in- 
Wa Keeney this week, and called at the World office. While here he re- 
lated that one family, consisting of a father, mother and five children, who 
resided two and one-half miles northeast of Manteno, Ness county, had 
frozen to death. Upon finding them it was discovered that they had burned, 

116 Kansas State Historical Society. 

up all their fuel, and also the furniture ; and after this was gone, having 
no place to resort to without exposure to the severity of the elements then 
prevailing, they all retired to bed in hopes of keeping warm, or at least 
comfortable, until relief could be obtained, but none came save through 
death, which indeed presented a picture sad to behold. This family, no 
doubt, went to sleep hoping the elements would abate, but the sleep was 
one that knew no waking. How terrible an incident of this nature must be 
to friends and relatives of these poor unfortunates. Mr. Owens also stated 
that a man and wife who were in a wagon, having camped in a draw east 
of and near the place where the family had frozen, were found dead, hav- 
ing encountered the inevitable. "—PFesiern Kansas World, Wa Keeney, 
January 23, 1886. 

"Sherlock, January 12. — I have no news, except of the storm, and am 
so hemmed in that I know but little more than what I can see. 

"We have had the most terrible storm I have ever witnessed. Perhaps 
my own experience will give the reader a fair idea of its destructive char- 
acter. It commenced first on Tuesday night. The last of December was a 
beautiful day, clear, bright and warm, and New Year's day was quite com- 
fortable; but about eight o'clock the wind shifted to the northwest and 
struck all this region furiously, accompanied with snow which fairly dark- 
ened the whole atmosphere, the snow being very fine. The temperature 
was exceedingly cold, but I had no means of ascertaining the degrees. It 
became so dark that objects could be seen only at a very short distance. 
At my own place we have a very warm, dry "dugout" barn, in which we 
shelter the horses; but the range cattle dropped down on us, and, climbing 
upon the barn roof in their famished state, crushed it in, and the horses 
narrowly escaped destruction. We then got them under the shelter of the 
dwelling house as a partial protection This storm commenced on the night 
of January 1, and by Tuesday had so subsided as to make travel quite rea- 
sonable, and Wednesday cleared off a beautiful day; but about eight o'clock 
that night the wind almost instantly shifted from the south to the north- 
west, and thenceforward for about thirty-six hours such a storm howled 
over all this region as the "oldest mhabitant, " or any other man, never 
witnessed. Prominent objects could not be seen ten feet distant. 

"We did our best for the protection of the horses by placing the plow 
team of my brother on the south side of the house, which is in "L" shape, 
and therefore the best protection possible from the northwest wind. An- 
other horse we left under the protection of the partial roof of the demol- 
ished "dugout" barn, and the donkey on the south side of a sod structure. 
By the morning no human being could stem the fury of the storm. The 
horses had almost perished, and their lives could only be saved by taking 
them into the house. The -donkey was alive, but died before the storm 
abated, and one horse was ten feet under a snow drift, into which I ex- 
cavated a hole much like what bricklayers call a "manhole," and through 
that reached the animal, beating back and tramping the snow until I made 
a space about four feet by eight, and there fed and watered him for three 
days, until he died. As soon as I could get out I found that my nearest 
neighbor, Mr. Stillwagon, was digging the dead animals out of a barn, 
having lost four horses, and that nearly his whole herd of cattle had gone 
to the winds, of the number dead unascertainable. Mr. Tracey, four miles 

The Blizzard of 1885. 117 

off, lost a span of mules. Nearly all Captain Ballinger's cattle, one hun- 
dred head, are reported lost. Mr. McKeever said of 180 head he had found 
less than seventy alive, and more than thirty dead. A negro on Captain 
Ballinger's ranch is reported severely frozen ; two men are reported frozen 
to death near Syracuse, and others are reported as having perished in dif- 
ferent directions. 

"These are meager reports, and are merely given to illustrate the con- 
dition in all this region, where the losses must be very heavy. I hope, how- 
ever, that they are exaggerated. 

"Frequently snow drifts are six feet in depth. I can not estimate the 
average, but it has seldom been equaled in this latitude and altitude. The 
drifts are so compact that teams can travel over them, and it is where the 
snow is not drifted deep that it is most difficult to get through. In many 
places the range cattle cross the railroad fences on the snow and wander 
along the track, and many are dead and dying. A gentleman told me that 
within two miles west of Sherlock he counted seventy head of dead cattle 
along the outside of the railroad fence, and another told me he was sure 
there were 400 within a space of twenty acres dead under the banks of the 

"I think, at this writing (Tuesday noon), no trains have gone west since 
the last storm, though one train of two passenger coaches and two cabooses 
has passed east — probably from Coolidge — notwithstanding the almost su- 
perhuman energy of the officers of the Santa Fe company. At the earliest 
possible moment additional gangs of hands were at work clearing the track. 
The snowplow was of little use, owing to the compact character of the drifts. 
On Thursday I counted seventy-five hands with shovels, who had been or- 
ganized at Garden City, and had progressed west about twelve miles. Their 
feet were wrapped with gunny and burlap sacks, and they were bravely 
stemming the storm. The snow was cast out in large blocks, some digging 
and some throwing it with their hands. From what I hear, there is danger 
of a coal famine, but there is great confidence that all that is possible to be 
accomplished will be done by the railroad managers. To-day moderate, the 
sky clear and the sun bright. 

"I can scarcely illustrate the seveiity of the storm better than by telling 
you that I counted a dozen antelope within twenty rods of my house, and 
yesterday three came into my dooryard, within fifteen feet of my front 
door. When antelope get so benumbed by cold and starvation as to almost 
invade the houses, the imagination will pretty accurately convey to all ac- 
quainted with their wild, shy habits the degrees of suffering which all flesh 
is subject to in this exposure. 

"This is a poor letter, but it is the best I can do in a snow bank. " — 
John Speer, in Topeka Commonwealth, January 15, 1886. 


"The recent snowstorms were the worst ever experienced on the Kansas 
plains. Old plainsmen say they never saw so severe a blizzard as that 
which raged in western Kansas last Thursday. At Dodge City the wind 
was thirty-five miles an hour; mercury was 10 degrees below zero; the snow 
flew so furiously before the wind that people on the streets were absolutely 
blinded by snow; railroad trains and stages were blockaded by snow; the 

118 Kansas State Historical Society. 

telegraph wires were prostrated and telegraphic communication entirely 
obstructed, and business in Dodge City was paralyzed. From Wednesday 
afternoon of last week until last Monday afternoon no railroad train visited 
that place. Three hundred men were employed clearing the railroad track 
in the snow between Dodge City and Spearville, the distance between the 
two towns being seventeen miles. About three P. M. last Monday a train 
of cabooses laden with a snow-shoveling gang arrived in Dodge City from 
the east, the obstructions having been removed. A train of cabooses was 
immediately made up at Dodge for eastern passengers, which left there at 
3:40 P. M. At Kinsley the caboose train reached the plug passenger, to 
which the passengers were transferred. All the snowplows in Superin- 
tendent Nickerson's division were ditched. The snow had to be removed by 
the slow process of shoveling by men. In some of the cuts between Dodge 
City and Spearville the snow was eighteen feet, packed solidly. All of the 
passengers on the blockaded trains were entertained at the hotels at the 
expense of the Santa Fe company. All of the blockaded passengers speak 
in the most complimentary terms of the manner in which they have been 
treated by the railroad officials. 

"The Fort Supply stage which was due at Dodge City last Wednesday 
did not arrive until Saturday. The driver encountered the blizzard at a 
point about two miles south of Appleton, in Clark county. He struck a hay- 
stack, which gave food and partial shelter to his four horses. The driver 
took refuge in an abandoned dugout near by. where he remained forty- 
eight hours without food, water or fire. The horses also had to go without 
water. Near this dugout lived an old lady and two daughters. They at- 
tempted on Wednesday night to walk to the residence of a son of the old 
lady, on an adjoining claim. The daughters perished in the snow. The 
mother succeeded in reaching her son's, more dead than ahve, 

"Many people that were out in the storm are missing and doubtless have 
perished. The suffering among the new settlers on the plains is intense. 
Most of the houses are mere wooden shells, without plastering or lining. 
Coal is the only fuel, which has to be hauled in wagons from the railroad 
towns, in many instances a distance of seventy-five miles. 

"The recent storms have killed live stock by the wholesale. The irri- 
gating canal north of Dodge is filled with dead cattle. Many small herds of 
new settlers have been entirely destroyed. Cattle and horses have been 
frozen to death in stables. A considerable number of blooded cattle were 
taken to the plains by new settlers last year. They have succumbed to the 
rigorous weather more easily than the old range rustlers. Most of the cat- 
tle found on the plains next spring will be of the latter class. "—Topeka 
Commonwealth, January 13, 1885. 

By A. B. Whiting. 
The 3d of December, 1856, is a day I can never forget. Early the pre- 
vious spring my partner and I had pitched our tents beyond the edge of 
civilization, northwest of Fort Riley, with not a white man between us and 
the Rocky Mountains. We went there with seven yoke of oxen and a big 
wagonload of tools and camp outfit, and had spent our time very diligently 
breaking prairie, building our cabin, and getting ready to live. Mr. Ful- 

Account of a Blizzard in 1856. 119 

lingtoni* had a family in Verjnont and decided to go there for the winter, 
and I was to stay and care for our stock and hold our claims. Early in the 
morning of December 3, 1856, I went with him to the top of the bluffs 
which rimmed the valley in which we had made our home, and bade him 
good-by as he started on foot across an untracked prairie, for thirteen miles 
without habitation. I turned back to my little home, a big lump in my 
throat and a great lonesome feeling in my heart. I was two thousand miles 
from home, alone. My nearest neighbor was three miles away. The morn- 
ing was cold and raw, the wind from the north, and an hour later it began 
to snow. The wind came harder, the snow fell faster, and in two hours a 
furious blizzard was raging. The air was so full of snow that it seemed 
like a dense, swirling fog. I busied myself trying to make my cattle as 
comfortable as possible in their insufficient shelter, and then hugged my 
little stove in the cabin, listening to the roar of the storm outside, and sick 
at heart for my partner out on the prairie alone in that awful storm. Night 
came on, and the wolves added their howling to the music of the gale. By 
morning the snow had stopped falling, but the north wind blew furiously for 
two days longer, and the cold was intense. 

On the morning of the third day I started for my neighbor's camp. The 
high wind had swept the snow from the burned prairie and piled it in im- 
mense drifts in the ravines and sheltered spots, and I made slow progress, 
obliged often to deviate from the direct course. Along the leeward crest of 
a ridge, where the grass was unburned, a great flock of prairie chickens 
had taken refuge from the storm and had been covered by the snow. For 
fifty rods the wolves had burrowed after them, and the blood and feathers 
bore evidence of the great slaughter and the feast they had enjoyed. 
Coming to my neighbor's, I was surprised to find teams camped around a 
log fire in his yard and his one-room cabin full of helpless, frost-bitten men. 
In the timber by some little creeks, about two miles apart, on either side 
of where Clay Center now is, at the time of this great storm were two 
camps of United States surveyors of about twenty men each. The officers 
of the United States land office at Lecompton had been so busy in their ef- 
forts to make Kansas a slave state that they failed to furnish the necessary 
papers to the contractors for the surveys for months after they should have 
been at work, in the spring, and then compelled them to take along as 

Note 14. — Bradley E. Fullington was a sample of the heroic men who first came to 
open these prairies. He was born in Johnson, Vt., in the year 1819. As a boy he in- 
dustriously followed the routine of work on the farm and in the district school. He be- 
came a man of strong religious convictions. At the age of twenty-four he was married to 
Miss Louise Carpenter. For ten years they followed dairy farming in Vermont. In 
consequence of failing health he took a long sea voyage in a sailing vessel from New York 
around Cape Horn to San Francisco in 1852. He remained in California three years, 
mainly in camp life, returning to Vermont in the fall of 1855. May 31, 1856, he started 
for Kansas with Albe B. Whiting. At St. Louis they bought a camp outfit and farm tools 
and took passage in the "Star of the West" for Westport Landing. They were one 
week on the river, and after landing they put in a week in Platte and Clay counties 
gathering up seven yoke of oxen. Their first night in camp in the territory of Kansas 
some roughs from Westport attempted to rob them, but a little gun play by Mr. Fullington 
prevented. They spent two weeks in reaching their destination. At Lawrence everybody 
seemed aroused for conflict ; Topeka was but a rolling prairie, with here and there a hut ; 
at Manhattan there was no sign of life, and Junction City was vacant prairie. Five 
weeks from home they pitched their tent on Madison creek, near the present town of 
Milford. The next morning being the Sabbath, a family altar was promptly set up in 
that tent. Mr. Fullington returned to Vermont in the fall, coming back to Kansas in the 
early spring of 1857, bringing with him a quantity of low-grade pine lumber which he 
purchased in St. Louis. This lumber, laid down at Leavenworth, cost $104 per thousand. 
It then had to be hauled 140 miles. Mr. Fullington represented Riley county in the legis- 
lature of 1863 and i864, then annual sessions. After forty-three years of a very useful 
and strenuous life as a farmer, stock .raiser and in general business, interested in all that 
was good in the country, he died December 26, 1899, and is buried at Milford. 

120 Kansas State Historical Society. 

helpers a lot of Buford's men, imported from Georgia and South Carolina 
to vote and fight on their side. These men were inefficient, unused to a 
cold climate, poorly clothed, and were now caught in this terrible storm be- 
fore the surveyors' contract was finished. 

In Garrett's party, on the day of the blizzard, the men stood around a 
log fire outside of their tents, and their clothing became wet from the melt- 
ing snow. At night they lay down in their tents, and a little later the wind, 
rising to a fearful gale, blew the tents down. In the face of the storm they 
started for the other camp, whose better outfit withstood the wind. In the 
darkness they lost their way and drifted into the timber along the Republi- 
can river, wandering around until morning. When daylight came two men 
were dead,!^ a^d all the rest had frozen hands or feet, and some had both. 
Two who remained under the fallen tent were all right at daybreak, but, 
unable to put on their frozen shoes, froze their feet before they could reach 
the other camp. This party had come through the storm without serious 
discomfort, and they at once put forth every effort to get the survivors to 
Fort Riley, the nearest place where they could be cared for. For two days 
they had fought their way in the intense cold through the great snowdrifts 
to make a distance of less than twenty-five miles. But for this heroic serv- 
ice every man of the seventeen survivors in Garrett's party must have 

Now my anxiety and alarm for my partner's safety was intensified, and 
I was as powerless to search for him if dead, or help him if ahve, as if he 
was lost in the depths of the sea. In my dreams I saw him buried deep 
under the snow in a ravine where he had sought shelter from the storm. It 
was a very long month before a letter from JeflFerson City told me of his 
journey and safe arrival there, and a great load of anxiety fell from me. 
Despite the fury of the storm he had kept his course across the prairie, 
caught the east-bound mail wagon from Fort Riley at Manhattan, and 
reached Leavenworth, taking the stage there for Jefferson City. He stayed 
with it three days and nights, walking most of the time, and helping to pry 
it out of innumerable mudholes. Finally, abandoning the coach and taking 
his grip on his back he had walked the rest of the way to Jefferson City, 
reaching there eight hours ahead of it. 

I have spent fifty- two winters in Kansas and have passed through many 
blizzards, but for amount of snowfall, high wind and intense cold, I think 
none have equaled the one beginning December 3, 1856. Considering the 
circumstances, it is no wonder the memory of it has kept fresh in my mind 
more than half a century. 

Note 15. — "December 10, 1856.— A United States surveying party on the Little Blue was- 
caught in a blizzard and two of its members frozen to death. This month of December 
was an exceedingly cold one, the Missouri river and the Kansas river being both frozen 
over solid." — Wilder's Annals. 

Kansas State Historical Society. 121 


By Prof. John D. Parker,^ Ph. D.. of Lincoln College.^ 

rnHE EARTHQUAKE of April 24, 1867, was more severe and extensive 
J- in its effects than any otiier which has occurred within the memory of 
the oldest inhabitant. Between two and three o'clock on that calendar day 
two distinct earth waves passed over the state of Kansas, together with 
large portions of the states of Nebraska, Missouri, Illinois, Indiana, and 
are reported to have reached Ohio. Almost the entire population of two or 
three of the first-named states was precipitated in one hurrying mass into 
the streets. The most massive buildings swayed back and forth and seemed 
ready to fall. A train on the Pacific railroad was stopped, the engineer and 
fireman jumping off under the impression that the engine was on the point 
of blowing up; clocks were stopped, and animals hurried about the fields in 
alarm, while some stood still in the furrow. The earthquake was accom- 
panied by a noise likened by some to the roar of distant thunder or to the 
rumbling of artillery over a pavement. A large mass of material referring 
to it has been collected, out of which the following brief abstract is made: 

The time of the clock at Topeka, Kan., was about fifteen minutes to 
three. At the Agricultural College, Manhattan, it is noted as having oc- 
curred at thirty-two minutes past two o'clock. At the State University, 
Lawrence, it is reported to have occurred at about three minutes to three 
o'clock by the town clock, which is generally a little fast. Making allow- 
ance for different meridians, the time of occurrence was later as we go 

The duration of the shock was from ten to thirty seconds. In western 
Kansas it was about ten seconds in length, but gradually increased to thirty 
seconds or more in its progress eastward. 

The direction of the shock appeared to be from the south or southwest 
to the north or northeast. This is shown from various facts, the principal 

Note 1. — This article appeared first in the American Journal of Science and Arts and 
was later copied in the Kansas Educational Journal, vol. 4, 1868, from which magazine it 
is now reprinted. 

Note 2. — Rev. John Dempster Parker, the son of Rev. Roswell Parker and Mary 
(Batcheller) Parker, was born at Homer, N. Y., September 8, 1831. In 1836 the family 
moved to Michigan, and at the age of nineteen young Parker became a telegraph operator. 
He took a classical course in the University of Michigan, and later taught school in 
Indiana and Illinois. He then took a theological course in the Chicago Theological Sem- 
inary, and began preaching. In 1866 he was elected professor of natural science in 
Lincoln (now Washburn) College, Topeka. He was pastor of a Congregational church 
at Burlington, Kan. In 1871 Governor Harvey appointed him superintendent of the Kan- 
sas Institution for the Blind. After four years' service in this position he served seven 
years as a missionary in Kansas City, Mo. He established the Kansas Academy of 
Science and also a similar institution in Kansas City, Mo. In 1881 he was commissioned 
post chaplain in the army, serving at Fort McKavitt, Fort Stockton, Fort Hays and Fort 
Riley, his last station being San Diego, Cal., where he was retired in 1896. He had a 
brother. Rev. Roswell D. Parker, at one time pastor of the Congregational church in Man- 
hattan. Both of these men were very prominent in church and educational circles in the 
early days. Dr. Parker died at the Presidio, San Francisco, March 8, 1909. 

Note 3. — Lincoln College, the original of Washburn, was a two-story stone building 
located on the corner of Tenth and Jackson streets, in Topeka, built in 1865 and costing 
$8000. It was torn down to give place to the Memorial and Historical Building now 
being erected. It is fitting that Lincoln College should develop, not only in Washburn, 
but that its site should be marked by this magnificent half-million-dollar structure of 
granite and marble, a memorial to the Kansas soldiers, erected to house the records the 
state and her people have made. 

122 Kansas State Historical Society. 

one being the movement of the water in the Kansas river. At Manhattan 
the water of this river was observed to roll in a heavy wave, at least two 
feet high, from the southerly to the northerly bank, while no similar move- 
ment was noticed in the Big Blue, which empties into the Kansas river 
from the north at the same place. This fact has been thoroughly substan- 
tiated by Professor Mudge, of the State Agricultural College. It rests 
upon the testimony of several credible witnesses, and is decisive. In con- 
firmation of the same, light articles, such as photographs, when piled upon 
each other, were pitched over toward the southwest. Waves in the ceiling 
of Lincoln College were observed to run from the southwest toward the 
northeast. Rev. R. D. Parker (a brother), attending the dedication of a 
church at Warrensburg, Mo., at the time, observed the walls of the church 
heave as if moved by a shock from the southwest. 

The number of shocks seemed to vary in different places. At the initial 
point, in western Kansas or eastern Colorado, there seems to have been one 
shock, increasing in intensity and gradually dying away. As the movement 
progressed eastward the original impulse seemed to have separated into two 
distinct earth waves, which again appeared to have faded into each other 
as they became less violent. 

The movement of the earth wave was mainly that of translation. The 
slight damage done by the earthquake, otherwise so violent and extensive, 
is probably due to this fact. 

The velocity of the movement of the earth wave was great. This is 
shown by the small difference of time elapsing between the occurrence of 
the shock at comparatively remote points. The telegraph operator at To- 
peka on the Pacific line states that reports of its occurrence seemed to come 
indiscriminately immediately after the shock, both from the west and east. 
The effects of the earthquake, as already indicated, were alarming but 
not serious. Several persons were more or less injured, but not a life is 
known to have been lost. Two contiguous blocks in Leavenworth are re- 
ported to have been lifted up and separated several inches, but they settled 
back again, apparently uninjured, on the passage of the earth wave. Two 
large stones were loosened from the top of the Unitarian church in Law- 
rence and precipitated to the ground, and the walls of many buildings in 
different places were cracked, but not one is known to have been thrown 
down. At Topeka a funeral service was occurring in one of the churches, 
which was crowded to overflowing. As the stone building was rocked to 
and fro, the people made a hasty escape in every available direction, many 
of them jumping through the broken windows. An acre of ground three 
miles south of Carthage, on the Miami canal, is reported to have sunk ten 
feet, showing that the shock extended to Ohio.^ The ground sunk bodily, 
leaving a perpendicular wall of ten feet or more on all sides. The canal 
bank was seriously endangered by the subsidence. 

Note 4. — One of the greatest seismic disturbances occurred in Missouri December 16, 
1811, and was known as the "New Madrid earthquake." There is some controversy even 
yet as to whether certain lakes and depressions in southeast Missouri were not made by 
that great quake. A witness, Miss Eliza Bryan, twelve years old at that time, five years 
after the occurrence wrote an account in which she describes the first shock, which came 
at two A. M. December 16 ; the screams of the affrighted inhabitants running to and fro, 
not knowing where to go or what to do ; the cries of the fowls and beasts of every 
species ; the cracking of falling trees and the roaring of the Mississippi, "the current of 
which was retrograde for a few minutes, owing, as is supposed, to an interruption in its 
bed. She records that there were many light shocks until January 23, 1812, when 
occurred as violent a one as the severest of the earlier shocks. From then until February 

Earthquakes in Kansas. 123 

The following accounts of the earthquake appeared in the newspapers 
at the time and are interesting in this connection. Wilder's Annals notes 
the shock as occurring at 2:45 P. M. and extending over eastern Kansas 
and western Missouri : 

"About half past two o'clock this afternoon a very perceptible shock of 
■earthquake awakened things in town for a few seconds. The building oc- 
cupied by this office rocked to and fro, we judge moving several inches. At 
all events, its inmates indiscriminately scrambled downstairs. It was 
amusing to see the court and spectators getting downstairs also. Judge S. 
B. White and several of the attorneys demolished a front window in their 
-eagerness to escape from the building. The shock seems not to have ex- 
tended over a quarter of a mile in width, but it was strongly felt at Wyan- 
dotte, Lawrence, Topeka, and west of us, at Solomon. A well which was 
being dug in town was destroyed by it, but fortunately none of the work- 
men were in it. "—Junction City Union, April 27, 1867. 

"Our city was the scene of the liveliest excitement about three o'clock 
yesterday afternoon that it has been our fortune to witness. There is no 
•doubt but this section was honored with a veritable, genuine, old-fashioned 
earthquake— one that would be a credit to localities a little closer to the 
quaky regions of the globe. 

"We were pursuing our usual avocation in the third story of the build- 
ing, everything quieter than usual, when suddenly, without warning, the 
building commenced shaking in a manner that plainly indicated that some- 
thing was wrong. Our first impression was that the floor was giving away, 
and accordingly we made a hasty transit to the corridor at the head of the 
stairs. At this juncture the compositors and printers came rushing out of 
their rooms with an alacrity that was surprising, and some one exclaimed 
that the building was falling. The continued and increasing shaking of the 
whole building fully justified that view, and we suddenly came to the con- 
clusion that we wanted to get out, and that badly, too. We started to go 
downstairs, but the thought struck us that going down two long flights of 
stairs, with a three-story brick building traveling the same direction, was 
not quite the thing. In this dilemma, one of the boys threw up the window 
opening on the roof of the adjoining building; and if ever a set of fellows 
went through a window in less time we want them to come here and let us 
see them do it. We ran to the cone of the roof, and found it was shaking 
as badly as the one left, and accordingly ran to the next roof. It was jar- 
ring perceptibly, and, looking down to the street, we saw the whole city 
going through about the same maneuvers that we were at. 

4 the earth was in a continuous agitation, "visibly waving as a gentle sea." On that day 
occurred a violent shock, and February 7, at 4 A. M., there was the most violent one of 
all. She tells how the trunks of trees were snapped off, how the earth cracked open and 
closed again, and how the inhabitants of New Madrid deserted their homes and lived in 
temporary shacks for several months, and then "became callous" and went back to their 
bomes again. Another witness, William Leigh Pierce, sent an account from New Orleans, 
December 25, 1811. He tells that he was on his way from Pittsburg to New Orleans in a 
flatboat. He had descended the Ohio into the Mississippi, and was about opposite New 
Madrid when the first shock came, at two o'clock the morning of December 16. This was 
followed by three lighter shocks, and at seven o'clock the same morning there was another 
very severe one. At eight o'clock there were nine in quick succession, and shocks con- 
tinued until December 23, up to which time there had been eighty-nine distinct shocks, as 
counted by Pierce. The earthquake lasted in that region, with intermission, for nearly 
a year. 

Wilder's Annals says, under date of December 16, 1811: "The whole valley of the 
Mississippi shaken by an earthquake, and the town of New Madrid, Mo., destroyed." 

124 Kansas State Historical Society. 

"Every one was rushing out in the street, and fellows engaged in the 
upper stories were coming down six steps at a jump, hair flying, eyes popped 
out, in a way that showed something was the matter. As soon as we saw 
it was a general complaint we felt easier, and left our perch for the street. 
When we went down the whole city was out, and every one concurred that 
it wa? a serious shock. Everything of a movable nature was rattled in an 
alarming manner, and in many places plaster was cracked and fell from the 
walls. A large stone was loosened and fell from the top of the Unitarian 
church, and in many houses and stores small articles were thrown from the 
walls. There is no denying that it was a serious scene, and we saw a good 
many white faces in the street after it was over. 

"From the telegraph operator we learn it was felt at St. Joseph, Leaven- 
worth, Wyandotte and as far west as the railroad line extends. It lasted 
about one and a half minutes, according to the report of persons who pro- 
fess to have timed it." — Lawrence Tribune, April 25, 1867. 

"At about a quarter before three o'clock this afternoon, while all were 
busy in the office, there came a trembling motion, perceptible to every one, 
and of sufficient power to cause the suspension of the clicking of types. 
Almost instantly this was followed by a heavy, swelling, rolling motion of 
the building that caused the windows to rattle. 

"In our office the tremor was gradually increased to a heavy shake, 
threatening the demolition of the building, when a general stampede took 
place. On reaching the street, everything had assumed its wonted quiet on 
the part of mother earth, while a large crowd from all parts of the build- 
ing rapidly discussed this latest 'sensation.' Amongst the business inter- 
rupted by the 'shake' was a 'fancy' speech before his honor, the recorder, 
by one of the gallant members of the Atchison bar, which was the only 
thing broken that we have heard of thus far, in Price's building. 

"The vibration was so great that the downfall of the building seemed 
certain, and all hands, even to the 'invalid' who had been 'shaking' all day, 
hastily descended to the street. Our office being in the third story of the 
building, perhaps we felt the force of the shock as much as any persons in 
the city. The wave of vibration seemed to be passing westward, and the 
swell was so heavy that the ffoor rolled like the deck of a moving vessel. 

"We were in the south end of the building when the trembling and 
rumbling began, and our impression was that the building had become un- 
dermined and begun to settle into the improvement excavation. A glance 
from the window dissipated that idea, and the heavier swell caused us to 
comprehend the situation. Having to cross the floor, a distance of about 
forty feet, we readily discovered the power that made the building tremble 
and caused the floor to undulate. 

' ' On the second floor of the building a large company were in the re- 
corder's court, where a suit was in progress, and these fled to the street 
without the ceremony of adjournment. On the same floor is the calaboose, 
in which was a prisoner. He, poor fellow, lonked through the grates and 
added to the confusion by vigorously'yelling, ' ' Let me out ! " " Let me out ! ' ' 
But nobody stopped to release him. 

"On Commercial street almost every person distinctly felt the shock, 
and most of them hastily left their places of business. In Parker's build- 
ing, Mr. Wills, Mr. I. S. Parker and Mr. Raynor were engaged in writing 
at their desks in different parts of the room on the first floor, where tha 

Earthquakes in Kansas. 123 

trembling was so great that they were compelled to cease, and were soon 
in the street with the rest of the people. 

"In Mr. (James A.) Gould's drug store the glass jars rattled, the chan- 
deliers vibrated, and the trembling of the building was otherwise mani- 

"In Mr. Wakefield's crockery store the glassware, crockery and lamps 
shook with a distinct and very unpleasant motion. 

"In almost every case a heavy, rumbling noise was heard, and each 
thought a weighty cask or some other ponderous object was being rattled 
through his neighbor's building or along the sidewalk. In most cases the 
noise is described as passing from the south to the north, though some say 
it passed from east to west. 

"Rev. Mr. Marshall was standing near the rear of his house, when he 
heard a heavy, rumbling sound, which he supposed to be from a passing 
wagon; following this came a vibration of the earth, and this was continued 
for several seconds. He distinctly perceived the vibrations of a neighbor- 
ing house. Families in the vicinity were much disturbed by the oscillations 
of their buildings. 

"Throughout the city the shock was felt with more or less distinctness, 
and it is needless to say that great alarm was occasioned, and many faces 
not accustomed to paleness blanched to a cadaverous hue. 

"Of course, there are many speculations as to the power of the earth- 
quake in other localities, but these can be only speculations as yet. From 
the power of the shock here, it is reasonable to suppose that at no distant 
point the force was sufficient to throw down buildings. 

"There seems to be a uniformity of testimony as to the rumbling sound 
heard, and nearly all agree that the first oscillation experienced was dis- 
tinct, but was almost instantly followed by a heavier and more perceptibly 
felt swell that passed either northward or westward. "—DaiZi/ Free Press, 
Atchison, April 24, 1867. 

"We have been unable to obtain many particulars of the earthquake 
yesterday. We learn by a gentleman from the vicinity that the shock was 
distinctly felt forty miles to the west of us on the railroad. The telegraph 
announces that the shock was felt at Omaha, at Solomon, Kan., and slightly 
in St. Louis, but we hear nothing of it extending to the east. 

"By telegraph we learn that the shock was felt at St. Joseph, Leaven- 
worth and Kansas City. There was much confusion at St. Joseph, and some 
evidences of the earthquake were left. The brick walls of the new school- 
house, standing on an elevated piece of ground where the street had been 
cut down, were cracked for several feet from the ground, and the bank on 
which it stood was also rent in a distinct seQ.ra.." — Daily Free Press, Atchi- 
son, April 25, 1?67. 


' ' Yesterday morning at about a quarter to five o'clock the shock of an 
earthquake was felt in this city, the wave seeming to run from southeast 
to northwest. The shock was plainly felt at the capitol, the most solidly 
built structure in the town. By notices to be found elsewhere it will be 
seen that the convulsion was felt at points west of here. It was also ob- 
served on the Wakarusa, south of town. The shock was a light one. " — 
Topeka Commonwealth, November 9, 1875. 

126 Kansas State Historical Society. 

"The earthquake seems to have been very 'generally attended' along- 
the line of the Kansas Pacific. 

"The Lawrence Tribune says: 'There were two distinct shocks of an 
earthquake felt in and around Lawrence this morning at between 4:30 and 
5 o'clock. Mr. Hanscomb says he was waked up out of a slight sleep, or 
half-dozing state, and felt the shock very distinctly— so much so that dishes 
rattled. Several persons in town describe the sensations in a very similar 
manner. A gentleman residing on Buck creek, nine miles from Lawrence, 
described the shock as very distinct, representing the trembling of his house 
as similar to that caused by the trotting of a dog over a flimsy bridge. At 
the Hill home, the former residence of the Rev. L S. Kalloch, the shock is 
represented as so severe as to rattle dishes and break the glass jars in a 
pantry. Several of the family got out of the big stone mansion in the 
shortest possible space of time.' "— Topeka Commonwealth, November 10, 

"The shock of an earthquake was perceptibly felt here on the morning 
of November 7 [8], between four and five o'clock. In some places stoves 
and crockery and window panes were rattled about. A door in C. W. Bitt- 
man's residence was jarred open. "—Kansas Reporter, Louisville, Novem- 
ber 14, 1875. 

"On Monday morning last quite a number of persons in this neighbor- 
hood were awakened about five o'clock in the morning by an earthquake. 
Wooden houses rocked and stone ones quivered. The worst scared person 
we have seen was a young lady who thought that some horrid man was 
shaking her bed." — The Nationalist, Manhattan, November 12, 1875. 

"A slight shock of an earthquake was experienced here a little before 
five last Monday morning, the 8th inst. It was preceded by a rumbling 
noise, suggesting the thought that some one was out early and driving rap- 
idly; then the house began to shake and windows rattle, and we concluded 
it must be an earthquake. By our exchanges we notice that a similar shock 
was felt at Topeka and quite a number of other points in the state. Possi- 
bly it might have been only the Democratic party groaning at the severe 
castigation which it got on the 2d inst. " — Osag^e County Chronicle, Burlin- 
game, November 12, 1875. 


"A great many of our oldest and most reliable citizens predicted that 
some fell disaster would befall Atchison on account of the Republicans per- 
mitting the Democracy to bulldoze them in the manner they did in the first 
commissioner's district this fall. Such criminal carelessness on the one 
side and frightful election frauds on the other, it was predicted, would as 
certainly be punished as it was certain that it was criminal. The first 
warning came yesterday at five minutes before twelve o'clock, and it came 
in the shape of an earthquake. There was no mistaking the fact— every 
two-story building in town swayed backward and forward, and in several 
buildings there was a grand rush made for the street. It was noticed very 
distinctly in every department of the Champion building, and the employees 

Note 5. — "A slight earthquake ; it empties a few cisterns in Lawrence." — November 
15, 1877, Wilder's Annals. 

Earthquakes in Kansas. 127 

in every room saw and felt the vibration. In the Wagner building, on the 
corner of Fourth and Commercial streets, the occupants vacated the struc- 
ture like a panic-stricken mob, and they came rushing pell mell down the 
stairs like the water comes down at Ladore. Another building in which 
the effects were distinctly felt was in Murphy's block. In the city clerk's 
office the desks swayed back and forth as if impelled by some motive power, 
and the gas fixtures trembled and shook for ten minutes. In Leu's block 
and the Blair and Galbraith block the shock was also accutely felt, but no 
damage done. "—The Atchison Daily Champion, Nov. 16, 1877. 

"Persons who were engaged in the upper rooms of the Santa Fe depot 
yesterday state that about ten minutes before twelve o'clock they felt a 
shock of earthquake, which made the building rock gently from north to 
south. In one room there were three gentlemen, and all of a sudden each 
found the others looking at him and asking, 'What is that?' In other rooms 
nearly the same thing happened, all saying they felt very dizzy or seasick, 
or rushed to the window to see if there was a train passing. Not an engine 
was in sight, and some one said, 'Earthquake.' In one room a door was 
slammed shut, and some say the chairs rocked. In the shops the shock was 
also felt, but not downstairs in the depot building. We talked with several 
gentlemen in the building, and all agree that it was an earthquake. We 
have, however, been unable to find any one uptown who felt it, except a col- 
ored man who thought he heard it, but at the time supposed it was the re- 
port of two guns which had been discharged. A lady who came in on the 
Santa Fe train said that while she was sitting in the depot at Lawrence she 
felt something, but didn't know what is was."— The Commonwealth, Topeka, 
November 16, 1877. 

•'On Thursday, November 15, 1877, the shock of an earthquake was dis- 
tinctly felt in this city (Kansas City, Kan.) about fifteen minutes before 
twelve o'clock. A majority of persons were not conscious of any perturba- 
tion of nature, but people living on high ground and those occupying brick 
buildings felt the shock distintinctly. Topeka, Lawrence, Atchison and 
other points in the state were more or less shaken up. The shock was not 
as severe as that of the earthquakes of 1876 [1875]."— The Wyandott Her- 
ald, Wyandott, November 22, 1877. 


"The earthquake at five o'clock yesterday morning gave the people a 
topic of conversation for the day, and they took advantage of it. ' Did you 
feel the shock? ' was heard on all sides. 

"The shock was most severe and was felt more plainly at the Chester- 
field Hotel, probably, than any other place in town. Nearly all the guests 
in the hotel were awakened and some were considerably frightened. They 
thought a portion of the building had collapsed. Col. John F. Carter, pro- 
prietor of the hotel, said: 'I was awakened about five o'clock by peculiar 
sounds, and I could feel the bed shaking, and the building was swaying from 
north to south, I first heard the water gurgling in the steam pipes, but 
pretty soon I felt and heard another shock, and I could feel the bed moving 
very plainly. I started to get up, when I heard some of the guests who had 
been awakened talking about an earthquake. ' 

128 Kansas State Historical Society. 

"Janitor H. Hill, of the Potwin schoolhouse, says the earthquake cracked 
that building; at least there is a big crack there now that was not there 
Wednesday night. 

"T. M. Forbes, of North Topeka, said: 'I felt three shocks and my 
house shook very badly. '"—Topeka Capital, November 1, 1895. 

"Pittsburg, Kan., Oct. 31. —This morning at 5:25 o'clock an earthquake 
shock was felt here which was so perceptible as to arouse many from their 
beds. A second shock was felt five minutes later, and it is said by many 
that a third shock occurred. Many citizens were scared, but this was the 
only damage. 

"Emporia, Kan., Oct. 31. — Fcur distinct earthquake shocks were felt in 
this city between four and five o'clock this morning. It seemed to be from 
east to west, and was of short duration. There was a trembling sensation, 
accompanied by a low, rumbling sound, a rocking of houses, shaking of 
windows and of beds. Many persons were awakened from their sleep. 

"Florence, Kan., Oct. 31.— A slight but distinct earthquake shock was 
felt all over this vicinity about five o'clock this morning. No damage was 
done, but windows rattled and water in pails and other vessels was spilled 
by the shock. 

"Clay Center, Kan., Oct. 31. —A very distinct earthquake shock was 
felt in this vicinity early this morning, about five o'clock. A number of per- 
sons were awakened by the vibrations, but no damage was done. The 
shock seems to have been felt all over the county. 

"Lawrence, Kan., Oct. 31.— The earthquake shock in Lawrence was dis- 
tinctly felt about 5:15 o'clock. The vibration was from west to east, and 
lasted several seconds. There was no damage done, but the shock was 
noticed all over the city. 

" Wamego, Kan., Oct. 31. — An earthquake shock of several seconds' 
duration woke the sleepers in town this morning about five o'clock. There 
was no report or rumbling, but curtains and windows and dishes rattled. 

"Manhattan, Kan., Oct. 31.— Two slight earthquake shocks were dis- 
tinctly felt here this morning at 5:20 o'clock. The first lasted about thirty 
seconds, and after an interval of one minute came a second shock of shorter 

"HoLTON, Kan., Oct. 31.— At about four o'clock this morning a distinct 
earthquake shock of several seconds' duration was experienced. Many were 
awakened by the trembling of the houses and the rattling of the windows. 

"Fort Scott, Kan., Oct. 31.— What is thought to have been an earth- 
quake shock momentarily terrorized many residents of this city about five 
o'clock this morning. Some of the larger brick buildings shook violently 
and people left them in haste. The night operators at the Missouri Pacific 
and Missouri, Kansas & Texas depots fled. 

"Leavenworth, Kan., Oct. 31.— A few minutes after five o'clock this 
morning a severe earthquake shock rattled furniture and dishes violently in 
some localities and roughly rolled persons in bed. Many got up and searched 
for supposed burglars, mistaking the earthquake shock for something else. 
Those living in brick or stone houses were most generally shaken up. There 
were three distinct shocks. The first one began at 5:06 and the last was 

Earthquakes in Kansas. 129 

■over at 5:16. The vibrations appeared to be from the northwest to the 

"HlAW^ATHA, Kan., Oct. 31.- A distinct earthquake shock was felt here 
at five o'clock this morning. No damage was done, but the people awake 
at the time were frightened. 

"Kansas City, Oct. 31.— The shocks were plainly felt in the west bot- 
toms. The Union Depot trembled, the floor shook and the ceiling oscillated 
until the electric lights flickered. Guests of the Blossom House and of the 
Union Depot Hotel were much alarmed and rushed out in the hallways. A 
peculiarity about the vibrations in this city was that they were only felt, so 
far as can be learned, by persons who were lying down. Persons who were 
on their feet when the quake began felt no shock. The Missouri Pacific 
Railway feared that damage might have been done to its tracks, and gave 
orders directly after the shock that all trains should run on slow time." 

The above special dispatches appeared in the Topeka Capital of Novem- 
ber 1, 1895. Other reports in the paper indicate that the shock was general 
through the Mississippi valley. 


"An earthquake shock was felt in Topeka last evening at 6:15 o'clock. 
The shock was accompanied by a roaring sound resembling thunder, and at 
first many people thought that an explosion of natural gas was the cause of 
the noise and the jar. The shock caused houses and windows to shake and 
•dishes and windows and doors to rattle. At the Copeland Hotel the guests 
felt two distinct shocks, the second one following close after the first, 

"The earthquake was felt in the Kansas river valley from Kansas City 
westward, and reports of the shock came from as far west as Abilene and 
as far north as Falls City, Neb. The wind was quite high at the time of 
the shock, and many people thought that a hurricane was shaking the 
houses and that a midwinter cyclone was endangering the city. 

"Chief Justice Johnston of the supreme court and Mrs. Johnston were 
in their rooms on the third floor of the Copeland Hotel. Mrs. Johnston 
said: 'I think it was about 6:20 o'clock that I felt the building shake. This 
was followed by a number of tremors, which lasted about half a minute. 
After a short interval there was a second series of tremors lasting longer 
than the first. I spoke to Judge Johnston about it, and he said that he be- 
lieved that an earthquake was taking place. We could feel the shaking 
distinctly and it made us feel rather queer. ' 

"B. B. Kelley received a telephone communication from a relative at 
Manhattan telling him that the town had been badly shaken, but that no 
damage had been done. The shaking was so violent that the people in the 
Gillett Hotel rushed from the building. Dinner was being served at the 
time, and the meal was interrupted. Every one in the dining room fled. 

"Justice R. A. Burch of the supreme court was in his home, at 827 Tyler 
street, when things began to move. Judge Burch said : ' I experienced an 
earthquake in Kansas in the '70's, and when I felt this shock it instantly 
called up recollections of the previous one. I felt sure that there was 
either a gas explosion or an earthquake. It rattled the glass on the gas 
lamp. ' 


130 Kansas State Historical Society. 

' ' Eugene Ware : * I experienced an earthquake in Iowa about forty years 
ago, and this instantly called to my mind the previous one. The shock was 
sufficient to make the shade on my lamp rattle. ' 

"J. A. Majors, who lives at 1401 Polk street, felt the shock at his house. 
'I was putting coal in my stove when I felt the house sbake, ' said Mr. Ma- 
jors. 'The windows rattled and I could feel the whole building shake clear 
to the roof. After the shaking stopped I heard a roaring sound like flames 
in a burning building, and I thought that the house must be afire, so I went 
upstairs to see, but as everything was all right I concluded that it was 
only a blast of wind that had struck the house and that the roaring sound 
was caused by that. ' 

"Ralph E. Valentine said: 'I was at the home of James Wilson, at 
Eighth and Buchanan streets, at the time. I felt a distinct jar. The house 
shook and the windows rattled and the doors in some book cases rattled. 
My father was asleep, and the shock awakened him. ' 

"Albert Watkins, who lives between Fourth and Fifth streets on Bu- 
chanan, said : ' I felt things shake. At the same time the baby fell off the 
lounge, and his fall was caused by the earthquake. ' 

"Mrs. Eugene Ware: 'I thought at first that a windstorm was coming 
up. I was upstairs at the time. The house shook, and I ran to ask Mr. 
Ware if he had noticed anything strange. He said that the student lamp on 
his table was shaking badly and he thought that we were having an earth- 
quake. I called up Mrs. Harry Garvey by telephone. She said that things 
had been shaking at her home. ' 

"J. E. Hurley, general manager of the Santa Fe, said: 'I was -in my 
room at the Copeland at the time of the shock. It gave a quivering, jerk- 
ing sensation. There seemed to be two shocks. It happened about 6:20 
o'clock, I should say.' 

"T. B. Jennings, of the Weather Bureau, said that he had no indications 
of a shock. 'I was on my wheel coming to the office at the time that people 
said they felt the shock, but did not feel it myself. We have no seismograph 
at the office and so we had no record of any shock. The barometer showed 
no signs of any disturbance. Earthquakes come from a considerable dis- 
tance below the surface of the earth, and so cover considerable areas. The 
earth is shrinking at the center, and the earthquake is due to the readjust- 
ment of some of the rocky layers. Kansas had quite a severe earthquake 
in 1867. I was in Montgomery county at the time. The shock shook the 
buildings, and even shook the dishes off the shelves. Still, when the stage 
came in and we asked the passengers about it they said that they had not 
felt anything. A person in a vehicle very seldom feels a shock of this 
nature. "—Topeka Capital, January 8, 1906. 

Specials to the Capital, January 8, 1906: 

"Manhattan, Jan. 7, 1906. —A severe earthquake shock was experienced 
here at 6:15 this evening. The tremor was so intense that dishes on the 
supper table were shaken together, articles fell from shelves, and brick 
chimneys were knocked down from the city school building, the Union Pacific 
freight depot and from several houses. The tremor was preceded by a 
rumbling noise, like the rolling of a heavy wagon, or a hollow, booming 
sound. The shock seemed to be of two distinct waves— a lateral, followed 
instantly by a vertical movement. There was not a home in the city that 

Earthquakes in Kansas. 131 

escaped the shock. The people ran from their houses terrified, thinking 
that some awful explosion had occurred in the vicinity. The transit of the 
wave was from southwest to northeast. Some people felt a second shock, 
twenty minutes following the two greater shocks, and also accompanied by 
a roaring noise." 

"Abilene, Jan. 7.— A distinct earthquake shock, sufficient to rattle 
dishes and cause water in glasses to show considerable motion, was fel 
here about 6:45 this evening. Early darkness and a heavily clouded sky, 
with a stiff north wind, preceded it. Many people were alarmed, but the 
shock was slight and some did not notice it. " 

"Marysville, Jan. 7. — An earthquake was felt in Marysville to-night 
at 6:30. The earth trembled for some seconds, and the shock was of a 
rocking nature rather than an upheaval. Numerous families in Marysville 
noticed it while at supper. Telephone reports from every town in the 
county say the shock was noticeable at each point." 

"Wichita, Jan. 7.— A slight earthquake shock was felt here this eve- 
ning. The shock was felt only in the large downtown buildings, and also in 
the residence districts located on the west side of the Arkansas river. A 
number of reports were received both at the police station and at tl e 
Weather Bureau office from different parties who felt the shock. Reports 
received from neighboring towns state that when the shock was felt it 
seemed to last three or four seconds. The earthquake occurred at 6:25." 

"Emporia, Jan. 7.— An earthquake shock was felt here at about 6:15 
o'clock this evening. It was too slight to do damage, but was distinctly 
felt all over this part of the country. The vibrations lasted for about sixty 

"Junction City, Jan. 7. —The most distinct seismic disturbance felt in 
this part of the state came this evening at 6:17 o'clock. It was felt in all 
parts of Junction City and Fort Riley, and here at first the general impres- 
sion was that the ammunition magazines at the fort had exploded. In some 
parts of the city the shock was so severe that many people were frightened 
from their homes. In many residences dishes and windows rattled distinctly, 
and in some articles were shaken from shelves and tables. The earthquake 
was followed by a cold wave and snowstorm." 

132 . Kansas State Historical Society. 


By Prof. Hamilton Perkins Cady, University of Kansas, Lawrence. 

THE RAINFALL is a matter of vital importance to every inhabitant of 
Kansas, and this makes the question, Is the rainfall in Kansas in- 
creasing? one of considerable interest. Of course, there is no way to 
answer this except by examination of the records. These cover too small a 
period to allow any very certain conclusions to be drawn, but since they are 
our only source of information we must make the best possible use of them. 

The oldest weather records in the state are those of Leavenworth, begun 
in 1836; Manhattan, 1858; Lawrence, 1868; Hays, 1868; and Wallace, 1870. 
Since it is quite a laborious task to work up the data in the way that it is 
done here, it seemed to be necessary to choose three stations to represent 
the eastern, middle and western portions of the state. For the middle and 
western parts the choice fell easily and naturally upon Hays and Wallace. 
For the eastern section the record at Lawrence seemed to be the best. It 
is not as old as that at either Leavenworth or Manhattan, but it is abso- 
lutely complete from the day it was begun, while each of the others has 
experienced more or less interruption, and then, too, the Lawrence record 
has the great advantage that it was kept from 1868 to 1909 by one man— 
Dr. F. H. Snow— and consequently was taken in a uniform manner, and 
hence any variations which it may show will have greater significance. 

Let us, then, take up first the Lawrence record. A glance down the 
'Column of figures giving the annual rainfall shows very great variation. 
For example, the precipitation for 1897 was 23.79, while that for the next 
year, 1898, was 44.05— a difference of more than twenty inches! These 
great and sudden variations make it impossible to form any opinion by in- 
spection as to whether or not the rainfall is changing. 

Some other method must be used, and the one of breaking the record up 
into periods of ten years naturally suggests itself. The ten years' average 
for the three stations are given below : 

Lawrence. Hays. Wallace. 

First ten years 34.91 23 34 15.83 

Second ten years 34.38 23.01 18 54 

Third ten years 38.07 20 65 14.44 

Fourth ten years 38 02 25.93 17.44 

Average for whole record.. 36 94 22.89 16.66 

An inspection of this table seems to indicate that the rainfall has in- 
creased markedly at Lawrence, and perhaps has fallen ofl' slightly at Hays 
and Wallace. It may be interesting to know at this point that if none of 
the rain which had fallen at Lawrence since the record began had run off 
or evaporated, the water would now be nearly 135 feet deep. 

There is a mathematical device, known as the * ' principle of least squares, ' ' 
which enables us to take a tangled mass of data, such as the annual rainfall 
statistics, and obtain the best possible relation between the time and the 

Note 1. — This address by Professor Cady was sent to the granges and the labor or- 
ganizations of the state in 1911 by the Department of University Extension, Kansas 
"University, and was used as a lecture at their various meetings. 

Rainfall in Kansas. 133 

rainfall. The calculations involved are quite laborious, and for this reason 
ts application was confined to the record of the three stations. 

The result indicates that the precipitation at Lawrence is increasing at 
the rate of j'^jV of an inch per year, and that at the beginning of the record 
the average yearly rainfall was 33.33 inches, while at present time it is 
40.45 inches. 

Applying this same method to the data for Hays, we learn that the rain- 
fall there is increasing at the rate of jgjj of an inch per year, an increase of 
nearly two and one-half inches in the annual precipitation since the record 
began, in 1868. 

The calculation for Wallace shows that there has been no increase, but 
rather a very slight falling off, which amounts to i/^^ of an inch per year, 
or the rainfall now is ^Vs of an inch per year less than at the beginning of 
the record. This change is so small that we may safely say that the rain- 
fall at Wallace has remained unchanged, while that at Hays, and especially 
at Lawrence, it has markedly increased. 

These results, then, indicate that the rainfall of Kansas, taken as a 
whole, is on the increase. 

The cause of the increase and how long it will continue are quite other 
matters. Common sense tells us that it can not go on increasing indefinitely, 
and experience in other localities has shown that there is a slow cycle of 
change in climate, and this would lead us to believe that after increasing 
for a time the rainfall will finally begin to diminish. But, of course, it is 
possible that the changed condition brought about by cultivation, etc., may 
produce a slight permanent change in the climate. 


Slater, Mo. 


Days of the. Missionary. 


IN KANSAS — 1854 TO 1906. 

Compiled by Rev. Joab Spencer ' for the Kansas State Historical Society. 

BEFORE taking up a review of the Church South in Kansas, we deem it 
proper to give a brief account of the causes which led up to the divi- 
sion of the Methodist Episcopal Church and the reasons for the organization 
of the Church South. Without a clear understanding of this part of our 
church history people will never appreciate fairly the grounds for our sep- 
parate being. In order that the following statement touching this division 
and kindred questions may be accepted as a fair and disinterested presenta- 
tion of the facts in the case, we quote from a writer of considerable repu- 
tion,2 a prominent member and historian of the Methodist Episcopal Church: 

"The General Conference of 1844 met in May of that year in the city of 
New York. It soon became clear that the temper of the conference was 
antislavery. James Osgood Andrew, one of the bishops, had become con- 
nected with slavery. There was a girl bequeathed him by a lady, and 
this girl refused freedom ; a boy left to her daughter (his former wife) by 
her mother, whom he could not free in Georgia ; also slaves held by his sec- 
ond wife, who had owned them before her marriage to Bishop Andrew, and 
whom he could not free in Georgia, the civil law prohibiting. The bishop 
had never bought or sold slaves. The precise form of objection to the rela- 
tion of the bishop to his slaves was that it made him unacceptable to som*" 
of the conferences, and that a bishop ought to be acceptable everywhere. 
The bishops as a body desired no action, as they could arrange to give 
Bishop Andrew service in the South, where he was acceptable. The result 
was that a resolution was passed, by 111 votes to 69, declaring that the 
bishop's connection with slavery would embarrass and in some places pre- 
vent the exercise of his office as general superintendent, and that 'It is the 
sense of this General Conference that he desist from the exercise of his of- 
fice so long as this impediment remains.' The affirmative vote was wholly 
from the North ; the negative almost wholly from the South. A declara- 
tion was at once made by the southern delegates to the effect that this vir- 
tual suspension of Bishop Andrew, under no charge of violation of law, will 
produce in the South ' a state of things rendering the continuance of the 
jurisdiction of this General Conference over conferences there inconsistent 
with the success of the ministry in the South. ' In this declaration the 

Note 1. — The author wishes to make grateful acknowledgment to Rev. W. S. Woodard, 
Rev. W. H. Comer and Rev. J. T. Pritchett for valuable services rendered in the prepara- 
tion of this paper. But for their timely aid the work could not have been completed. 

For biographical sketch of Rev. Joab Spencer see Kansas Historical Collections, 
vol. 9, p. 184. 

Note 2. — Rev. Ammi Bradford Hyde, professor of philology in the University of 
Denver, born at Oxford, N. Y., March 13, 1825, and ordained to the Methodist Episcopal 
ministry in 1850. He began teaching in 1846, and was one of the founders of the Ameri- 
can Philological Association, and is a member of the American Oriental Society, besides 
various other learned bodies. 


136 Kansas State Historical Society. 

southern delegates were a unit. Thus Bishop Andrew could not preside m 
the northern conferences, and if the southern conferences acquiesced in 
his suspension Methodism could not prosper in their region. Access to the 
plantations would be refused and hundreds of thousands of negroes be de- 
prived of gospel services. 

"In truth, no human power could avert the coming separation. Bishop 
Andrew was 'not its cause, but only its occasion.' He said: 'If I could 
secure the peace of the church by resigning I would gladly do it.' He was 
in front of the tidal wave, but it would have rolled on the same without 
him. There could be no compromise, and it only remained to do peacefully 
the inevitable— separate. It was, at best, an awkward thing to do. A 
plan was at once formed by which southern territory was kept from entrance 
Isy northern preachers, and all vested properties were to be divided accord- 
ing to the ratio of preachers in the two bodies. The plan was unanimously 
accepted by the South." 

"In May, 1845, a convention was held in Louisville, Ky. Bishops Soule, 
Andrew and Morris were present. ^ The Methodist Episcopal Church South 
was organized, and its first General Conference was called for May, 1846, 
at Petersburg, Va. Bishops Soule and Andrew were asked to become 
bishops of the new church. The latter did so at once, the former the fol- 
lowing year. "4 

It will be seen that the Church South was not a secession, not a schism, 
but the one-half and equal result of a legitimate separation, avowedly in- 
evitable and with the specific approval of the General Conference having 
jurisdiction. It was a solemn parting in sadness and sorrow, and yet in 
sincere honesty and Christian love. No one at that time without a prophet's 
ken could have foreseen the subsequent strife and suspicion, nor have an- 
ticipated the bickering, enmity and bitter rivalry which developed later and 
which have continued for so long, to the disgrace and humiliation of both 
branches of the Methodist Church. 

After the disruption peace continued only till the first chance for war. 
The first General Conference of the northern section of the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church met in Pittsburgh in May, 1848. A reactionary body, elected 
and met in a revolutionary period, is very liable to unwise and unjust delib- 
eration. This convention was no exception to the rule. It abrogated and 
attempted to rescind the Plan of Separation, declaring it "null and void," 
the vote on the rescinding resolution showing 132 ayes and 10 nays. The 
repudiation policy set forth that the General Conference of 1844 had no con- 
stitutional power to adopt a plan; that the compact had suffered infractions 
on the border and that the Restrictive Rule had not received a three- fourths 
majority. In reply to the request of the commissioners of the Church 
South, that the just portion of the chartered fund and Book Concern prop- 
erty be delivered, there came a positive refusal from the northern branch, 
and they arranged to send preachers into southern territory. Nothing was 
left for Southern Methodists but to "appeal to Caesar." In the two suits 
brought for the pro rata property in the courts of New York and Ohio, both 

Note 3. — On the 15th day of May the committee on organization reported these con- 
clusions: "That while in accord with the full and exclusive authority granted by the 
General Conference of 1844 to the annual conferences of the slaveholding states, to decide 
upon the necessity of organizing a separate ecclesiastical connection in the South, it is in 
evidence that sixteen such conferences present and ninety-five in each hundred of the 
nearly 500,000 ministry and membership deem such division indispensable to the welfare 
of the church and of the nearly a million slaves who would be withdrawn from their care, 
yet these southern conferences are ready and most willing to treat with the northern 
division of the church at any time, in view of adjusting the difficulties of the controversy 
upon terms that may be satisfactory to both." 

Note 4.— "Story of Methodism," Dr. A. B. Hyde, Chic. Johns. 1888, p. 537. 

The M. E. Church, South, in Kansas. 


decisions were finally in favor of the Church South, that in Ohio being 
handed down by the supreme court of the United States, unanimously re- 
versing the decision of the lower court. Thus the highest courts of the land 
awarded the just claim, declared that the General Conference of 1844 did 
not transcend its authority, decided that the Plan of Separation was a valid 
instrument, whose every provision and particular must be enforced, and that 
according to that document the Methodist Episcopal Church South was the 
Methodist Episcopal Church for the South, just as the Methodist Episcopal 
Church was the Methodist Episcopal Church for the North. No other con- 
struction can fairly be made, and this opinion has been repeatedly followed 
in cases in all courts. 


Twin children of Rev. Jesse Greene and Mrs. Mary Greene, born at Shawnee Mission, 
September 5, 1840. First children born at the Mission. 

It is well to remember that for seventy years previous to 1844 there had 
been two parties in the Methodist Church — the northern party contending 
that the church should attempt legislation for the entire extirpation of 
slavery from the body and from the country; the southern party holding 
the church, as such, had no right to meddle with the civil regulations exist- 
ing between master and slave, and that the church could not pursue any 
other course in any country where slavery existed by law without injury to 
the church and the cause of God.^ It was the practice of this conservative 
policy that enabled the preachers in the South to have free access to the 
slaves, and by their faithful labors thousands of these unfortunate people 
had been evangelized. The General Minutes of 1860 show that over 200,000 
colored people were in the communion of the Church South. The doctrine 
of nonintervention held by the Church South in 1844 has been adhered to 

Note 5.— "Life and Times of Wm. Patton," by D. R. M' Anally, 1858, p. 208. 

138 Kansas State Historical Society. 

ever since, and, right or wrong, it is the position of the church to-day. 
Likewise, the northern branch was and is just as solemnly committed to the 
same principle. The matter of slavery had always been questio vexata in 
the Methodist Church. The General Conference of 1808, which served to 
inaugurate our constitutional and delegated polity, adopted a rule against 
the "buying and selling of men, women and children with an intent to en- 
slave them"— considered to refer to the slave trade and not to the transfer 
of those already in slavery. ^ 

The General Conference of 1824 adopted the following rule or law: "No 
slaveholder whose state law allows emancipation and the slave's freedom 
can hold office in the Church."^ 

It seems to be the opinion of many that the Methodist Episcopal Church 
refused membership to slaveholders. The fact is they dealt with the slave- 
holders substantially as did the Methodist Episcopal Church South. Mary- 
land, Delaware and a part of Virginia remained under the jurisdiction of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church after the division, and the church through- 
out this territory contained slaveholders. Likewise, when the Missouri 
Conference was reorganized by the Methodist Episcopal Church in 1848 
many other slave owners were brought into the membership of that church. 
In this particular the conduct of the two branches of Methodism was the 
same. Each received both master and slave into its communion, and each 
required the master to deal with his slaves in a Christian spirit. » It will 
be clearly seen that neither branch of the church could fairly be called 
either an antislavery or a proslavery church. In the premises, we submit 
that in this policy both were Scriptural, and both, consequently, right. 

In 1830 the Methodist Episcopal Church entered the territory now in- 
cluded in the state of Kansas and organized missions among various Indian 
tribes.' The General Conference of 1844 created the Indian Mission Con- 

NOTE 6. — "Story of Methodism," Dr. A. B. Hyde, 1888, p. 536. 

Note 7. — This rule remained in the Discipline of the M. E. Church South till 1858, 
and in the Discipline of the M. E. Church till 1864, when it was so changed as to make 
slave owning a test of membership ; or, rather, a cause for exclusion. This rule as 
amended read, 'slaveholding, buying or selling.' As Mr. Lincoln had issued his emancipa- 
tion proclamation sixteen months before, it is very probable that no one was excluded 
^rom the church under the new rule. In 1824 the following form was adopted : 

"Op Slavery. 

"Question. What shall be done for the extirpation of the evil of slavery ? 

"Answer. 1. We declare that we are as much convinced as ever of the great evil of 
slavery ; therefore, no slaveholder shall be eligible to an official station in our church here- 
after where the laws of the state in which he lives will admit of emancipation and per- 
mit the liberated slave to enjoy freedom. 

"2. When any traveling preacher becomes an owner of a slave or slaves, by any 
means, he shall forfeit his ministerial character in our church, unless he execute, if it be 
practicable, a legal emancipation of such slaves, conformable to the laws of the state in 
which he lives. 

"3. All our preachers shall prudently enforce upon our membei's the necessity of 
teaching their slaves to read the Word of God and to allow them time to attend upon the 
worship of God on our regular days of divine service. 

"4. Our colored preachers and official members shall have all the privileges which are 
usual to others in the district and quarterly conferences, where the usages of the country 
tio not forbid it. And the presiding elder may hold for them a separate district confer- 
ence where the number of colored local preachers will justify it. 

"5. The annual conferences may employ colored preachers to travel and preach where 
the services are judged necessary ; provided, that no one shall be so employed without 
having been recommended according to the form of discipline." 

These are the regulations which continued in the Discipline of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church South till the close of the war, and in the discipline of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church till 1850. 

Note 8. — Kansas Historical Collections, vol. 9, p. 160. 

Note 9. — It was not until 1864 that the M. E. Church made slaveholding a bar to 
•membership. — Discipline of M. E. Church, 1864, General Rule on Slavery. 

The M. E. Church, South, in Kansas. 


ference, which included the several missions in the Indian Territory and 
those in Kansas. That conference, by almost unanimous vote, adhered to 
the Church South. Six years later the boundary of the Indian Mission Con- 
ference was so changed as to include only that part lying within the Indian 
Territory, the missions in Kansas becoming a part of the St. Louis Con- 
ference of the Methodist Episcopal Church South. It is thus evident that 
the Methodist Church South was occupying Kansas territory rightfully under 
the Plan of Separation: First, by the decision of the Indian Mission Confer- 
ence, by formal vote, to go with the Southern Church; and second, by the 
action of the General Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church South 
in attaching the Kansas Indian Missions to the St. Louis Conference of that 

The General Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church South, 
held in Columbus, Ga., in May, 1854, by legal enactment created the Kan- 
sas Mission Conference." At the session of the St. Louis Conference, con- 
vened the succeeding autumn, Andrew Monroe was appointed to the Kan- 
sas Mission district. In 1850 the Indian Mission district had been taken 
from the Indian Mission Conference and attached to the St. Louis Confer- 
ence. In addition to his supervision of the Indian missions, Mr. Monroe 
was expected to travel throughout the newly organized territory of Kansas 
and determine what places were suitable for occupancy by the Church 
South. It is evident that he made a report of his labors to the conference 
which met at Springfield September, 1854. From the Kansas Mission Con- 

M\ ■ 


- V 

» \ 



iff " 


. m 




First church l)uilclinu' elected in Kansas liy the Methodist Episcopal Church South, 
at Kickapoo, in 1854. Bell a gift of the Rev. D. R. McAnnally, D. D., St. Louis, Mo. 

140 Kansas State Historical Society. 

ference Journal we note : "This conference was organized by Bishop Early 
at the tenth session of the St. Louis Conference, at Springfield, Mo., on 
Wednesday, October 24, 1855. Members present at the organization were 
Thomas Johnson, Nathan Scarritt, N. M. Talbot, Adonijah Williams, 
Charles Boles, N. T. Shaler, Wm. Bradford, L. B. Stateler, J. 0. Woods, 
C. R. Rice, John Hale, C. Jones and William Barnett. " J. H. Pritchett 
was also a member of the conference, but was not present. These preachers 
received the following appointments for the ensuing year : 

Lecompton district, William Bradford, presiding elder. —Lecompton cir- 
cuit, L. B. Stateler and J. H. Pritchett ; Pottawatomie, C. R. Rice ; Fort 
Scott, John Hale; Neosho, C. Jones ; Council Grove, to be supplied. 

Kickapoo district, Nathan Scarritt, presiding elder. — Manual Labor 
School, T. Johnson ; Shawnee Indian Mission, C. Boles ; Wyandot Indian 
Mission, William Barnett; Delaware Indian Mission, N. M. Talbot; Leav- 
enworth circuit, J. O. Woods; Doniphan, to be supplied; Big Blue, A. Wil- 

For the most part these fourteen appointments were merely paper 
charges to designate the part of the territory to be occupied by each 
preacher. At the end of the year, however, from the reports it appears 
that most of them were returned as organized pastoral charges. 

At the organization of the Kansas Mission Conference, in 1855, the 
names of fourteen men appeared on the roll, short sketches of whom are 
here given: 

Thomas Johnson. — For biographical sketch, see Kansas Historical Collec- 
tions, vol. 9, page 161. 

Learner B. Stateler. — For biographical sketch, see Kansas Historical 
Collections, vol. 9, page 206. 

Nathan Scarritt. —For biographical sketch, see Kansas Historical Collec- 
tions, vol. 9, page 180. 

William Bradford. —Born in Ohio about 1825. He joined the Missouri 
Conference in 1850, and in 1855 was transferred to the Kansas Mission Con- 
ference, where he continued to labor until 1871, when he located. During 
the war his work was somewhat interrupted, but only for a short time. His 
field of labor in Kansas was very diflficult, but he was both faithful and 
zealous, contributing largely to the planting and upbuilding of the infant 
church in this new country. After his location he preached only occasionally. 
When Oklahoma territory was opened for settlement he disposed of his farm 
near Council Grove, on which he had resided since 1860, and went to the new 
country, where he died soon after. 

William Barnett. —Received on trial in the St. Louis Conference in 1855, 
and at once transferred to the newly organized Kansas Mission Conference. 
He filled regular appointments till the war came on, when he went to Mis- 
souri, where he made his permanent home. He was a Virginian of the old 
type, a preacher of much ability, a Christian of spotless character, and 
always a gentleman, highly respected by all who knew him. His end was 
that of all good men. 

Charles Boles. — Received on trial in the St. Louis Conference in 1847. 
In 1852 he was appointed missionary to the Shawnee Indians, and continued 
to reside in Kansas until his death closed a ministry of fifty-five years. 
During almost the entire time he was "effective" ; that is, engaged regu- 
larly in his ministerial calling, even during the war continuing to preach or 

The M. E. Church, South, in Kansas. 



to hold other religious services. At some of his preaching points there was 
remarkable religious interest. By his ministerial labors and stajnless 
Christian life he contributed greatly to the enlargement and prosperity of 
true religion. One of his last acts was to erect a commodious church on 
land which he had deeded free to the church. His was by far the longest 
ministry of any preacher of his denomination in Kansas. He died February 
26, 1902, at Stanley, Kan. 

Joseph H. Pritchett. — Born in Henry county, Virginia, February 8, 1835. 
He was admitted into the Missouri Conference in 1855, and at the same 
session transferred to the Kansas Mission Conference. He remained in Kan- 
sas till 1860, serving Tecumseh, Council Grove and Leavenworth, and trans- 
ferred to the Mission Conference, of which he is still a member. His labors 
in Kansas contributed largely to the founding of our church there. He was 
at once recognized as a young man of great promise, which promise he has 


Kansas State Historical Society. 


amply redeemed by his illustrious service for his church. For many years 
he filled important charges in Missouri, including the chief stations and 
districts. For twelve years he was prominent in the educational work of 
the church, during this time being president of Howard College, at Fayette, 
Pritchett College, at Glasgow, and Paynesville Institute, and for two years 
holding the chair of mental and moral philosophy and political economy in 
Central College, Fayette, Mo. For many years he led the delegation of his 
conference to the General Conference, and for four years was one of the 
missionary secretaries of our church. Few men have received equal honors 
from his brethren, and in every case he has shown both signal ability and 
the highest integrity. He formally retired from the ministry in 1907, and, 
after a worthy service of fifty-seven years, is with the wife of his youth, 
his faithful companion for fifty-four years, peacefully passing the evenir.g 
of life at their home in Webb City, Mo. 

Cyrus Robert Rice. — Born near Lebanon, Wilson county, Tennessee, 
August 27, 1833. Admitted on trial into the St. Louis Conference in 1854. 
Transferred to the Kansas Mission Conference at its organization, in 1855, 
and appointed to Pottawatomie Mission. In 1861, seeking refuge from bor- 
der troubles and the war, he repaired to the Ozark mountains. In 1865 he 

The M. E. Church, South, in Kansas. IAS 

was received on credentials into the Kansas Conference, serving the Em- 
poria district in 1867 and again in 1880. He was a member of two General 
Conferences, 1884 and 1902, and a member of the General Conference com- 
mittee at Philadelphia in 1884. In 1904 he was granted a superannuate re- 
lation, and since that time he and his good wife have been living at Rice'a 
Rest, near Hartford, Lyon county, Kansas, where they celebrated their 
golden wedding anniversary, March 9, 1906. 

Adonijah Williams. — Little is known of Mr. Williams. He came to Kan- 
sas from one of the southern conferences by transfer, and in 1858 was trans- 
ferred to the St. Louis Conference. Of his labors there we know very little. 
He died at Pottawatomie, Kan., October 8, 1886. 

J. O. Woods. — We can not obtain a history of the work of Mr. Woods. 
He served but one year in Kansas, when he was transferred to the St. 
Louis Conference. 

John Hale. —Admitted on trial into the St. Louis Conference in 1855, and 
at the same session transferred to the Kansas Mission Conference. For five 
years he did acceptable work in various pastorates, when his name disap- 
pears from the minutes. Of his after life we know nothing. 

Nathaniel M. Talbot. — Born in Kentucky, March 17, 1805. He began 
hia ministry of forty-seven years in 1825. Much of his life was spent among 
the Indians as a missionary, to which work he seemed specially adapted. 
He was a member of the Kansas Conference only one year, transferring to 
the St. Louis Conference in 1856. No man in his day commanded more re- 
spect or enjoyed greater confidence of his associates. After a long and 
useful life, he closed his labors July 31, 1872. 

Nathan T. Shaler. — Born in Connecticut in 1806. Admitted into the 
traveling connection in 1842, he spent several years among the Indian tribes 
as a missionary. After 1860 he did no regular work. He was a man of 
spotless character and a very useful preacher, especially among the Indians. 

Claiborn Jones. — Received on trial in the St. Louis Conference in 1855, 
and at the same session was transferred to the Kansas Mission Conference. 
He served but one year, being discontinued in 1856. 

The first regular session of the Kansas Mission Conference was held in 
the town of Kickapoo, beginning on the 12th day of September, 1856. To the 
little band of men forming the conference this was an important occasion. 
Most of them had experienced a rather hard year. The country was new, 
and the few members of the church were scattered throughout the various 
settlements. To seek out these sheep in the wilderness the itinerant had 
frequently to make long rides; the fare was often scant and crude, while 
the reception accorded was sometimes very far from cordial. Yet the 
greater number of these brave men were full of hope, and happy that they 
had been called to such a work; ready to endure every necessary hardship 
for the good of their church. The minutes for this year show 13 traveling 
preachers, 12 local preachers and 672 members, comprising 482 whites, 2 
colored, and 176 Indian. 

Claiborn Jones was discontinued as a traveling preacher, N. T. Shaler 
was granted a superannuate relation; N. M. Talbot and J. O. Woods, were 
transferred to the St. Louis Conference; J. M. Breeding, E. S. Arington, 
and J. P. Barnaby, were admitted on trial; J. G. Rice and F. M. Williams 
were received by transfer. During this first year a neat frame house of 

144 Kansas State Historical Society. 

worship, 30 feet by 40 feet, was erected, in which this first conference was 
held. This was the first church erected after the formation of the Kansas 
Conference. Appointments for the year ensuing were as follows: 

Lecompton district, William Bradford, presiding elder.— Tecumseh, J. G. 
Rice; Pottawatomie, E. S. Arlngton; Sugar Creek, John Hale; Fort Scott, 
C. R. Rice; Neosho, J. P. Barnaby; Council Grove, J. H. Pritchett; Ash- 
land, L. B. Stateler. 

Kickapoo district, Nathan Scarritt, presiding elder. — Shawnee Labor 
School, T. Johnson; Shawnee Mission, C. Boles; Wyandot, to be supplied; 
Delaware, Wm. Barnett; Leavenworth City, A. Williams; Doniphan, Kick- 
apoo, Big Blue, Mount Pleasant and Grasshopper, to be supplied. 

J. G. Rice.— This name appears in the list of appointments of this year. 
As he remained only a short time in the conference, very little is known 
of him. 

F. M. Williams. —Transferred from the St. Louis Conference. He con- 
tinued in the work till forced by the war excitement to quit preaching, when 
he left the state for the South. There he still lives (1911), at an advanced 
age. For further information as to his life, see autobiographical sketch in 
manuscript on file with the Kansas Historical Society. 

E. S. Arington. — Admitted on trial in Kansas Conference in 1856. He 
continued to preach here till forced to discontinue on account of the war 
condition. He was a faithful and acceptable preacher. At this late day we 
have no means of learning more of his life. 

J. P. Barnaby. — Born in Clark county, Missouri, August 16, 1818. He 
was admitted on trial in the Kansas Conference in 1856. When forced to 
suspend his labors in Kansas he moved to Missouri, and ultimately became 
a member of the Southwest Missouri Conference, in the bounds of which he 
continued to preach till age forced him to retire. For many years he held 
a superannuate relation, living at Bryant, Kan. He died December 16, 1905, 
at the age of eighty-seven, nearly fifty years of which were given to the 
ministry. His body lies at Eldorado Springs, Mo. 

The second session of the conference was held at Leavenworth, begin- 
ning September 4, 1857, In the absence of a bishop, Nathan Scarritt was 
elected to preside. The minutes show a total membership of 737— a gain of 
65 over the previous year— consisting of 546 whites, 13 colored and 178 In- 
dian. Thomas Wallace and M. G. McMillan were readmitted to the travel- 
ing connection. Twenty preachers received appointments, as follows : 

Lecompton district, William Bradford, presiding elder. —Tecumseh, C. 
R. Rice ; Shawnee Reserve, C. Boles ; Manual Labor School, T. Johnson ; 
Paola, J. G. Rice; Sugar Creek, John Hale; Fort Scott, to be supplied; 
Neosho, E. S. Arington; Council Grove, J. H. Pritchett; Spring River, J. 
P. Barnaby. 

Leavenworth district, Nathan Scarritt, presiding elder.— Wyandot, 
Wm. Barnett ; Delaware, N. T. Shaler ; Leavenworth, to be supplied ; 
Kickapoo, A. Williams ; Mount Pleasant, F. M. Williams; Doniphan, Thomas 
Wallace ; Grasshopper, L. B. Stateler, M. G. McMillan ; Big Blue, J. M. 
Breeding ; Nemaha, to be supplied. 

N. Scarritt and Wm. Bradford were elected delegates to the General 

Thomas Wallace. — Born in Bath county, Virginia, in 1807. He was admitted 
on trial into Kentucky Conference in 1828. Transferred to Missouri Con- 

The M. E. Church, South, in Kansas. 145 

ference in 1835, and located in 1851. Readmitted into Kansas Conference in 
1857 and located in 1866. Afterwards he preached a few years in Missouri. 
He was a member of General Conference of 1846. He died in 1880 at Inde- 
pendence, Mo. 

J. M, Breeding. —Received on trial in Kansas Conference in 1857. He 
continued to preach as long as he felt he could safely do so. Little is known 
of him after 1861. 

M. G. McMillan.— Readmitted into Kansas Conference in 1857. His 
name disappears from the minutes with no explanation. 

The third session of the conference was held in the town of Shawnee, be- 
ginning September 23, 1858, Bishop John Early presiding, and C. R. Rice 
secretary. There is shown a total membership of 757, a net gain of 19 
The complexion of this membership' was 601 whites, a gain of 155; 18 col- 
ored, a gain of 5; and 138 Indians, a loss of 40. There was an unusual 
increase in the preaching force at this conference. R. Tennison an,d J. O. 
Foresman were admitted on trial; A. Millice was readmitted; Joab Spencer, 
H. H. Craig, W. R. Jones, A. Hawkins, H. H. Hedgpeth, J. E. Bryan and 
D. C. O'Howell were received by transfer; M. G. McMillan was located; 
L. B. Stateler was granted a superannuate relation; M. R. Jones and A. 
Williams were, respectively, transferred to the Missouri and St. Louis Con- 
ferences. Twenty preachers were appointed to charges, as follows: 

Lecompton district, William Bradford, presiding elder. — Shawnee Mis- 
sion, J. Spencer; Shawnee Reserve, N. Scarritt; Manual Labor School, T. 
Johnson; Paola, L. G. Wood; Paris, R. Tennison; Fort Scott, John Hale; 
Neosho, A. Hawkins; Council Grove, H. H. Craig; Spring River, J. E. 
Bryan; Verdigris River, J. P. Barnaby. 

Leavenworth district, Thomas Wallace, presiding elder. — Wyandot, 
Wm. Barnett; Delaware, N. T. Shaler; Leavenworth Station, J. H. Pritchett; 
Kickapoo, C. Boles; Mount Pleasant, F. M. Williams; Doniphan, H. H. 
Hedgpeth; Nemaha, D. C. O'Howell; Grasshopper, E. S. Arington; Big Blue, 
A. Millice, J. 0. Foresman. 

Rutherford Tennison.— Admitted on trial to the Kansas Conference in 
1858. He was discontinued at the end of his second year, in 1860. 

J. O. Foresman. —Born in Pennsylvania May 18, 1835. Admitted on trial 
into the Kansas Conference in 1858. For several years he filled important 
pastoral charges and did valuable service for the church. In the superan- 
nuate relation he has lived for many years near Council Grove, preaching 
occasionally. He is highly respected both as a citizen and as a minister of 
the gospel. 

Abraham Millice. —Readmitted into the Kansas Conference in 1858, hav- 
ing been a preacher for many years. He was a German, and one of the 
oddest men I ever met. The spring following his readmission he was acci- 
dentally killed, April 8, 1859, his being the first death in the conference. 
He was buried near Randolph, Kan. , and his grave is marked by a modest 
monument erected by his brethren. 

Joab Spencer. —For personal sketch, see Kansas Historical Collections, 
vol, 9, page 184. 

Henry H. Craig.— Admitted on trial into the Missouri Conference in 1856. 
Transferred to the Kansas Conference in 1858. During the war he resided 

146 Kansas State Historical Society. 

in Missouri, taking work in the Missouri Conference, in which he continued 
till his death, December 8, 1888. 

W. R. Jones. — He remained in Kansas but a short time. 

Arthur Hawkins.— Transferred from the St. Louis Conference in 1858. 
We have nothing of his history prior to this time. He was located in 1873, 
and later readmitted and did several years of service. 

Henry H. Hedgpeth. — Born in Green county, Kentucky, June 5, 1832. 
Admitted into the Missouri Conference on trial in 1852. Transferred to 
Kansas Conference in 1858. He returned to Missouri in 1861, and was ap- 
pointed to Francis Street Church, St. Joseph, then, as now, the most im- 
portant charge in the Missouri Conference. In 1866 he was appointed 
presiding elder of the Leavenworth district, which by action of the General 
Conference had been made a part of that conference. In the discharge of 
his official duties he was thus brought back to his old field of labor in Kan- 
sas. He continued a presiding elder until his death, February 15, 1869, 
which occurred at Grantville, Kan. His body was taken to Fillmore, Mo., 
and buried beside that of his wife. As a preacher he attained high rank. 

J. E. Bryan.— Transferred from St. Louis Conference in 1858. In 1864 
he withdrew from the Church South and united with the Methodist Episcopal 
Church. He afterwards returned to his old church, and is now living in his 
own home in Oklahoma, holding the rank of a local preacher. 

Dudley C. O'Howell.— Transferred from the St. Louis Conference. Re- 
turned to the Missouri Conference in 1877. He died January 4, 1900. He 
was a faithful pastor, and his labors in Kansas made for the upbuilding of 
the church. 

The fourth session'of the conference was held in Tecumseh, September 
23, 1859, Bishop Robert Paine presiding, and N. Scarritt secretary. The 
minutes show^a year of great prosperity. The white membership had in- 
creased to the number of 891, the colored members numbered 24, and the 
Indian members 151— a total of 1,066, a net gain over the last year of 309. 
Vincent'Jones^^was received on trial ; L. G. Wood, W. M. Robbins and A. W. 
Thompson by transfer, and Richard C. Meek was readmitted ; J. P. Bar- 
naby was granted location, and A. Millice had died during the year. Twenty- 
four preachers received appointments, as follows: 

Lecompton district, Nathan Scariitt, presiding elder. —Tecumseh, R. C. 
Meek; Shawnee Reserve, C. R. Rice; Shawnee Mission, Joab Spencer; 
Manual Labor^School, T. Johnson; Paola, N. T. Shaler; Paris, A. Hawkins; 
Dry Wood, John Hale; Fort Scott and Sac Agency, to be supplied. 

Council Grove district, William Bradford, presiding elder. — Council 
Grove, H. H. Craig; Big Blue, J. O. Foresman, W. M. Robbins; Forest 
Hill, J. W. Maddox, supply; Neosho, W. Thompson; Verdigris, R. Tennison; 
Spring River, J. E. Bryan. 

Leavenworth district, Thomas Wallace, presiding elder. — Wyandott, 
Wm. Barnett ; Delaware, C. Boles ; Leavenworth, J. H. Pritchett ; Kicka- 
poo, H. H, Hedgpeth; Mount Pleasant, D. C. O'Howell; Doniphan, to be 
supplied ; Nemaha, F. M. Williams ; Grasshopper, E. S. Arington, Vincent 

Vincent Jones. —Admitted on trial into Kansas Conference in 1859. 
After 1861 his name disappears, and no further information concerning him 
is available. 

The M. E. Church, South, in Kansas. 147 

W. M. Robbins.— Transferred from the Missouri Conference in 1859. 
Soon after the session of 1861 he went to Texas, where he remained. 

Richard C. Meek.— Came to Kansas from Michigan, a man in middle life. 
As a preacher he was above the average in the West at that time. His last 
appointment in the conference was Paola, J867, after which time his name 
disappears from the roll. 

A. W. Thompson.— Admitted on trial into the Kansas Conference in 1859; 
located in 1861. Nothing further is known of him. 

The fifth session of the conference was held in Wyandotte city, begin- 
ning September 27, 1860, with Bishop Hubbard H. Kavanaugh presiding, 
and N. Scarritt, secretary. The minutes show a membership of 1635, of 
which 1461 were white, 6 colored, and 168 Indian— a net gain over the pre- 
vious year of 569. This was the church's most prosperous year since its 
establishment in this section, not only as indicated by her increase of mem- 
bership, but by every department of her activity. Joseph King, P. W. 
Duncan, A. S. Wilson and C. C. Kellogg were received on trial, J. Card by 
transfer and J. W. Maddox by readmission; J. H. Pritchettwas transferred 
to the Missouri Conference and R. Tennison was located. Twenty-eight 
preachers received appointments, as follows: 

Lecompton district, Nathan Scarritt, presiding elder. — Paris, A. Hawkins; 
Paola, J. Spencer, Thomas Ament; Olathe, C. R. Rice; Shawnee Mission 
and School, T. Johnson; Wyandott, H. H. Craig; Delaware, C. Boles; 
Tecumseh, A. S. Wilson. 

Atchison district, Thos. Wallace, presiding elder. — Leavenworth City, to 
be supplied; Kickapoo, C. C. Kellogg; Atchison, William Barnett; Doniphan, 

E. S. Arington, Vincent Jones; Nemaha, D. C. O'Howell; Kickapoo Indians, 

F. M. Williams: Grasshopper, H. H. Hedgpeth, L, B. Stateler; Big Blue, 
J. King, P. W. Duncan. 

Council Grove district, R. C. Meek, presiding elder. —Council Grove, J. 
E. Bryan; Forest Hill, J. W. Maddox; Verdigris, A. W. Thompson; Neosho, 
John Hale, W. M. Robbins; Spring River, J. O. Foresman; Fort Scott, J. 
Card; Manhattan, to be supplied. 

From this conference the preachers went out full of hope and strong in 
the belief that they were to have another prosperous year. For two years 
the membership had increased at a rate of over 50 per cent, and a deep 
work of grace had been everywhere evident, notwithstanding a stubborn 
opposition often encountered, and a most terrific drouth which had driven 
many from the territory. For a time it seemed that the fondest hopes of 
these brave men were to be realized. King and Duncan had each great re- 
vivals, and I had held two meetings of great interest. Similar conditions 
were reported from various points in the conference. But there came a 
sudden change in conditions. On the 21st of July, 1861, the battle of Bull 
Run was fought. The whole country was greatly disturbed and excitement 
ran high. Especially in Kansas was the agitation extreme, and many of 
the preachers left their work; some went further south, others went to 
Iowa or Missouri. 

An experience of my own fairly illustrates the situation.' During the 
absence of myself and wife from our home, soldiers entered the house in 
which we had rooms, and, among other things, stole my best suit of clothe.^. 


Kansas State Historical Society. 

lhuklh and parsonage at council grove. 

A few days later my saddle horse was taken. Up to that time I had enter- 
tained no thought of leaving my work, but had planned to give up our rooms 
and spend the short time remaining till conference among my parishioners. 
When I laid the matter before one of my stewards he told me that would 
not do. "You are regarded by some as a 'secesh,' and your visits will only 
bring trouble to those who entertain you. They will be accused of harbor- 
ing a rebel." I was astonished, as I could not recall a single word or act 
tiat could be construed as indicating disloyalty. He then told me that a 
certain sermon preached in Marysville, one of my preaching places, from the 
text Matthew 22:21, was pronounced a "secesh" sermon. The same sermon 
preached previously at Paola was considered by prominent Union men at 
the service as a sound Union deliverance. My object in preaching the ser- 
mon was to impress on our people the duty of absolute loyalty to the powers 
that be and of the inconsistency and crime of assisting any cause detrimen- 
tal to the welfare of the state under whose protection they enjoyed life and 
liberty. Under the circumstances, I decided to quit my circuit. I borrowed 
.an old horse, of too little value to tempt the cupidity of even an impecunious 
footpad, and made my way to Westport, thence to the home of my mother 
in Andrew county, Missouri. Here my wife and I spent the winter, going 
in April to Council Grove to take charge of the Council Grove district. 

Prior White Duncan.— Admitted on trial into the Kansas Conference in 
1860. He removed to Missouri in 1861, returning to Kansas in 1868, to re- 
imain two years. After a few years as member of the Missouri Conference, 
ihe located, 

A. S. Wilson. —Received on trial into the Kansas Conference in 1860. 
Like others of his class, he continued to preach till circumstances forced 
him to desist. His last appointment was Tecumseh, in 1861. 

Joseph King. — Born in England. Received on trial into Kansas Confer- 
ence in 1860. He was probably the first Kansas product of a Southern 

The M. E. Church, South, in Kansas. 149 

Methodist preacher, as he was both converted and licensed to preach within 
its bounds. 10 Like many other young men coming into the Methodist min- 
istry at that time, his early educational advantages were few and poor. By 
close application, however, he so far overcame this deprivation as to become 
a very good English scholar. He was a strong, rugged man, both physi- 
cally and mentally, and became a useful factor in the Kansas work. He 
made himself felt for good in every field of labor in which he was appointed 
to serve. He transferred to the Southwest Missouri Conference in 1878, 
where for a number of years he was one of the leading members. 

In 1858 Mr. King found his way to the territory of Kansas, and, having 
become a citizen of the United States, took the benefit of the preemption 
law and entered a quarter section of land on the headwaters of Straight 
creek, in Jackson county, Kansas, intending to open a farm and fix for his 
life work. But God had other work for him to do. As his land was only 
thirty-five miles west of Atchison, he frequently visited that city, and often 
spent days, and even weeks, in the neighborhood near what is now called 
Cummings Station. Here he was brought under the ministry of Rev. D. C. 
O'Howell and Rev. T. Wallace, his presiding elder, and on the third Sun- 
day in November, 1859, in the private home of Rev. Vincent Jones, which 
was the place for public preaching at that time, was received by Rev. D. C. 
O'Howell into the Methodist Episcopal Church South on probation. This 
changed his entire life. God not only converted him but called him to 
preach the gospel. This was a struggle. He was without education— did 
not know a noun from a verb. How could he teach others, when he needed 
that one should teach him? Rev. D. C. O'Howell volunteered to become 
his instructor, and after encouragement by the pastor and presiding elder, 
together with the entire congregation, he consented to obey the call of his 
Master. In May, 1860, he was received into full fellowship in the church, 
and licensed to exhort by the Mt. Pleasant Quarterly Conference, and on 
the 14th of July, 1860, he was licensed to preach and recommended to the 
annual conference. 

Note 10. — This mention of the education and licensing to preach of Rev. King as 
about the first in the territory of Kansas recalls the beginning of organized Presbyterian- 
ism and the first ordination of a minister of that order, and possibly of any other, west of 
the Missouri river. The Presbyterians began their mission work among the Indians in 
Kansas in 1835. A presbytery was organized at Highland, December 1, 1849, called the 
Presbytery of Nebraska, but it died shortly for the want of a legal quorum. Among the 
ministers participating was the Rev. Edmund McKinney. The secretary had a brother, 
the next oldest in the family, now deceased, named after this man — Edmund McKinney 
Martin. The General Assembly in 1857 organized two presbyteries, to be called Kansas 
and Highland. Prior to this all this region was called the Synod of Upper Missouri. In 
1858 the Presbytery of Kansas failed to make any showing, but the Presbytery of High- 
land had a commissioner in the assembly of that year, the first one, the Rev. Alexander 
White Pitzer, D. D., LL. D., now of Salem, Roanoke county, Virginia. Doctor Pitzer waa 
the first man ordained to the ministry in the state of Kansas, and possibly west of the 
Missouri river. He was ordained by the Presbytery of Highland, at Highland, January 
15, 1858. He was at that time pastor elect of the First Presbyterian Church at Leaven- 
worth. He organized the First Presbyterian Church at Atchison, and had much to do 
with the start of Highland University, and the State University at Lawrence, when his 
denomination had that in charge. Doctor Pitzer was born September 14, 1834, in Salem, 
Roanoke county, Virginia. His academic studies were begun at the Virginia Collegiate 
Institute (now Roanoke College) and finished at Hampton-Sidney College, where he gradu- 
ated as valedictorian of his class in 1854. After completing his literary course he studied 
theology one year at Union Theological Seminary, Virginia, and two years at Danville, 
Ky. He was licensed by Montgomery Presbytery September 5, 1856, and moved to Leav- 
enworth, Kan., in 1857. In 1858 he was installed pastor of the First Presbyterian Church, 
Leavenworth, and remained in this relation until 1861, when he returned to Virginia. 
Subsequently he supplied the churches of Sparta and Mt. Zion, in Georgia, and then 
preached at Cave Spring and Liberty, Va., until the close of the year 1867, when he went 
as an evangelist to Washington, D. C, and entered upon the mission which became his 
life work. He was the author of the following books and booklets : "Ecce Deus Homo," 
"Christ, the Teacher of Men," "Confidence in Christ," "The New Life," "The Manifold 


Kansas State Historical Society. 


He continued to labor and to study, and when the annual conference con- 
vened in Wyandotte (now Kansas City, Kan.), he was the owner of a quar- 
ter section of land and a good horse, was out of debt, and had learned three 
parts 'of speech— noun, pronoun and adjective. The Kansas Mission Con- 
ference, September, 1860, sent him as preacher in charge, with P. W. Dun- 
can as his colleague, to what was then known as the Big Blue Mission. His 
first appointment was at Urich Cook's, on Rock creek, where it was ar- 
ranged he should meet Rev. Duncan. He reached his appointment in due 
time, but Duncan failed to show up. Nothing daunted, he went to work. 

Ministry of the Holy Spirit," "Predestination," "The Blessed HoiJe of the Lord's Return," 
"The Final Antichrist." 

Doctor Pitzer's connection with Kansas is a story of wonderful "human interest." At 
Leavenworth in the pioneer days he was associated with William Tecumseh Sherman, 
Thomas Ewing, two of the McCook brothers, Hampton Denman and a few others of the 
brightest young men who had a hand in starting the Sunflower State. When the war 
opened all went into the northern army, but Pitzer went south. All made fame. In 1867 
Doctor Pitzer happened in Washington, D. C, and one day met General Thomas Ewing, 
whose name he had seen in a paper as being in the city practicing law. In their first 
meeting General Ewing said: "Brother Pitzer, why not start a church of your faith and 
order? You of the South only tried to keep the church of God alive in your section. I 
will subscribe liberally for your salary and be responsible for the rent of a hall until you 
get under way." Elsewhere it is said that Ewing paid the rent for one year. General 
Ewing was a Roman Catholic, but his wife was a member of Doctor Pitzer's church in 
Leavenworth. Doctor Pitzer's last sermon in Kansas was from the text, "Blessed are the 
peacemakers." As an earnest and patriotic offset to Ewing's goodness, Pitzer was the 
first man to introduce in the Southern General Assembly of 1882 the resolution to reestab- 
lish fraternal relations with the Presbyterian Church North. On January 19, 1908, the 
fortieth year of his pastorate. Doctor Pitzer retired from active labor. Thomas Ewing 
died in New York, January 21, 1896, from injuries received the day before in a street-car 
accident. Doctor Pitzer was called to New York to conduct the funeral service. The 
Central Presbyterian Church of Washington, established by Doctor Pitzer, survived the 
p; ssions following the war and is now one of the strongest in that city, embracing in its 
membership the Federal and Confederate soldier, men of all political beliefs, and officials 
of rank and influence in the government. The struggles and sacrifices incident to early 
Kansas days brought men together very closely. 

The M. E. Church, South, in Kansas. 151 

The people had received him joyfully, and the Lord came to his relief, and 
for two weeks he preached to the people in a cabin, and fourteen souls were 
happily converted to God. Thus the Lord set His seal to his labors in the 
very beginning of his ministry, and He has never failed him to this day. 
He was neither a Missourian nor a southerner, but as he was in the Southern 
Methodist Church it brought on the curse of every blinded fanatic, and the 
boys had much trouble the latter part of the year. In 1861 he was sent to 
the Leavenworth and Kickapoo Mission. But as the war raged his troubles 
increased. He continued to preach regularly until October, 1863, when the 
people were so terrified they dare not come to hear him, and they requested 
he should discontinue his regular work. This he did, and turned his atten- 
tion to teaching school, at which employment he experienced no opposition. 
This, after all, was a godsend to him. While he did not preach in the tech- 
nical use of that term, he visited his people as their pastor and taught their 
children as a teacher, and at the same time secured to himself a fair Eng- 
lish education. 

In 1885 he was stationed in Neosho, Mo., and brought into contact with 
the Neosho Collegiate Institute. After spending one year on the station. 
Bishop McGuire again put him into the presiding eldership. He found the 
Neosho school almost hopelessly involved in a debt of nearly $10,000, with no 
resources whatever. But nothing daunted, the presiding elder addressed 
himself to the task of getting the debt out of the way. He had one noble 
friend and adviser, in the person of Dr. N. Scarritt, who finally consented 
to give $5000 if the parties who owned the debt would give the balance and 
$5000 additional could be raised to repair the buildings and furnish appara- 
tus, and Dr. C. C. Woods would consent to be its president — all of which 
was consummated and the property secured to the church free from all 
debts. In the fall of 1901, when a severe attack of grippe ruined his voice 
and shattered his health, he requested a superannuated relation. He has 
been fifty years in the ministry, eighteen of which he was presiding elder, 
and not one year of his active ministry was spent without seeing souls con- 
verted to God. He is now a highly honored and greatly respected superan- 
nuate preacher, quietly passing his latter days at his home in Nevada, Mo. 

C. C. Kellogg. —Received on trial into the Kansas Conference in 1860. 
Expelled from the church in 1861. 

John W. Maddox.— Admitted on trial into Kansas Conference in 1860. 
Located, at his own request, in 1861. 

J. Card.— Received into Kansas Conference in 1860. Excluded from the 
ministry in 1861. 

We have been compelled to mention the war as the cause of many 
preachers quitting Kansas in the fall of 1861, some of them not even"going 
to their appointments. We do not intend to leave the impression that their 
lives would have been in danger if they had remained, but many of^them 
thought such would have been the case. Those who remained were more 
or less annoyed by petty persecution, often very humiliating. Want of 
support was a prominent factor. This support came largely from the Mis- 
sionary Board, which, being located in the South, was unable longer to as- 
sist. Besides, many of the members left the state, and thus reduced the 
local support to such an extent that all the preachers who did remain had 
to engage in some secular business to earn support. 

152 Kansas State Historical Society. 

The sixth, and, as it proved, the last session of the conference, was set 
to meet at Atchison, and opened September 5, 1861. No bishop being pres- 
ent, WilUam Wallace was elected president and J. Spencer secretary. 
Failing in a quorum, it was necessary to postpone the session till two o'clock 
in the afternoon, when two other members had arrived. On account of un- 
usual commotion in the community, we were notified that but two hours 
would be given us to transact business and leave the city. Doctor Scarritt, 
who with others had not been able to reach Atchison, telegraphed us to ad- 
journ the conference to Kansas City. This advice was declined, and it was 
resolved to hold the session on Kansas soil. It seemed discreet to transfer 
our place of meeting to Grasshopper schoolhouse, about fifteen miles west 
of Atchison, where we transacted our business and adjourned, without mo- 
lestation, though under surveillance. The reports of the preachers indicated 
more converts than for any preceding year. The number of members re- 
ported was 1400 whites, 5 colored, and 216 Indians— a total of 1621, gaining 
14 over the previous year. J. T. Peery and C. R. Rice were transferred to 
the St. Louis Conference; A. W. Thompson and J. W. Maddoxwere located; 
C. C. Kellogg was expelled, and J. Card excluded from the church and min- 
istry. N. T. Shaler was given superannuate relation. The preaching force 
was greatly reduced, only twenty-three receiving appointments, as follows: 

Lecompton district, Nathan Scarritt, presiding elder.— Shawnee Labor 
School, T. Johnson; Shawnee, R. C. Meek; Olathe, H. H. Craig; Paola and 
Paris, to be supplied; Tecumseh, A. S. Wilson; Delaware, C. Boles; Wyan- 
dotte, D. C. O'Howell. 

Atchison district, Thomas Wallace, presiding elder. — Atchison, H. H. 
Hedgpeth; Leavenworth and Kickapoo, William Bradford and J. King; 
Grasshopper, L. B. Stateler and Vincent Jones; Kennekuk, E. S. Arington; 
Doniphan, Wm. Barnett and F. M. Williams; Marysville, J. 0. Foresman 
and P. W. Duncan. 

Council Grove district, Joab Spencer, presiding elder.— Council Grove, 
J. E. Bryan; Forest Hill, lola and Verdigris, to be supplied; Marmaton, 
John Hale; Fort Scott. A. Hawkins; Spring River, Wm. M. Robbins. 

Of the twenty-three who received appointments, Charles Boles, J. King, 
J. O. Foresman, J. E. Bryan, D. C. O'Howell, P. W. Duncan, and probably 
others, went to their appointed fields of labor. The following memorial to 
the General Conference, appointed to meet at New Orleans in May, 1862, 
was adopted with one dissenting vote. 

"Resolved, that this General Conference be and is hereby requested to 
change the name of our church from ' The Methodist Episcopal Church 
South' to 'The Episcopal Methodist Church.' " 

The General Conference did not meet, so the memorial was not acted 

A short review of the conference and the results of its labor is pertinent. 
Since the organization the names of forty-one preachers had been upon the 
roll. Of these one had died, several had located or been placed on the su- 
perannuated list, some had transferred to other conferences, and others had 
been excluded from the church. For the most part, the noble band had 
been faithful to their trust. They had endured hardships, privations and 
opposition as good soldiers. They remained loyally at their post, preaching 
a full, pure gospel and discharging with devoted fealty the obligations of 
Methodist preachers. With rare exception, the allurement of worldly gain. 

The M. E. Church, South, in Kansas. 153. 

which might come from homesteading land, did not draw them away from 
their sacred mission and commission. The effect of this faithful service 
crystalized in more blessed and far-reaching results than can be made- 
apparent by statistics or history. Contrary to popular illusion, it is a signifi- 
cant fact that the large majority of these preachers came from nonslave- 
owning families, and many were born and reared in nonslavery states. Of 
these we recall Scarritt, Bradford, Foresman, Spencer, Meek and others. ^ 
Further, it appears that the membership of 1600 was largely composed of 
persons who neither had then, nor ever had, any connection with slavery in 
any way, but who were people from neutral or nonslave states. The gen- 
eral feeling of the ministry and membership was that of disapproval of the 
course and conduct of those who were striving to make Kansas a slave 
state and there was no fellow feeling with disloyalty and lawlessness. No 
greater fealty was displayed anywhere than that shown by these Methodist 
preachers to their adopted state, and Kansas had no more faithful and law- 
abiding citizens than were those noble 1600 Southern Methodists. 

PERIOD FROM 1861 TO 1866. 

-The preachers going to their various appointments continued in charge, 
preaching and caring for their flocks for different periods of time. Ulti- 
mately all were forced to quit. Foresman went to California in 1864; 
Stateler went to Montana; Rice and Bryan united with the Methodist 
Episcopal church, while O'Howell cast his lot with the Cumberland Presby- 
terians. Only Boles, Bradford, King and myself remained on Kansas soil 
and retained ministerial connection with the Church South. Of the entire 
number I am the only one who continued to preach continuously through 
the war period. I lived near Council Grove at the time, where we had a 
strong class. Though our members were regarded with suspicion, we were 
never seriously interfered with in any way. Circuits were deserted in 
whole or in part by the members, Indian missions disbanded, and many of 
the members and a majority of the preachers left the state never to return.- 
Refugees from Missouri settled in some of the larger towns, among whom 
were members of our church. These, as a rule, returned to their old 
homes as soon as the war was over. 

Many believed that we were hopelessly disorganized. Truly, the outlook 
was far from encouraging. To take up the work again would require men 
—prudent, strong and devoted preachers and money to sustain them. Where 
were these essentials to be had? Peace found the Church South poor in- 
deed, the missionary treasury depleted, and the Missionary Society in debt. 
What should the church do? We had erected churches in various places, 
but many of them had disappeared during the war, not from violence, save 
in one or two cases, but from ©ther causes. We had obtained possession of 
.some of the government buildings at Fort Scott, and for four or five years had 

Note 11. — "There was not a man in the ministry of the Methodist Episcopal Church 
South in Kansas that was guilty of a disloyal act or who ever said or did anything incon- 
sistent with his duties as a true citizen or a faithful minister of Jesus Christ, yet be- 
cause the word "South" happened to be on the name of their church, or for some other 
indefinable cause, they were looked upon with suspicion, harassed by squads of armed 
men, who would hoist flags over them while preaching, require them to frame their 
prayers after a particular fashion, and otherwise disturbed their assemblies. In some 
cases they suffered personal violence for no apparent cause but that of preaching the 
pure gospel and for keeping clear of political issues." — "Life of Rev. L. B. Stateler," by 
Rev. E. J. Stanley, 1907. p. 161. 

154 Kansas State Historical Society. 

carried on a school— the Western Academy — but this had passed out of our 
hands. True, a majority of our membership remained in Kansas during 
the war, and in a few places societies had held together, conducting re- 
ligious services with more or less regularity. Charles Blue Jacket took 
charge of the Shawnee Mission, and, after the soldiers had destroyed the 
meetinghouse, held services in the homes of the members. At Council 
Grove a good, strong v orking society remained. 

In the eastern part of the state Boles and King preached at different 
points till 1863 After this they held cottage prayer meetings and held 
some of the classes together. These people and hundreds of others where 
societies had been disbanded and scattered looked to our church for the 
gospel. They would not go into other communions. Party feeling ran 
high and prejudice was deep and bitter. So strong was the partizan feel- 
ing that in many places members of the Church South could not have found 
a congenial home in any other church. The spirit of the people may be il- 
lustrated by a little incident in my own experience. Traveling across the 
country, my wife and I put up for the night at a farmhouse. Our host was 
from the East, and it was not long before his good lady had learned all 
about us. Looking at me, she said : "You know, we easterners hate Mis- 
sourians like we hate the devil." "Yes," I replied, "and they hate you 
with the same intensity." No one not on the ground at that time can have 
a correct idea of the condition of things. The Church South was forced to 
the necessity of furnishing its members and adherents in Kansas with the 
gospel, and from this necessity there was no escape. 

FROM 1866 TO 1870. 

When the war was over, the few preachers who had remained during 
this period took up their work of preaching again where opportunity offered— 
C. Boles in Johnson county, J. King on the Leavenworth circuit, Bradford 
and Spencer on Council Grove circuit. During the summer of 1865 a few of 
the preachers who had gone to other states returned. All such were re- 
ceived by the members of the church with open arms, for the people were 
hungry for preaching from their old pastors. In a few instances revival 
meetings of much interest were held. At Council Grove the people began 
the erection of a new church which, when completed, in 1869, cost between 
five and six thousand dollars. But for the most part, as regards our church, 
Zion lay waste. 

In January, 1866, Nathan Scarritt, R. C Meek, C. Boles and J. King 
met at the old Shawnee Mission. W. Bradford and J. Spencer, on account 
of distance, failed to attend. At that meeting it was decided that the 
preachers be recognized as still in charge of the appointments to which they 
had been assigned at the conference of 1861, and that R. C. Meek act as 
presiding elder of the entire field. Rev. J. T Peery, who had been elected 
a delegate to the General Conference from the St. Louis Conference, was 
requested to represent our condition to the general body and ask it to divide 
the territory of the Kansas Mission Conference, so as to attach the part 
south of the Kansas river to the St. Louis Conference and the part north of 
said river to the Missouri conference. This was done. 

At the session of the St. Louis Conference, held in September, 1866, the 
following appointments were included in the Kansas City district: 

The M. E. Church, South, in Kansas. 155 

Kansas City district, Nathan Scarritt, presiding elder. — Siiawnee, Charles 
Boles; Lecompton, to be supplied; Paola, P. W. Duncan; Council Grove, 
William Bradford; Indian Mission, J. Spencer. 

The Missouri Conference made the following appointments in the terri- 
tory assigned it, north of the Kansas river: 

Leavenworth district, H. H, Hedgpeth, presiding elder. -Wyandotte cir- 
cuit, to be supplied; Atchison, S. J. Catlin; Doniphan, F. M. Williams. 

There is no report of members. 

At the St. Louis Conference for 1867 the Kansas Mission district was 
formed as a part of the conference, and the following appointments made : 

Kansas Mission district, Thomas Wallace, presiding elder.— Paola, R. C. 
Meek; Shawnee, L. F. Aspley; Tecumseh, to be supplied; Council Grove, 
Wm. Bradford; Fort Scott, A. Hawkins; Spring River, to be supplied; 
Shawnee Mission, Charles Bluejacket. 

The Missouri Conference made the following appointments: 

Leavenworth city, J. 0. Foresman; Leavenworth circuit, W. M. Gilliam; 
Leavenworth Mission, to be supplied; Wyandotte, J. King; Doniphan, to be 
supplied; Atchison, Hugh Curren; Holton and Irving, to be supplied. 

White members, 481 south of the river; no report from north of the river, 
but estimated at 400 white and 62 colored; total, 943. 

In 1868 the St. Louis Conference made the following appointments: 
Kansas Mission district, C. Boles, presiding elder. —Paola Mission, to be 
supplied; Shawnee, P. W. Duncan; Council Grove, E. G. Frazier; Fort 
Scott, A. Hawkins; lola and Shawnee Mission, to be supplied. 
The Missouri Conference made the following appointments: 
Leavenworth, E. K. Miller; Leavenworth Colored Mission, to be sup- 
plied; Wyandotte, J. King; Wyandotte circuit, J. B. Jewell: Leavenworth 
circuit, Jacob McEwen; Troy, to be supplied; Atchison, H. W. Curren; 
Holton, D. C. O'Howell; Irving, W. A. Hanna; Junction City, A. Williams; 
Oskaloosa, George J. Warren. 

Members; white, 818; colored, 25; total, 843. 

In 1869 the St. Louis Conference made the following appointments: 
Kansas Mission district, C. Boles, presiding elder.— Shawnee, P. W. 
Duncan; Paola, to be supplied; Tecumseh, to be supplied; Council Grove, 
E. G. Frazier; Shawnee Indian Mission, to be supplied. 

The appointments made by the Missouri Conference were as follows: 
Leavenworth station, E. R. Hendrix; Leavenworth circuit, J. King; 
Wyandotte station, Wm. Barnett; Wyandotte circuit, T. C. Downs; Troy, 
to be supplied; Atchison and Doniphan, H. W. Curren; Holton, Jacob 
McEwen; Irving, George J. Warren, E. J. Stanley; Oskaloosa, W. A. 

White members, 960; colored, 31; total, 991. There was a society of 
colored folk in Leavenworth, but the exact number for this year can not be 
obtained. There were probably less than 50 or 60 members. 

Jacob McEwen.— Transferred from the Missouri Conference. Continued 
his ministerial labors in Kansas till 1879, after which we find no mention of 
his name in the Western Conference Journal. We know that he returned 
to the Missouri Conference, where he continued his labors for a number of 


Kansas State Historical Society. 


Born at Shawnee Mission, May 23, 1851. 
Married Eugene Russell Hendrix, June 20, 


• E. G. Frazier. — Admitted to the St. Louis Conference in 1867. Came to 
Kansas in 1867, and held the following charges: Council Grove, two years; 
in Montana, two years; Wyandotte, one year. In 1874 he transferred to 
the Southwest Missouri Conference. He died August 21, 1891, and lies 
buried at Waverly, Mo. 

Thomas C. Downs. — Admitted to the Missouri Conference in 1869, and 
began his ministerial labors in Kansas, where he continued to work till his 
death, which occurred January 11, 1904, at Preston, Neb. His character 
and labors deserve a more extended notice than our space will admit. The 
conference contained no better man nor more useful member. He is buried 
at Olathe. 

W. A. Hanna.— Admitted on trial into the Missouri Conference in 1878. 
His first appointment was in Kansas. He later returned to the Missouri 
Conference, where he is still in active work. He is recognized as one of 
the strongest and most useful men in that body. 

George J. Warren. — Born in England, February 16, 1847. Admitted on 
trial into the Missouri Conference in 1868, and spent the early years of his 
ministry in Kansas. He later gave much profitable work to the church in 
varied capacities within the bounds of this conference. In 1904 he was 
transferred to the Southwest Missouri Conference, where he is still effective. 
His has been a long, useful and honored career. 

Eugene R. Hendrix. i2_Remained in Kansas but one year, 1870. He re- 

NoTE 12. — Bishop Eugene Russell Hendrix, D. D., LL. D., was born May 17, 1847, in 
Fayette, Howard county, Missouri. His parents were Adam Hendrix and Isabel Jane 
Murray, of Maryland, being of Huguenot and Scotch ancestry. After being educated at 
Central College, Fayette, Mo., Wesleyan University, Middletown, Conn., and Union 

The M. E. Church, South, in Kansas. 


turned to Missouri and entered upon an eminent and successful career. 
May 18, 1911, he celebrated the twenty-fifth anniversary of his election as a 
bishop in the Methodist Episcopal Church South. 

The Western Conference was formed by the General Conference of 1870. 
It included, beside the state of Kansas, Nebraska, Colorado, Montana, and 
possibly other territory. We give a history of only such preachers as per- 
formed service in Kansas. Those who came into the Western Conference 
to labor in other territory will not appear in the roll. Some of the preachers 

had been opposed to the formation 
of a separate conference, preferring 
the continuance of the plan which 
had been working for the previous 
four years. These were in favor of 
occupying only such points as prom- 
ised success for our church, and, be- 
ing attached to two strong confer- 
ences, competent preachers would 
always be available for the Kansas 
work. They wereunfavorable to any 
special effort for extension, believing 
that it would be difficult, if not im- 
possible, for us to succeed except in 
communities already friendly to us 
and in sympathy with our efforts. 
They foresaw the conditions which 
at present obtain. But the majority 
were of a different opinion. It 
seemed to them that if a conference 
were organized it could be developed 
into a self-sustaining body, as other 
border conferences had been. They 
did not reckon the difference in con- 
ditions nor the obstacles to be met, many of them insuperable. 

The first session of the Western Conference was held at Leavenworth 
city, Kan., September 8 to 10, 1870, Bishop Holland N. McTyeire presiding, 
with J. Spencer, secretary, and E. R. Hendrix, assistant secretary. Re- 
ceived on trial, B. Margeson, N. G. Faubion, N. L. Pendleton, T. R. Hedg- 
peth; received by transfer, Geo. Vv'^. Evans, Oscar Smithson, S. J. Catlin, 
W. L. Blackwell C. W. Sanford, W. H. Lewis, D. F. Gouley; transferred 
to the Missouri Conference, E. R. Hendrix. White members, 1188; colored, 

Theological Seminary, New York city, he entered the Missouri Conference in 1869, and his 
first pastorate was the Broadway Methodist Episcopal Church South, Leavenworth, Kan., 
where a delightful friendship developed with Judge David J. Brewer, which continued 
throughout life. After some nine years as a pastor he became president of Central College, 
Fayette, Mo., from 1878, and remained there until his election in 1886, at Richmond, Va., 
as a bishop of the Methodist Episcopal Church South. In this latter relation he has 
presided some six or eight times over the Western Conference. Bishop Hendrix was 
•elected in 1908 as the first president of the Federal Council of the Churches of Christ in 
America, which position he holds for four years. It represents over 100,000 Protestant 
ministers and some 17,000,000 communicants. In 1872 he was married to Miss Annie E. 
Scarritt, of Kansas City, the eldest child of the Rev. Nathan Scarritt, D. D., so intimately 
identified with early Kansas history as a missionary and preacher. 


158 Kansas State Historical Society. 

133; total, 1321; a gain of 156. The following were the appointments for 
the year: 

Leavenworth district, J. King, presiding elder. —Leavenworth station, 
to be supplied; Leavenworth circuit. W. A. Hanna; Wyandotte station, T. 
C. Downs; Troy and Forest City, E. J. Stanley; Atchison station, A. V. 
Bayley; Oskaloosa, to be supplied; Holton, D. F. Gouley; Wamego, W. L. 
Pendleton; Waterville, to be supplied. 

Shawnee district, C. Boles, presiding elder. — Shawnee circuit, George J. 
Warren; Tecumseh, to be supplied; Paola, W. P. Caples; Mound City, to be 
supplied; Fort Scott, Geo. W. Evans; Baxter Springs, Chetopa and Ottawa, 
to be supplied. 

Council Grove district, J. McEwen, presiding elder. —Council Grove, E. 
G. Frazier; Cottonwood Falls, to be supplied; Augusta, O. P. Noble; Hum- 
boldt, Verdigris and Emporia, to be supplied; Clark's Creek, W. M. Bradford. 

E. J. Stanley.— Received on trial in the Missouri Conference in 1869. 
After spending two years in the work here he went to Montana, where he 
still resides. He has probably contributed to the upbuilding of the Church 
South in that region more than any other man. In point of service he is 
the senior of that conference by many years. He is a fluent and forceful 
writer. In addition to his contributions to the church paper, he is the 
author of two admirable books, ' ' Wonderland ' ' and " Life of L. B. Stateler. ' ' 

Dixon F. Galen. — Received on trial in 1870. Lost sight of. 

AlonzoV. Bayley. — Admitted on trial to the Missouri Conference in 1869. 
After work in Kansas he returned to Missouri to continue his active labors. 
He now lives at Columbia, Mo., an honored member of his conference and 
highly esteemed by the brethren. 

William P. Caples. — Admitted on trial into the Missouri Conference in 
1869. He remained in Kansas till his death, at Fairmount, March 20. 18S6. 

Geo. W. Evans. —Came to Kansas by transfer. Remained in the work 
here and was transferred. 

C. W. Sanford.— Admitted to the Missouri Conference in 1869. 

N. G. Faubion. —Admitted on trial in 1870. He did faithful work, preach- 
ing for several years. Then there was trouble, and his name disappears 
from the roll. 

N. G. Pendleton.— Admitted to Conference in 1870. Discontinued the 
next year. 

Thomas R. Hedgpeth. — Received on trial in Missouri Conference in 1854. 
Was received into Western Conference in 1870, and remained in the wo;k 
for two years. Transferred to the Missouri Conference, where, after st ^ - 
eral years' acceptable and useful service, he died in 1887, and was buried at 
Salisbury, Mo. 

W. L. Blackwell. — Began his official labors in Kansas in 1873. At the 
close of that year he was expelled from the ministry and membership of 
the church. 

The second session of the Western Conference was held by Bishop Enoch 
N. Marvin, at Council Grove, August 30 to September 3, 1871. J. King was 
secretary. Received on trial, J. W. Faubion, Isaiah Drake, Richard H. 
Grinstead, R. K. Higgins, George B. Armstrong; readmitted, Arthur Haw- 
kins, J. J. Snodgrass; received by transfer, S. J. Catlin, J. E. Treadwell, 
Wm. P. Caples, W. W. Jared, John C. Hyden, John Garten; discontinued. 

The M. E. Church, South, in Kansas. 



Presided at the first session of the Western Conference, 
Council Grove, September, 1871. 

W. L. Pendleton; located, Wm. Bradford; transferred, Lem A. Kiergan. 
Number of members, 1824; gain over last year, 258. The following were 
the appointments: 

Leavenworth district, J. King, presiding elder. — Leavenworth station, 
W. P. Caples; Leavenworth circuit, J. C. Hyden; Atchison station, W. A. 
Hanna; Atchison circuit, J. W. Faubion; Troy circuit, T. R. Hedgpeth; 
Holton, D. C. O'Howell; Oskaloosa, D. L. Rader; Wyandotte station, Wm. 
Barnett; Wyandotte circuit, T. C. Downs. 

Shawnee district, Charles Boles, presiding elder.— Tecumseh, A. Williams; 
Shawnee, Geo. J. Warren; Paola, A. V. Bayley; Mound City, G. W. Evans; 
Fort Scott station, A. Hawkins; Fort Scott circuit, G. B. Armstrong; Ot- 
tawa, to be supplied; Baxter Springs, N. G. Faubion; Chetopa, to be sup- 


Kansas State Historical Society. 

Council Grove district, J. McEwen. presiding elder. —Council Grove, J. 
0. Foresman; Marion Center, O. P. Noble; Augusta, W. W. Jared; Hum- 
boldt, to be supplied; Clark's Creek, O. Smithson; Independence, R. H. 
Grinstead; Wamego, R. K. Higgins; Waterville, Isaiah Drake; Cottonwood, 
to be supplied. 

John C. Hyden. — Transferred from Alabama. He remained in Kansas 
some years and was then transferred to the Pacific Conference. 

S. J. Catlin.— Transferred from the Illinois Conference. He continued 
in Kansas doing good work until 1884, when he was transferred to the 
Northwest Texas Conference. 

J. E. Treadwell.— Preached in Kansas only one year and then trans- 
ferred to the Missouri Conference. 

John Garton.— Came to us from the English Free Church. In Kansas 
but a short time. 

John W. Faubion. —A faithful and 
useful preacher till his death at Ar- 
kansas City, March 19, 1900. He was 
one of the few men who contributed 
to the real upbuilding of the church 
by his continuous loyal service. 

Isaiah Drake. —Dropped at the 
end of one year. 

R. H. Grinstead. — Received ap- 
pointments for two years, 1871-'72, 
when his name disappears. 

R. K. Higgins. —Expelled from 
the ministry and membership of fhe 
church in 1874 for immoral conduct. 

Geo. B. Armstrong. — Discontin- 
ued at the end of the year. 

J. J. Snodgrass.— Discontinued at 
the end of the year. 

Daniel Leeper Rader. —Received 
on trial in Southwest Missouri Con- 
ference, 1871. Transferred to the 
Western Conference in the same 
year. He remained in Kansas three 
years, and in 1874 transferred to the 
Missouri Conference. Here he spent 

five years, and on account of failing health went to Colorado. He remained 
in the Church South till 1885, when he united with the Methodist Episcopal 
Church. In that church he held many important and honorable positions. 
In 1904 he was elected editor of the Pacific Christian Advocate, at Portland, 
Ore. This position he continued to fill with great efficiency till his death, 
November 5, 1910, in his sixty-third year. 

The third session of the Western Conference was held by Bishop George 
F. Pierce in Nebraska City, Neb., September 4 to 8, 1872. Received on 
trial, S. W. Debusk, William Crothers; received by transfer, W. B. Maxey, 
H. D. Hogan, W. S. Woodard, L. C. Waters, W. M. Bewley; discontinued, 
Geo. B. Armstrong, Isaiah Drake; transferred, W. W. Jared, J. J. Snod- 


The M. E. Church, South, in Kansas. 


grass. Total number of members, 2279 ; a gain of 455. The following 
were the appointments : 

Leavenworth district, J. King, presiding elder.— Leavenworth station, 
D. L. Rader; Leavenworth circuit, J. 0. Foresman; Atchison station, H. 
D. Hogan; Troy circuit, to be supplied; Hoi ton, W. A. Hanna; Oskaloosa, 
T. C. Downs; Wyandotte station, D. S. Herrin ; Wyandotte circuit, C. 

Hillsdale, Kan. 

Shawnee district, J. C. Hyden, presiding elder.- Shawnee, N. G. Fau- 
bion ; Tecumseh, to be supplied ; Black Bob, Wm. Crothers ; Paola, W. C. 
Campbell; Mound City, R. K. Higgins ; Fort Scott, A. V. Bayley; Fort 
Scott circuit, 0. Smithson ; Baxter Springs, A. Hawkins; Chetopa, P. H. 
Trone; Ottawa, R. H. Grinstead ; Lightning Creek, Clark Brown. 

Council Grove district, W. S. Woodard, presiding elder.— Council Grove 
station, D. C. 0' Howell; Council Grove circuit, L. C. Waters; Marion Cen- 
ter, W. M. Bewley; Neodesha, to be supplied; Emporia, W. B. Maxey; In- 
dependence, J. McEwen ; Waterville, to be supplied. 

H. D. Hogan. -Born in Nashville, Tenn., in 1840. Joined the Tennessee 


162 Kansas State Historical Society. 

Conference in 1867. Transferred to the Western Conference in 1872. For 
many years he faithfully did the work of a Methodist minister in the capacity 
of presiding elder, station and circuit preacher. He was granted a super- 
annuate relation, which he still retains, in the Southwest Missouri Confer- 
ence. He has a deep interest in all the affairs of his church, and is the only 
preacher coming from the South who after a few years in Kansas did not 
leave for a more congenial climate. Brother Hogan is a true man and a 
pure, conscientious Christian, whose influence has been on the right side of 
every moral question. 

Wm. Crothers.— Admitted on trial in Kansas Conference in 1872. 

W. S. Woodard. — Born near Nashville, Tenn., March 31, 1829. Trans- 
ferred from the Southwest Missouri Conference in 1872. After serving six 
months as presiding elder of Council Grove district he returned to Missouri. 

L. C. Waters. —Came as a transfer in 1872. Advanced in years, his 
strength was not equal to the demands, and he soon retired from the itiner- 
ancy. He was a good, pure and true man. 

W. B. Maxey. —Transferred from the Kentucky Conference. He, too, 
was too old to endure the hardships of a frontier preacher's life, and soon 

W. M. Bewley. —Transferred from the Southwest Missouri Conference. 
At the end of the year he returned to Missouri. 

The fourth session of the Western Conference was held by Bishop Wil- 
liam M. Wightman, at Atchison, September 5, 1873. Geo. J. Warren was 
secretary. Admitted on trial : C. W. Thorp, W. E. |Broadhurst, Geo. B. 
Armstrong; readmitted, W. M. Smith, C. C. Armstrong; located, W. M. 
Bewley, W. B. Maxey, W. C. Campbell; transferred, W. P. Wilson, H. E. 
Partridge, A. V. Bayley, W. S. Woodard. Members, 2269; a decrease of 
28, the first in the history of the conference. The following were the ap- 
pointments : 

Leavenworth district, D. C. O'Howell, presiding elder.— Leavenworth 
station, to be supplied; Leavenworth circuit, T. C. Downs; Atchison sta- 
tion, J. King; Atchison circuit, J. W. Faubion; Troy, C. W. Thorp; Holton, 
W. A. Hanna; Oskaloosa, C. C. Armstrong. 

Fort Scott district, J. C. Hyden, presiding elder. — Shawnee, W. L. Black- 
well; Tecumseh, W. E. Broadhurst; Paola, N. J. Faubion: Fort Scott sta- 
tion, A. Hawkins; Fort Scott circuit, R. K. Higgins; Baxter Springs, J. E. 
Treadwell; Chetopa, to be supplied; Wyandotte station, E. G. Frazier; 
Wyandotte circuit, C. Boles. 

Council Grove district, H, D. Hogan, presiding elder.— Council Grove 
station, D. L. Rader; Council Grove circuit, to be supplied; Emporia, J. 
Garton; Fall River, to be supplied; Independence, S. Allen; Walnut Valley, 
O. P. Noble; Rock Creek, L. C. Waters; Waterville, to be supplied. 

The fifth session of the Western Conference was held in Wyandotte, 
Kan., September 9 to 14, 1874. Bishop J. C. Keener presided and Geo. J. 
Warren was secretary. Admitted on trial, O. P. Noble, Riley B. Wilson, 
Alexander A. Lewis; readmitted, J. 0. Foresman; received by transfer, W. 
P. Caples; located, A. Hawkins; expelled, W. L. Blackwell, R. K. Higgins; 
transferred, D. L. Rader, J. C. Treadwell, John Garton, E. G. Frazier, J. 
Spencer. Number of members, 2704; an increase of 37. The following were 
the appointments: 

The M. E. Church, South, in Kansas. 163 

Leavenworth district, D. C. O'Howell, presiding elder.— Nebraska City, 
J. McEwen; Nebraska City circuit, W. P. Caples; Troy, C. W. Thorp; Pal- 
myra, to be supplied; Holton, Geo. J. Warren; Atchison station, J. King; 
Atchison circuit, A. A. Lewis; Oskaloosa, J. W. Faubion; Leavenworth 
circuit, T. C. Downs. 

Council Grove district, H. D. Hogan, presiding elder. — Council Grove 
station, W. A. Hanna; Council Grove mission, A. Williams; Walnut Valley,. 
G. B. Armstrong; Waterville and Rock Creek, R. B. Wilson; Fall River, to 
be supplied; Independence, O. P. Noble; Emporia, to be suppUed. 

Fort Scott district, J. C. Hyden, presiding elder. — Fort Scott circuit, W. 
E. BrOadhurst; Wyandotte, J. C. Foresman; Shawnee, C. C. Armstrong; 
Tecumseh, J. W. Riley; Paola, C. Boles; Baxter Springs, N. G. Faubion. 

O. P. Noble. —Originally joined the Missouri Conference in 1860, but dis- 
continued the following year. For three years he served as supply and is 
now a superannuated member of the Oklahoma Conference. 

Alexander A. Lewis.— Admitted into Western Conference in 1874, and 
faithfully served the church in Kansas for seventeen years. He took the 
superannuate relation in 1891. He died January 17, 1892, at Exeter, Neb., 
aged seventy-five years. 

R, B. Wilson.— Admitted on trial into Western Conference 1874. Dis- 
continued in 1876. 

The sixth session of the Western Conference was held in Council Grove, 
Kan., September 6, 1875. Bishop Enoch M. Marvin presided and G. J. 
Warren was secretary. Discontinued, G. B. Armstrong ; transferred, J. C. 
Hyden ; located, L. C. Waters ; received by transfer, J. S. Cox. Number 
of members, 2369 ; a decrease of 335. The conference made the following 
appointments : 

Leavenworth district, D. C. O'Howell, presiding elder. —Leavenworth 
circuit, C. W. Thorp ; Oskaloosa, J. W. Faubion ; Atchison station, J. 
King ; Atchison circuit, J. McEwen ; Holton, W. P. Caples ; Troy, A. A. 
Lewis ; Nebraska City station, W. A. Hanna ; Nebraska City circuit, C. C. 
Armstrong ; Palmyra circuit, J. S. Cox ; Wyandotte circuit, G. J. Warren. 

Council Grove district, H. D. Hogan, presiding elder. —Council Grove 
station, J. 0. Foresman ; Council Grove mission, to be supplied ; Cedar 
Point circuit, S. R. Sayre ; Walnut Valley mission, 0. P. Noble ; Indepen- 
dence mission, N. G. Faubion ; Coffey ville, to be supplied ; Baxter Springs, 
circuit, R. B. Wilson ; Paola, T. C. Downs ; Shawnee, C. Boles. 

The seventh session of the Western Conference was held in Nebraska 
City, Neb., August 30 to September 4, 1876. Bishop H. N. McTyeire pre- 
sided and G. J. Warren was secretary. Received on trial, H. L. Anderson, 
W. Z. Hubbard; received by transfer, Alex. Faulkner, G. T. Gray; trans- 
ferred, C. C. Armstrong; discontinued, R. B.Wilson. Number of members, 
2592; an increase of 203. The conference made the following appointments: 

Atchison district, D. C. O'Howell, presiding elder. —Atchison station, 
Geo. J. Warren; Atchison circuit, J. W. Faubion; Troy, G. T. Gray; 
Leavenworth circuit, C. W. Thorp; Oskaloosa, A, A. Lewis; Holton and 
Nebraska City circuit, to be supplied; Nebraska City station, W. A. Hanna; 
Palmyra circuit, H. L. Anderson. 

Council Grove district, T. C. Downs, presidingelder,— Council Grove sta- 
tion, J. 0. Foresman; Council Grove circuit, W. Z. Hubbard; Walnut, O. P. 

164 Kansas State Historical Society. 

Noble; Independence, W. E. Broadhurst; Cedar and Winfield, to be supplied ;: 
Ninnescah, O. Smithson; Watervilie, J. S. Cox; Fall River, to be supplied. 

Fort Scott district, H. D. Hogan, presiding elder. —Fort Scott circuit, to 
be supplied; Wyandotte, J. King; Shawnee, C. Boles; Paola, W. P. Caples; 
Baxter, J. McEwen; La Cygne and Era, to be supplied; Coffey ville, Alex. 
Faulkner; Chetopa, to be supplied. 

H. L. Anderson. —Admitted on trial into Western Conference in 1876. 
Transferred to Southwest Missouri Conference in 1882. 

W. Z. Hubbard.— Admitted on trial into Western Conference in 1876. 
Discontinued in 1878. He located at Arrington, Atchison county, Kansas. 

Alex. Faulkner.- Returned to Missouri the following year. 

G. T. Gray.— Located in 1879. 

The eighth session of the Western Conference was held in Atchison, Kan., 
August 30 to September 4, 1877. Bishop Enoch M. Marvin presided, with 
G. J. Warren, secretary. Admitted on trial, H. J. Brown; received by 
transfer, C. A. Shearman, J. T. Winstead, W. H. Comer; transferred, 
D. C. O'Howell, Geo. J. Warren; died, Adonijah Williams. Members, 2030, 
a decrease of 562. The conference made the following appointments: 

Atchison district, H. D. Hogan, presiding elder. — Atchison station, to be 
supplied; Atchison circuit, J. W. Faubion; Leavenworth, J. McEwen; Os- 
kaloosa, G. T. Gray; Holton, C. A. Shearman; Troy, H. L. Anderson; Ne- 
braska City station, W. A. Hanna; Nebraska City circuit, J. T. Winstead;; 
Watervilie, A. A. Lewis. 

Council Grove district, T. C. Downs, presiding elder. — Council Grove sta- 
tion, N. G. Faubion; Council Grove circuit, J. O. Foresman; Cedar Point, 
H. J. Brown; Walnut Valley, W. H. Comer; White Water, 0. P. Noble- 
Ninnescah and Winfield, to be supplied; Independence, W. E. Broadhurst;; 
■Coffeyville, J. S. Cox. 

Fort Scott district, Charles Boles, presiding elder.— Wyandotte circuit, 
J. King; Shawnee, C. W. Thorp; Paola, W. P. Caples; La Cygne and Fort 
Scott, to be supplied; Baxter Springs, W. Z. Hubbard; Chetopa, to be sup- 

H. J. Brown. — A superannuate in the West Oklahoma Conference; a 
faithful man. 

C. A. Shearman. —Came to Kansas as a transfer and did faithful service 
during his entire connection. In 1890 he transferred to the Missouri Con- 
ference, in which he at present holds a superannuate relation. 

J. T. Winstead. — An effective preacher in the St. Louis Conference. 

W. H. Comer. — Received on trial into the Missouri Conference in 1876. 
He remained in Kansas, doing faithful work as preacher and presiding 
elder until the Western Conference was absorbed by the Southwest Mis- 
souri Conference, and there he holds his membership as an active traveling 
preacher. He was for fifteen years secretary of the Western Conference, 
and spent thirty years in the Kansas work. He is now stationed at Lee's 
Summit, Mo. 

The ninth session of the Western Conference met in Wyandotte, Kan., 
September 5, 1878. Bishop D. S. Doggett presided and Jacob McEwen was 
secretary. Admitted on trial, W. J. Blakey, Wm. Telford, S. R. Sayre, 
W. H. Younger; received by transfer, A. J. Lawless, J. H. Torbett; located, 
W. P. Caples; transferred, Joseph King, W. A. Hanna; discontinued, W. Z. 

The M. E. Church, South, in Kansas. 


Lee"s Summit, Mo. 

Hubbard. Number of members, 2765; an increase of 735. The conference 
made the following appointments: 

Atchison district, H. D. Hogan, presiding elder. —Atchison circuit, A. J. 
Lawless; Leavenworth, H. L. Anderson; Oskaloosa, O. P. Noble; Holton, 
A. A. Lewis; Troy, J. McEwen; Nebraska City station, to be supplied; 
Nebraska City circuit, R. A. Austin; Park Bluff, Waterville and Franklin, 
to be supplied; Kickapoo, J. W. Faubion. 

Council Grove district, T. C. Downs, presiding elder. — Council Grove 
station, C. A. Shearman; Council Grove circuit, J. 0. Foresman; Cedar 
Point, S. R. Sayre; Walnut Valley, W. E. Broadhurst; White Water, J. W. 
Snyder; Winfield, J. T. Winstead; Ninnescah, B. W. Telford; Independence, 
to be supplied; Howard City, J. H. Torbett; Kinsley, to be supplied; Wel- 
lington, W. H. Comer. 

Fort Scott district, C. Boles, presiding elder.— Wyandotte station, to be 
supplied; Wyandotte circuit, C. W. Thorp; Shawnee, W. G. Faubion; Paola, 
G. T. Gray; La Cygne, W. J. Blakey; Fort Scott, H. J. Brown; Baxter 
Springs, J. S. Cox; Labette, W. H. Younger; Empire City, to be supplied. 

W. J. Blakey. — Admitted in 1878. Transferred to the Missouri Confer- 


Kansas State Historical Society. 

ence in 1885. He now maintains a local relation and resides at Fayette, 

William Telford. — Discontinued the year following his admission. 

S. R. Sayre. — Discontinued in 1885, and united with the Free Church 
and did faithful service. 

W. H. Younger. —Transferred to the Missouri Conference in 1883. Later 
his health failed him and he went west. Died in 1904 ; buried at Grandville, 
N. D. 

A. J. Lawless.— A Tennesseean. A strong preacher. Dropped from 

J. H. Torbett. — A superannuate member of the Arkansas Conference. 
He gave twenty years of faithful service to the Kansas work. 

At this session a board of curators was elected, a building secured in Os- 
kaloosa, and a school known as "Marvin College" was organized. Prof. 
J. N. Coltrain was elected the first president. He, with an efficient corps 
of teachers, did a good year's work, at the close of which President Col- 
train resigned. In 1879 Rev. J. S. Smith, of Missouri, was elected presi- 
dent of the college and successfully conducted the school for two years. 
However, it soon became evident to those most concerned in the enterprise 
that the proximity of the college to the State University rendered it diffi- 
cult, if not useless, to continue the effort ; therefore the college was aban- 

The tenth session of the Western Conference was held m Council Grove, 
Kan., August 20, 1879. Bishop J. C. Keener presided and J. S. Smith was 
secretary. Admitted on trial, G. W. Payne; received by transfer, J. W. 
Payne, J. S Smith, Thomas Swearingen, J. R. Bennett, H. W. Abbett; 

readmitted, E. B. Evans; discontin- 
ued, B W. Telford; located, G. T. 
Gray. Members, 2835; an increase 
of 100. Following were the appoint- 
ments : 

Atchison district, H. D. Hogan, 
presiding elder. —Atchison circuit, 
A. J. Lawless; Leavenworth, H. L. 
Anderson; Oskaloosa station, J. S. 
Smith; Oskaloosa circuit, to be sup- 
plied; Holton. A. A. Lewis; Troy, J. 
McEwen; Nebraska City station, C. 
A. Shearman; Nebraska City circuit, 
J. S. Cox; Rock Bluff, T. S. Austin; 
Waterville, H. V. Strother; Franklin, 
to be supplied; Kickapoo, J. 0. For- 
esman; Marvin College, J. S. Smith, 
president; J. W. Faubion, agent. 

Council Grove district, T. C. 
Downs, presiding elder. — Council 
Grove station, J. W. Payne; Council 
Grove circuit, J. R. Bennett; Cedar 
Point, S. R. Sayre; Walnut Valley, 
REV. JAMES w. PAYNE. to be Supplied; White Water, W. E, 

The M. E. Church, South, in Kansas. 167 

Broadhurst; Winfield, J. T. Winstead; Independence, E. B. Evans; Howard 
City, J. H. Torbett; Kinsley, J. S. Gibson; Wellington, W. H. Comer; 
Harper, to be supplied; Wichita, H. W. Abbett; Reno, to be supplied. 

Fort Scott district, C. Boles, presiding elder. —Wyandotte station, T. H. 
Swearingen; Wyandotte circuit, O. P. Noble; Shawnee, W. G. Faubion; 
Montecello, to be supplied; Paola, C. W. Thorp; Barnard, H. J. Brown; 
Fort Scott, G. W. Payne; Humboldt Mission, to be supplied; Baxter Springs, 
W. J. Blakey; Labette, W. H. Younger; Osage Mission and Empire City, 
to be supplied. 

J. W. Payne. — Received into Missouri Conference in 1876. After his 
transfer to the Western Conference his work has been continuously in this 
section. He is a tried and faithful man and minister. Still effective, he is 
at present stationed at Council Grove. 

G. W. Payne. —Discontinued the year following his admission, 1880. 

J. S. Smith. —Admitted on trial into the Missouri Conference in 1861. He 
remained in the work in Kansas till 1881, when he returned to the Missouri 
Conference, in which his labors continued until his superannuation. His 
residence is Marshall, Mo. 

T. H. Swearingen. —Admitted on trial into Missouri Conference in 1874. 
Returned to Missouri Conference in 1881, where he is still effective. 

J. R. Bennett. —Received into the Virginia Conference in 1832. Came to 
Missouri in 1845 and to Kansas in 1879. He served as an effective itinerant 
preacher for more than fifty years. 

The eleventh session of the Western Conference was held in Oskaloosa, 
Kan., September 1 to 5, 1880. Bishop J. C. Keener presided, with J. S. 
Smith, secretary. Admitted on trial, Davis Kearns, Wm. T. Ready, T. C. 
Sparkman, Geo. J. Nunn; received by transfer, S. J. Catlin; located, Jacob 
McEwen; transferred, J. S. Cox; withdrawn, J. O. Foresman. Members, 
3101; an increase of 236. Following were the appointments: 

Atchison district, T. C. Downs, presiding elder.— Atchison station, T. H. 
Swearingen; Leavenworth circuit, J. W. Faubion; Oskaloosa, G. J. Nunn, 
J. S. Smith; Oskaloosa circuit, A. A. Lewis; Troy, T. S. Austin; Nebraska 
station, C. A. Shearman; Nebraska circuit, A. J. Lawless; Rock Bluff, 
W. T. Ready; Waterville, S. R. Sayre; Kickapoo, Evan B. Evans; Holton, 
H. D. Hogan; Marvin College, J. S. Smith, president, G. J. Nunn, professor. 

Council Grove district, J. H. Torbett, presiding elder.— Council Grove 
station, H. L. Anderson; Council Grove circuit, J. R. Bennett; Cedar Point, 
W. J. Blakey; Walnut Valley, H. W. Abbott; White Water, W. H. Younger; 
Winfield, H. J. Brown; Independence and Howard City, W. H. Comer, 
Kinsley, J. L. Gibson; Wellington, W. E. Broadhurst; Harper, to be sup- 
plied; Reno, S. J. Catlin. 

Fort Scott district, C. Boles, presiding elder. —Wyandotte station, J. W. 
Payne; Wyandotte circuit, O. P. Noble; Shawnee, N. G. Faubion; Paola, 
C. W. Thorp; Barnard, G. W. Payne; Fort Scott, Davis Kearns; Baxter 
Springs, to be supplied; Labette, T. S. Sparkman; Osage Mission, to be 
supplied; Empire, J. T. Winstead; Humboldt mines, to be supplied. 

W. T. Ready.— An efficient member of the East Oklahoma Conference. 

T. S. Sparkman. — After a few years withdrew from the church. 

The twelfth session of the Western Conference was held in Howard City, 
September 7, .1881. Bishop G. F. Pierce presided, with C. A. Shearman 

168 Kansas State Historical Society. 

secretary. Admitted on trial, Jacob S. Sutton, John Hyatt; received by 
transfer, J. M. Gross, W. L. Stamper, W. W. Jared; located, O. P. Noble; 
died, Davis Kearns; transferred, J. S. Smith, G. S. Nunn, T. H. Swearingen. 
Members, 29J;2; a decrease of 169. Following were the appointments: 

Atchison district, T. C. Downs, presiding elder —Atchison station, C. A. 
Shearman; Leavenworth circuit, J. W. Faubion; Oskaloosa, A. J. Lawless; 
Grantville, C. T. Hedgpeth; Holton, C. W. Thorp; Troy, to be supplied; 
Rulo, T. S. Austin; Nebraska City station, to be supplied; Nebraska City 
circuit, W. L. Stamper; Rock Bluff, W. T. Ready; Waterville, S. R. Sayre; 
Franklin, W. P. Eakin; Kickapoo, J. S. Sutton. 

Council Grove district, J. H. Torbett, presiding elder. —Council Grove 
station, H. L. Anderson; Council Grove circuit, J. M. Gross; Cottonwood 
Falls, J. R. Bennett; Walnut Valley, W. W. Jared; White Water. W. H. 
Younger; Winfield, H. J. Brown; Howard City, W. H. Comer; Elk, John 
Hyatt; Kinsley, J. S. Gibson; Wellington, W. E. Broadhurst; Harper, S. 
J. Catlin. 

Fort Scott district, H. D. Hogan, presiding elder. — Fort Scott circuit, W. 
J. Blakey; Wyandotte station, J. W. Payne; Wyandotte circuit, C. Boles; 
Shawnee, N. G. Faubion; Paola, A. A. Lewis; Barnard, G. W. Payne; 
Humboldt, to be supplied; Baxter Springs. T. C. Sparkman; Labette, J. T. 
Winstead; Osage, B. F. Jones; Empire, E. B. Evans. 

J. M. Gross.— An active member of the West Oklahoma Conference. A 
strong preacher and a good man. 

W. W. Jared. -Died at Malta Bend December 10, 1891. 

W. L. Stamper. — Discontinued in 1883. 

The thirteenth session of the Western Conference was held in Wyan- 
dotte, September 20 to 24, 1882. Bishop J. C. Cranberry, president; C. A. 
Shearman, secretary. Admitted on trial, J. S. Staten, C. E. Hedgpeth; 
readmitted, W. P. Caples; discontinued, G. W. Payne, J. S. Sutton; stricken 
from roll, under censure, E. B. Evans; transferred, H. S. Anderson, C. E. 
Hedgpeth. Following were the appointments: 

Atchison district, T. C. Downs, presiding elder. —Atchison station, C. A. 
Shearman; Leavenworth circuit, W. P. Eakin; Oskaloosa, A. J. Lawless; 
Holton, J. W. Faubion; Troy, J. S. Staten; Rulo, W. T. Ready; Nebraska 
City station, W. P. Caples; Nebraska City circuit, N. G. Faubion; Rock 
Bluff, T. S. Austin; Effingham, C. W. Thorp; Kickapoo, J. T. Winstead; 
Waterville, S. R. Sayre. 

Council Grove district, J. H. Torbett, presiding elder. —Council Grove 
station, W. H. Comer; Council Grove circuit, J. M. Gross; Strong City, 
J. R. Bennett; Walnut Valley, W. W. Jared; White Water, W'. H. Younger; 
Winfield, S. J. Catlin; Howard City, H. J. Brown; Elk, S. F. Harris; Kins- 
ley, J. S. Gibson; Wellington, W. E. Broadhurst; Harper, to be supplied. 

Fort Scott district, H. D. Hogan, presiding elder. —Fort Scott circuit, 
W. J. Blakey; Wyandotte station, J. W. Payne; Wyandotte circuit, A. A. 
Lewis; Shawnee, W. L. Stamper; Paola, to be supplied; Barnard, T. C. 
Sparkman; Olathe, C. Boles; Labette, John Hyatt. 

J. S. Staten. — Discontinued in 1886. 

C. H. Hedgpeth. —Transferred to Missouri Conference the same year. 

The fourteenth session of the Western Conference was held at Fairview 
Church, Kan., September 19 to 24, 1883. Bishop Alpheus W. Wilson, presi- 

The M. E. Church, South, in Kansas. 169 

dent; C. A. Shearman, secretary. Admitted on trial, Geo. H. Kurn, Wil- 
liam Z. Hubbard. Received by transfer, J. P. Dickey. Transferred, J. T. 
Winstead, W. H. Younger. Number of members, 2728 ; a loss of 131. Fol- 
lowing were the appointments : 

Atchison district, T. C. Downs, presiding elder. -Atchison station, C. A. 
Shearman; Oskaloosa circuit, W. P. Caples; Holton, J. W. Faubion, C. 
Boles; Troy, G. H. Kurn; Rulo, W. J. Blakey; Nebraska circuit, N. G. 
Faubion; Talmage, T. L. Austin; Waterville, John Hyatt; Belleville, E. 
R. Keith. 

Council Grove district, J. H. Torbett, presiding elder.— Council Grove 
station, W. H. Comer; Council Grove circuit, J. S. Staten; Strong City, 
to be supplied ; Walnut Valley, W. W. Jared ; Fairview, J. M. Gross ; Win- 
field, A. J. Lawless ; Howard City, H. J. Brown ; Fall River, to be sup- 
plied ; Kinsley, J. L. Gibson ; Wellington, W. E. Broadhurst. 

Fort Scott district, H. D. Hogan, presiding elder. -Wyandotte station, 
J. W. Payne; Wyandotte circuit, A. A. Lewis; Kickapoo, J. P. Dickey; 
Leavenworth, W. Z. Hubbard ; Shawnee, S. J. Catlin ; Paola, C. A. Em- 
mons; Barnard, S. R. Sayre; Bronson and Center, W. T. Ready; Labette, 
T. C. Sparkman. 

G. H. Kurn. -Admitted on trial ; did good work. Died at Effingham, 
May 6, 1889. 

W. Z. Hubbard. -Discontinued in 1884. 

J. P. Dickey. — Returned to Virginia in 1890. 

The fifteenth session of the Western Conference was held in Council 
Grove, September 25 to 29, 1884. Bishop Linus Parker presided; C. A. 
Shearman, secretary. Received by transfer, C. A. Emmons. Admitted on 
trial: William N. Leigh, Joseph H. Todd; readmitted, Jeptha Tillery; dis- 
continued, W. Z. Hubbard; withdrawn, T. C. Sparkman; transferred, S. J. 
Catlin, J. R. Bennett. Number members, 2889; increase of 128. Follow- 
ing were the appointments : 

Atchison district, J. M. Gross, presiding elder. —Atchison station, J. W. 
Payne; Oskaloosa circuit, A. J. Lawless; Holton, J. W. Faubion; Troy and 
Rulo, G. H. Kurn and W. N. Leigh; Nebraska City, N. G. Faubion; Tal- 
mage, C. W. Thorp; Effingham, T. C. Downs; Waterville, W. J. Blakey; 
Leavenworth, W. P. Caples; Madison, to be supplied. 

Fort Scott district, J. H. Torbett, presiding elder. —Council Grove sta- 
tion, W. H. Comer; Council Grove circuit, J. P. Dickey; Wyandotte sta- 
tion, C. A. Shearman; Wyandotte circuit, J. W. Huff; Shawnee, A. A. 
Lewis; Paola, H. D. Hogan; Barnard, to be supplied; Bronson and Center, 
W. T. Ready; Labette, to be supplied; Strong City, S. R. Sayre. 

Wellington district, W. W. Jared, presiding elder. — Wellington circuit, 
N. Futrell; Walnut Valley, H. J. Brown; Providence, J. W. Snyder; Fair- 
view, C. A. Emmons; Howard City, J. H. Todd; Fall River, J. T. Shuck; 
Winfield, C. Boles; Harper, W. E. Broadhurst; Mount Hope, J. Tillery; 
Kingman, J. W. Handaysyde; Kinsley, J. S. Staten; Janesville, J. L. 

Jeptha Tillery. —Admitted to Missouri Conference in 1854. Located in 
1868. Readmitted in Western Conference in 1884. Later transferred to 
Southwest Missouri Conference, in which he now holds a superannuate rela- 
tion. At the age of eighty- three, he now lives at Buffalo, Mo. 

170 Kansas State Historical Society. 

C. A. Emmons.— Came to Kansas as a transfer and remained for six 
years, doing good service. He returned to the St. Louis Conference. 

Joseph H. Todd.— Was in the conference three years. A young man of 
promise. Went to Missouri. 

William N. Leigh. — Located after a few years, and settled in northern 

The sixteenth session of the Western Conference was held in Wyandotte, 
Kan., September 2 to 7, 1885. Bishop J. C. Cranberry, president; C. A. 
Shearman secretary. Admitted on trial, J. W. Huff; transferred, W, J. 
Blakey. Number of members, 2937; increase of 48. Following were the 

Atchison district, J. M. Gross, presiding elder. —Atchison station, J. W. 
Payne; Oskaloosa, J. P. Dickey; Hoi ton, J. W. Faubion; Troy and Rule, 
G. H. Kurn; Nebraska City, J. H. Todd; Talmage, C. W. Thorp; Effing- 
ham, T. C. Downs; Waterville, to be supplied; Leavenworth, W. P. Caples. 

Council Grove district, W. W. Jared, presiding elder. — Council Grove 
station, H. J. Brown; Council Grove circuit, to be supplied; Wyandotte 
station, W. H. Comer; Wyandotte circuit, J. W. Huff; Shawnee, H. D. 
Hogan; Paola, W. T. Ready; Bronson and Center, Patton Trout; Labette, 
J. W. Handaysyde; Strong City, A. A. Lewis; Howard, J. H. Torbett and 
W. N. Leigh. 

Wellington district, C. A. Shearman, presiding elder.— Wellington circuit, 
to be supplied; Walnut Valley, G. W. Browning; Fairview, N. G. Faubion; 
Winfield, C. A. Emmons; Arkansas City, Charles Boles; Harper, W. E. 
Broadhurst; Mount Hope, Jeptha Tillery; Kinsley, J. S. Staten; Pawnee, 
J. L. Gibson; Ashland, J. C. Vaught; Meade, to be supplied. 

The seventeenth session of the Western Conference was held in Atchi- 
son, Kan., October 7 to 11, 1886. Bishop H. N. McTyeire, president; N. 
G. Faubion, secretary. Admitted on trial, E. R. West, R. M. Wagner, H. 
I. Miller; received by transfer, F. A. White; readmitted, L. C. Waters; 
transferred, W. T. Ready. Number of members, 3248; increase of 311. 
Following were appointments : 

Atchison district, J. M. Gross, presiding elder. —Atchison station, J. W. 
Payne; Effingham circuit, T. C. Downs; Troy and Rulo, G. H. Kurn; Os- 
kaloosa, J. P. Dickey; Leavenworth, J. W. Faubion; Holton, C. W. Thorp; 
Waterville, H. L Miller; Talmage, G. W. Rubush ; Nebraska City, to be 

Council Grove district, H. D. Hogan, presiding elder. —Council Grove 
station, H. J. Brown; Council Grove circuit, W. E. Broadhurst; Wyandotte 
station, W. H. Comer ; Wyandotte circuit, F. A. White ; Shawnee, C. 
Boles; Paola, J. H. Torbe'tt; Bronson, J. W. Huff; Labette, S. W. Morris; 
Howard, E. R. West ; Strong City, W. N. Leigh. 

Wellington district, C. A. Shearman, presiding elder. —Wellington cir- 
cuit, A. A. Lewis ; Winfield, C. S. Jones ; Harper, G. W. Browning ; Wal- 
nut Valley, R. W. Haynes ; Fairview, W. G. Faubion ; Mount Hope, J. 
Tillery; Kinsley, J. L. Gibson; Ashland, Perry J. Pinkston. 

E. R. West. —Gave but two years' service to the work, and retired to the 
local ranks. 

R. M. Wagner. — Discontinued at the end of two years. 

H. L Miller. —Was a very efficient and faithful preacher until failing 

The M. E. Church, South, in Kansas. 171 

health compelled him to retire from active work. He is now an honored 
superannuate, living in Atchison county, Kansas^ 

Fletcher A. White. —Was admitted into the Illinois Conference in 1885. 
Came to the Western Conference in 1886, and did faithful and efficient work 
on circuits, stations and districts until 1901, when he transferred to the In- 
dian Mission Conference. 

The eighteenth session of the Western Conference was held in Council 
Grove, Kan., October 5 to 10, 1887. Bishop C. B. Galloway, president; W. 
H. Comer, secretary. Admitted on trial, William D. Kelley; discontinued, 
G. R. West; expelled, N. G. Faubion. Members, 3211; a loss of 37. Fol- 
lowing were the appointments: 

Atchison district, J. M. Gross, presiding elder. —Atchison station, J. W. 
Payne; Effingham circuit, G. H. Kurn; Troy and Rulo, to be supplied; Oska- 
loosa. F. A. White; Leavenworth, J. W. Faubion; Hoi ton, C. W. Thorp; 
Waterville, to be supplied; Nebraska City station, W. D. Kelley; Nebraska 
City circuit, G. W. Rubush. 

Council Grove district, H. D. Hogan, presiding elder.— Council Grove sta- 
tion, T. C. Downs; Council Grove circuit, G. W. Browning; Bronson and 
Center, T. J. Stringfield; Spring Hill, H. I. Miller; Shawnee, C. Boles; 
Wyandotte station, W. H. Comer; Wyandotte circuit, A. A. Lewis; Paola, 
to be supplied; Labette, W. N. Leigh. 

Wellington district, C. A. Shearman, presiding elder. Wellington circuit, 
L. W. Morrison; Winfield, W. E. Broadhurst; Harper and Walnut Valley, 
to be supplied; Fairview, J. Tillery; Mount Hope, J. D. Austin; Kinsley, 
to be supplied; Ashland, P. J. Pinkston; Strong City, J. H. Torbett; How- 
ard, J. P. Dickey. 

William D. Kelley.— A Tennesseean. Was connected with the work in 
Kansas for years, doing faithful service. He is at present in charge of a 
church at Pilot Grove, Mo. 

The nineteenth session of the Western Conference was held in Kansas 
City, Kan., August 29 to September 3, 1888. Bishop E. R. Hendrix, presi- 
dent; W. H. Comer, secretary. Admitted on trial, Henry C. Kirby, Jef- 
ferson D. Austin; readmitted, Andrew J. Lawless; transferred, W. D. Kel- 
ley. Number members, 3230; increase of 19. "Following were the appoint- 

Atchison district, J. W. Payne, presiding elder.— Atchison and Nebraska 
City station, to be supplied; Nebraska City circuit, W. N. Leigh; Rulo and 
Preston, A. J. Lawless; Effingham, G. H. Kurn; Holton, C. W. Thorp; 
Waterville, T. J. Stringfield; Leavenworth, J. W. Faubion; Kickapoo and 
Fairmount, F. A. White; Grantville, G. W. Browning; Kansas City station, 
W. H. Comer; Kansas City circuit, H. C. Kirby; Shawnee, C. Boles. 

Council Grove district, J. M. Gross, presiding elder.— Council Grove sta- 
tion, T. C. Downs; Council Grove circuit, J. D. Austin; Ru-lo, H. D. Hogan; 
Spring Hill, H. I. Miller; Bronson, J. P. Dickey; Labette, J. H. Torbett; 
Howard and Elk, C. A. Shearman; Strong City, A. A. Lewis; Winfield, 
W. E. Broadhurst; Wellington, R. McDonald; Augusta, J. Tillery; Mount 
Hope, J. E. Vick; Kinsley, J. L. Gibson. 

H. C. Kirby.— After several years of earnest effort as a traveling 
preacher he retired and located in Wyandotte county, Kansas, where he re- 
tains the local relation. 

172 Kansas State Historical Society. 

Jefferson D. Austin. —Came into the work late in life, but did faithful 
service until he was released by death, March 19, 1894. He is buried at 
Council Grove, Kan. 

A. J. Lawless. — Came from Tennessee, and after two years was sus- 

The twentieth session of the Western Conference was held in Atchison, 
Kan., August 28, 1889. Bishop E. R. Hendrix, president; W. H. Comer, 
secretary. Received on trial, Andrew J. Notestine; received by transfer, 

B. W. Fielder, A. H. Moore; transferred, Andrew J. Notestine. Number 
of members, 3103; decrease of 127. Following were the appointments: 

Atchison district, J. W. Payne, presiding elder. —Atchison station, B. 
W. Fielder; Effingham circuit, J. W. Faubion; Holton, W. H. Comer; Wa- 
terville, A. H. Moore; Leavenworth, W. N. Leigh; Rulo, H. L Miller; Ne- 
braska City, H. C. Kirby; Kickapoo and Fairmount, J. Tillery; Grantville, 
T. J. Stringfield; Wyandotte, F. A. White; Kansas City station, to be sup- 
plied; Shawnee, C. Boles; Hillsdale and Spring Hill, H. D. Hogan. 

Council Grove district, J. M. Gross, presiding elder. — Council Grove sta- 
tion, T. C. Downs; Council Grove circuit, J. D. Austin; Strong City, S. R. 
Sayre; Howard and Elk, C. A. Shearman; Labette, J. P. Dickey and J. H. 
Torbett; Bronson, A. A, Lewis; Augusta, C. W. Thorp; Winfield; W. E. 
Broadhurst; Wellington, Andrew J. Notestine; Mount Hope, J. E. Vick; 
Kinsley, J. L. Gibson. 

B. W. Fielder.— Went by transfer to the Missouri Conference in 1890, 
where he faithfully worked till his sudden death in September, 1896, being 
stricken in the pulpit during the morning service at his new pastorate, 

Andrew J. Notestine. —Gave seven years of faithful service to the work 
in Kansas; then transferred tc^ the Louisiana Conference. 

A. H. Moore. —Came as a transfer, and after three years located. 

The twenty-first session of the Western Conference was held at Arring- 
ton, Kan., September 3, 1890. Bishop J. S. Key, president; W. H. Comer, 
secretary. Admitted on trial, James E. Vick, S. B. Graves ; received by 
transfer, Frank Siler, J. W. Purcell; located, W. N. Leigh; transferred, 

C. A. Shearman, B. W. Fielder, J. H. Torbett, J. P. Dickey. Number of 
members, 3290; an increase of 187. Following were the appointments: 

Atchison district, J. W. Payne, presiding elder.— Atchison station, W. 
H. Comer; Effingham, H. C. Kirby; Holton, J. W. Faubion; Waterville, 
to be supplied; Leavenworth, J. Tillery; Rulo, H. I. Miller; Julian and Ne- 
braska City, to be supplied; Kickapoo, J. W. Purcell; Oskaloosa, A. H. 
Moore; Wyandotte circuit, to be supplied; Kansas City station, Frank 
Siler; Shawnee, to be supplied; Hillsdale, H, D. Hogan; Bucyrus and Still- 
well, F. A. White. 

Council Grove district, J. M. Gross, presiding elder. — Council Grove sta- 
tion, T. C. Downs; Council Grove circuit, J. D. Austin; Strong City, S. R. 
Sayre; Howard and Elk, A. J. Notestine; Labette, to be supplied; Bron- 
son, A. A. Lewis; Augusta, C. W. Thorp; Winfield, S. B. Graves; Welling- 
ton, W. E. Broadhurst; Mount Hope, J. E. Vick; Kinsley, Harper and 
Barber, to be supplied. 

James E. Vick. —Was an earnest and faithful preacher in Kansas for 

The M. E. Church, South, in Kansas. 173 

six years. He transferred in 1896, and is now an active member of the 
West Oklahoma Conference. 

Samuel B. Graves.— Discontinued at the end of two years. 

Frank Siler. — Young, intellectual, devoted; came by transfer from Ten- 
nessee. Gave two years of splendid service, then transferred from Kansas. 

John W. Purcell.— Came to Kansas from Missouri; remained but a short 
time, when he returned to Missouri. 

The twenty-second session of the Western Conference was held in Hills- 
dale, Kan., August 26 to 30, 1891. Bishop R. K. Hargrove, president; W. 
H. Comer, secretary. Admitted on trial, James L. Sells, James T. Smith; 
received by transfer, Wm. H. Kincaid, Wm. P. Owen, Richard A. Parker, 
John L. Patterson; transferred, J. M. Gross, J. W. Purcell, H. C. Kirby. 
Number of members, 3409; an increase of 85. Following were the appoint- 

Council Grove district, J. W. Faubion, presiding elder. —Council Grove 
station, F. A. White; Council Grove circuit, J. D. Austin; Strong City, to 
be supplied; Augusta, C. W. Thorp; Howard, Elk and Labette, to be sup- 
plied; Bronson, J. E. Vick; Winfield, S. B. Graves; Wellington, W. P. 
Owen; Mount Hope and Kinsley, to be supplied; Hazelton, W. E. Broad- 

Atchison district, J. W. Payne, presiding elder. —Atchison station, W. H. 
Comer; Effingham circuit, J. T. Smith; Holton, J. Tillery; Waterville, W. 
H. Kincaid; Leavenworth, H. L Miller; Rulo, J. L. Sells; Nebraska City, 
J. L. Patterson; Kickapoo, to be supplied; Oskaloosa, A. H. Moore; Wyan- 
dotte, R. A. Parker; Kansas City station, Frank Siler; Shawnee, H. D. 
Hogan; Hillsdale, A. J. Notestine; Bucyrus and Stillwell, T. C. Downs. 

James L. Sells.— Admitted on trial into the Western Conference and did 
ten years of excellent work in Kansas, when failing health compelled him 
to transfer south in 1901. He was a useful man and a good preacher. 

James T. Smith. —Discontinued in 1903. 

William H. Kincaid. — Began his ministry in Missouri, and transferred to 
Kansas and gave two years of efficient service in this field. He transferred 
to the Montana Conference in 1893. 

William P. Owen. —Came from Missouri, and in 1897 returned to his old 

John L. Patterson. — Located after three years and united with the 
Methodist Episcopal church, 

Richard A. Parker.— A Missourian, admitted into the Western Confer- 
ence and traveled three years in Miami and Wyandotte counties. He was 
noted as a careful, consecrated worker, impressing the church deeply by his 
life. In 1893 he was accepted by the Board of Missions of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church South for work in the foreign field. He was appointed to 
labor in China, and located at Shanghai, where he soon took high rank as a 
missionary. He is still in the active work there, giving excellent service in 
that important field. 

The twenty-third session of the Western Conference was held in Council 
Grove August 31 to September 5, 1892. Bishop E. R. Hendrix, president; 
W. H. Comer, secretary. Admitted on trial, Jacob L. Miller, D. R. McBee, 
J. E. Owen, James E. Bullock; received by transfer, L. A. Blevans, W. B. 
-Jennings; located, A. H. Moore; suspended for one year, A. J, Lawless; 

174 Kansas State Historical Society. 

discontinued, S. B. Graves; transferred, Frank Siler; died, A. A. Lewis. 
Number of members, 3583; an increase of 174. Following were the appoint- 

Atchison district, T. C. Downs, presiding elder. —Atchison station, W. 
H. Comer; Effingham circuit, J. T. Smith; Holton, J. Tillery and W. E. 
Tull; Waterville, W. H. Kincaid and D. E. Bundy; Leavenworth, H. L 
Miller; Troy and Rulo, J. L. Sells, R. U. Waldraven; Nebraska City circuit, 
J. L. Patterson; Wyandotte, J. E. Owens; Kansas City station, to be sup- 
plied; Shawnee, H. D. Hogan; Hillsdale, R. A. Parker; Bucyrus and Still- 
well, J. W. Payne. 

Council Grove district, J. W. Faubion, presiding elder. —Council Grove 
station, F. A. White; Council Grove circuit, L. A. Blevans; Strong City, W. 
O. Lewis; Howard and Elk, to be supplied; Bronson, D. R. McBee; Win- 
field, W. E. Broadhurst; Wellington, J. E. Bullock; Mount Hope, W. B. 
Jennings; Parsons, J. D. Austin; Hazelton, J. E. Vick. 

J. L. Miller. — A Virginian by birth. Was received into the Western 
Conference and did splendid service until failing health compelled him, while 
stationed at Arkansas City, to retire. He died November 6, 1899, at Kelso, 
and is buried at Council Grove. 

D. R. McBee. —Received on trial into the Western Conference. Did the 
work of a Methodist itinerant in Kansas for seven years; then transferred 
to Missouri, where he is still active. 

J. E. Owen.— Labored in Kansas for eighteen years, doing faithful serv- 
ice; then went to the Southwest Missouri Conference. 

James E. Bullock. — Short-lived but true. Died in Bronson, Bourbon 
county, in 1895. 

L. A. Blevans.— Came by transfer. Gave six years of faithful service 
to the Kansas work and returned to Missouri. 

W. B. Jennings. —Touched Kansas lightly but truly. He left in 1894. 

The twenty-fourth session of the Western Conference was held in Kan- 
sas City, Kan., August 31 to September 4, 1893. Bishop A. G. Haygood, 
president; W. H. Comer, secretary. Admitted on trial, David E. Bundy, 
R. U. Waldraven, WilHam E. Tull; readmitted, Frank Moore, J. H. Tor- 
bett; received by transfer. F. A. White, W. D. Kelley, J. F. Marshall; 
transferred, R. A. Parker, W. H. Kincaid. Number of members, 3457; 
decrease of 126. Following were the appointments: 

Atchison district, T. C. Downs, presiding elder. —Atchison station, 
W. H. Comer; Effingham, J. F. Marshall; Holton, D. E. Bundy; Waterville, 
J. Tillery; Leavenworth, W. P. Owen; Troy, J. L. Sells; Rulo, J. E. Bul- 
lock; Barrity, J. D. Harris; Julian, W. D. Kelley; Kickapoo, R. U. Wald- 
raven; Oskaloosa, J. L. Miller; Wyandotte, J. T. Smith; Kansas City station, 
A. J. Notestine; Shawnee, L. A. Blevans; Hillsdale, W. E. Tull, H. D. 
Hogan, superannuate; Bucyrus and Stillwell, J. W. Payne. 

Council Grove district, J. W. Faubion, presiding elder. — Council Grove 
station, F. A. White; Council Grove circuit, H. L Miller; Howard, W. O. 
Lewis; Elk City, C. W. Thorp; Bronson, D. R. McBee; Winfield, Frank 
Moore; Wellington, J. E. Owen; Hazelton, J. H. Torbett; Augusta station, 
J, L. Patterson; Augusta circuit, J. E. Vick; Parsons, J. D. Austin, Ar- 
kansas City, W. E. Broadhurst; Parker, R. E. Nunn. 

David Everett Bundy.— Was admitted into the Western Conference on 

The M. E. Church, South, in Kansas. 175 

trial, and labored efficiently until he was called to New Mexico for mission- 
ary work among the Indians, where his work is successful. 

Robert Ulysses Waldraven. —Gave thirteen years of his valuable service 
to the work in Kansas; then transferred to the New Mexico Conference, 
where he is doing an excellent work for the church. 

William E. Tull.— After two years located; but, retaining that relation, 
he is doing faithful service. 

Franklin Moore. —Came by transfer and remained but two years. 

The twenty-fifth session of the Western Conference was held in Arkan- 
sas City, Kan., August 23 to 27, 1894. Bishop E. R. Hendrix, president; 
W. H. Comer, secretary. Admitted on trial, Benjamin R. Turner, Bert D. 
Brooks, R. E. Nunn; received by transfer, P. C. Bryce, Jesse A. Mclber; 
discontinued, J. T. Smith; located, J. L. Patterson; died, J. D. Austin; 
transferred, C. F. Marshall, J. B. Jennings. Members, 3191; decrease of 
266. Following were the appointments: 

Atchison district, T. C. Downs, presiding elder. '- Atchison station, J. L. 
Sells; Leavenworth, W. P. Owen; Effingham, H. I. Miller; Troy, C. W. 
Thorp, P. C. Bryce; Holton, D. E. Bundy; Rulo, W. E. Tull, J. D. Harris; 
Waterville, B. F. Turner; Julian, W. D. Kelley; Kickapoo, R. U. Wald- 
raven; Oskaloosa, J. L. Miller; Wyandotte, J. Tillery; Kansas City station, 
W. H. Comer; Shawnee, L. A. Blevans; Hillsdale, R. D. Brooks; Bucyrus 
and Stillwell, J. W. Payne; Sunday-school agent, H. D. Hogan. 

Council Grove district, J. W. Faubion, presiding elder. — Council Grove 
station, F. A. White; Council Grove circuit, R. E. Nunn; Howard, Frank 
Moore; Elk City, J. A. Mclber; Bronson, J. E. Bullock; Winfield, J. H. 
Torbett; Wellington, J. E. Owen; Hazelton and Mount Hope, W. 0. Lewis; 
Augusta station, A. J. Notestine; Augusta, J. E. Vick; Sherwin, D. R. 
McBee; Parsons, Parker and La Cygne, to be supplied; Arkansas City sta- 
tion, W. E. Broadhurst. 

Benjamin R. Turner. — Admitted on trial. Transferred from Kansas in 

Bert D. Brooks. —Discontinued in 1896. 

Rufus E. Nunn.— Was admitted on trial into the Western Conference, 
and transferred to the Pacific Conference in 1895. 

P. C. Bryce.— A transfer; remained only two years. But little is known 
of his work. 

J. A. Mclber.— Transferred at the end of one year. 

The twenty-sixth session of the Western Conference was held at Atchison, 
Kan., September 12 to 16, 1895. Bishop R. K. Hargrove, president; W. H. 
Comer, secretary. Admitted on trial, Wm. D. Martin; located, J. A. Mc- 
lber, P. C. Bryce; died, James E. Bullock; expelled, W. E. Broadhurst; 
transferred, R. E. Nunn. Following were the appointments: 

Atchison district, T. C. Downs, presiding elder.— Atchison station, J. L. 
Sells; Effingham, B. R. Turner; Holton, D. E. Bundy; Waterville, W. D. 
Martin; Fairmount, J. L. Miller; Troy and Everest, H. L Miller; Rulo and 
Barada, J. D. Harris; Julian, W. D. Kelley; Kickapoo, to be supplied; Os- 
kaloosa, W. P. Owen; Wyandotte, W. E. Tull; Kansas City station, W. H. 
Comer; Shawnee, R. U. Waldraven; Hillsdale, H. D. Hogan; Bucyrus and 
Stillwell, C. W. Thorp; Havensville, J. Tillery. 


Kansas State Historical Society. 

The M. E. Church, South, in Kansas. YJ7 

Council Grove district, F. A. White, presiding elder.— Council Grove sta- 
tion, J. W. Payne; Council Grove circuit, D. R. McBee; Howard, Franklin 
Moore; Elk City, J. E. Vick; Bronson, B. D. Brooks; Winfield. J. E. Owen; 
Wellington, J. H. Torbett; Hazelton and Mount Hope, to be supplied; Au- 
gusta station, L. A. Blevans; Augusta circuit, A. J. Notestine; Sherwin 
and Parsons, W. O. Lewis; Arkansas City, J. W. Faubion. 

William D. Martin.— While yet young, was admitted on trial into the 
Western Conference, and did faithful service, serving important charges 
until failing health compelled him to retire. He displayed a remarkable 
heroism in his effort to continue the work, but had to submit to the inevit- 
able. He died April 14, 1904, and is buried at Plattsburg, Mo. 

The twenty-seventh session of the Western Conference was held in Hills- 
dale, Kan., September 16 to 20, 1896. Bishop Wallace W. Duncan, presi- 
dent; W. H. Comer, secretary. Admitted on trial, William R. Vaughan, 
Frank Davis Roberson; transfer, J. H. Cleaves; discontinued, W. E. 
Tull; transferred, Franklin Moore, J. E. Vick, A. J. Notestine, B. R. Turner. 
Members, 3323; decrease of 40. Following were the appointments: 

Atchison district, F. A. White, presiding elder. —Atchison station, J. L. 
Sells; Helton, to be supplied; Waterville, W. D. Martin; Fairmount, D. E. 
Bundy; Troy and Everest, H. I. Miller; Rulo and Barada, J. D. Harris; 
Julian, W. D. Kelley; Kickapoo, J. H. Cleaves; Oskaloosa, W. 0. Lewis; 
Wyandotte, W. H. H. Young; Kansas City station, W. H. Comer; Rose- 
dale circuit, R. U. Waldraven; America City, to be supplied; Effingham, 
W. R. Vaughan. 

Council Grove district, H. D. Hogan, presiding elder. —Council Grove 
station, J. W. Payne; Council Grove circuit, D. R. McBee; Howard station, 
to be supplied; Elk City, L. A. Blevans; Bronson, W. P. Owen; Atlanta, J. 
E. Owen; Wellington, J. H. Torbett; Mount Hope, to be supplied; Augusta, 
T. C. Downs; Sherwin, F. D. Roberson; Arkansas City, J. W. Faubion; 
Bucyrus and Stillwell, J. L. Miller; Hillsdale, C. W. Thorp. 

William R. Vaughan.— A young man of promise. Discontinued in 1898. 

Frank Davis Roberson. — Located in 1898. 

J. H. Cleaves. — A native of Maine. Came to Kansas and united with 
the Western Conference and served important charges for seven years. He 
transferred to the Southwest Missouri Conference in 1903, and is still ac- 
tive, stationed at Rich Hill, Mo. 

The twenty-eighth session of the Western Conference was held at Council 
Grove, Kan., August 25 to '29, 1897. Bishop Oscar P. Fitzgerald, president; 
W. H. Comer, secretary. Received by transfer, A. S. Cook; transferred, 
W. P. Owen. Members, 3226; increase of 3. Following were the appoint- 

Atchison district, F. A. White, presiding elder. — Atchison station, W. D. 
Kelley; Effingham, J. L. Sells; Holton, A. S. Cook; Waterville, to be sup- 
plied; Fairmount, D. E. Bundy; Troy and Everest, H. L Miller; Rulo and 
Barada, J. D. Harris; Julian, J. H. Cleaves; Kickapoo, to be supplied; 
Potter, W. D. Martin; Oskaloosa, W. H. H. Young; Wyandotte, J. H. Tor- 
bett; Kansas City station, W. H. Comer; Rosedale, R. U. Waldraven. 

Council Grove district, H. D. Hogan, presiding elder.— Council Grove 
station, J. W. Payne; Council Grove circuit, L. A. Blevans; Elk City, J. E. 

178 Kansas State Historical Society. 

Owen; Bronson, to be supplied; Atlanta, H. K. Monroe; Wellington, D. R. 
McBee; Augusta, T. C. Downs; Sherwin, F. D. Roberson; Arkansas City^ 
J. W. Faubion; Bucyrus and Stillwell, J. L. Miller; Hillsdale, C. W. Thorp; 
Student in Vanderbilt, W. R. Vaughan. 

A. S. Cook. — Came to Kansas from Arkansas and remained only one 

The twenty-ninth session of the Western Conference was held in Kansas 
City, Kan., August 25 to 29, 1898. Bishop Warren A. Candler, president; 
W. H. Comer, secretary. Admitted on trial, William A. Youngman; re- 
ceived by transfer, W. P. Owen, C. C. Howard, E. B. Chenoweth; discon- 
tinued, W. R. Vaughan; located, W. D. Kelley, D. E. Bundy; transferred, 
A. C. Cook, L. A. Blevans. Members, 3286; decrease of 4. Following were 
the appointments: 

Atchison district, F. A. White, presiding elder.— Atchison station, W. H. 
Comer; Effingham, J. L. Sells; Holton, W. A. Youngman; Waterville, Fair- 
mount, Troy, Everest, Rulo and Barada, to be supplied; Julian, J. H. Cleaves; 
Kickapoo and Oskaloosa, to be supplied; Wyandotte, J. H. Torbett; Kan- 
sas City station, T. C. Downs; Rosedale, R. U. Waldraven. 

Council Grove district, H. D. Hogan, presiding elder. —Council Grove 
station, J. W. Payne; Kelso, W. P. Owen; Elk City, J. E. Owen; Atlanta, 
F. D. Roberson; Wellington, D. R. McBee; Augusta, H. I. Miller; Arkan- 
sas City, J. L. Miller; Bucyrus and Stillwell, E. B. Chenoweth; Hillsdale,. 

C. C. Howard; Bronson, C. W. Thorp. 

William H. Youngman.— Admitted into the Western Conference on trial 
and remained for five years in important circuits and stations, his last charge 
being Park Street Church, Atchison, Kan. He transferred to the Pacific 
Conference in 1903. 

C. C. Howard. — Came by transfer. He located in 1901, and is living in 
Everest, Kan., engaged in the practice of medicine. 

E. B. Chenoweth. —A member of the Western Conference for two years 
and in charge of the church at Bucyrus, Kan. He transferred to the Den- 
ver Conference. 

G. L. Taylor. —Was in charge of the Seventh Street Church, Kansas 
City, Kan., when he transferred to the Southwest Missouri Conference. 

The thirtieth session of the Western Conference was held at Elk City, 
Kan., August 17 to 19, 1899. Bishop John C. Cranberry, president; W. H. 
Comer, secretary. Admitted nn tiJial, James W. Slade; located, F. D. Rob- 
erson; transferred, D. R. McBee, J. W. Slade. Number of members, 3216; 
a decrease of 70. Following were the appointments: 

Atchison district, F. A. White, presiding elder. —Atchison station, W. 
H. Comer; Holton, W. H. Youngman; Effingham, R. U. Waldraven; Fair- 
mount, W. D. Martin; Troy, Everest, Rulo and Barada, to be supplied; 
Julian, J. L. Sells; Kickapoo, A. R. Sandlin ; Oskaloosa, W. D. Martin; 
Wyandotte, M. D. Beagle; Kansas City station, G. L. Taylor; Rosedale, H. 

D. Hogan; secretary of education, J. L. Selle. 

Council Grove district. T. C. Downs, presiding elder. — Council Grove 
station, J. H. Cleaves; Kelso, J. L. Proffitt; Bronson, B. F. Lyon; Atlanta, 
J. W. Faubion; Wellington, W. P. Owen; Augusta, J. E. Owen; Arkansas 
City station, J. W. Payne; Bucyrus and Stillwell, E. B. Chenoweth; Hills- 
dale, C. C. Howard; Elk City, J. N. Gordon. 

The M. E. Church, South, in Kansas. 179 

James L. W. Slade.— Was received on trial into the Western Conference 
from Sumner county, Kansas, and transferred to Missouri in 1900. 

Albert R. Sandlin. —Received in orders from the Cumberland Presbyterian 
Church, and was stationed at Kickapoo, Kan., where he died in April, 1900. 
He was a useful man and good preacher. 

The thirty-first session of the Western Conference was held in Atchison, 
Kan., August 30 to September 3, 1900. Bishop John C. Cranberry, presi- 
dent; W. H. Comer, secretary. Admitted on trial, Frank A. Briggs, R. F. 
Lyon; readmitted, Wm. D. Kelley, Michael H. Kauffman; received by 
transfer, J. M. Porter,' W. S. Moffett; transferred, G. L. Taylor, W. P. 
Owen, F. A. Briggs, E. B. Chenoweth; died, John Wesley Faubion, Jacob 
Lee Miller, Albert R. Sandlin. Number of members, 3003; decrease of 213. 
Following were the appointments: 

Atchison district, T. C. Downs, presiding elder. -Atchison station, W. 
H. Comer; Holton,W. S. Moffett; Effingham, to be supplied; Waterville, to 
be supplied; Fairmount, W. D. Martin; Everest, W. D. Kelley; Troy and 
Rulo, to be supplied; Barada, J. D. Harris; Julian, R. U. Waldraven; 
Kickapoo, C. C. Howard; Oskaloosa, L. M. Brummitt; Wyandotte, W. B. 
Beagle; Rosedale, H. D. Hogan; Kansas City station, J. W. Payne. 

Council Grove district, F.A.White, presiding elder. —Council Grove 
station, J. H. Cleaves; Kelso, J. L. Proffitt; Elk City, W. H. Kauffman; 
Bronson, B. F. Lyon; Atlanta, to be supphed; Corbin, J. M. Porter; Au- 
gusta, J. E. Owen; Arkansas City station, \V. H. Youngman; Bucyrus and 
Stillwell, to be supplied; Hillsdale, B. F. Coburn. 

Frank A. Briggs. —Received on trial and transferred at once to Mis- 

Richard F. Lyon. —Admitted on trial into the Western Conference and 
remained in active, efficient service in the church until 1908. He is now in 
Wichita, Kan. 

Michael H. Kauffman.— A transfer. Spent two years in Kansas. 

J. M. Porter. —Came from Oklahoma to the Seventh Street Church, 
Kansas City, Kan. He transferred back to Oklahoma in 1904. 

W. S. Moffett. —Received on trial, but transferred to Denver Confer- 

The thirty-second session of the Western Conference was held in Coun- 
cil Grove, Kan., August 29 to September 2, 1901. Bishop Warren A. 
Candler, president; W. H. Comer, secretary. Admitted on trial, Jasper E. 
HoUey, George M. Blaine, Louis M. Brummitt; received from the Chris- 
tian Church, Larkin B. Edwards; located, C. C. Howard; transferred, J, L. 
Sells, F. A. White, J. M. Porter, W. S. Moffett. Number of members, 
2884; decrease of 119. Following were the appointments: 

Atchison district, T. C. Downs, presiding elder. — Atchison station, W. 
H. Youngman; Effingham, H. L Miller; Potter and Cummings, V. D. Swear- 
ingen; Holton, J. E. Holley; Waterville, to be supplied; Fairmount, M. H. 
Kauffman; Everest and Kickapoo, W. D. Kelley; Rulo and Troy, J. A. 
Chaney; Barada, J. D. Harris; JuHan, R. U. Waldraven; Wyandotte, W. 
B. Beagle; Rosedale, to be supplied; Kansas City station, J. W. Payne, 
H. D. Hogan, superannuate. 

Council Grove district, W. H. Comer, presiding elder. — Council Grove 
station, J. H. Cleaves; Kelso, G. M. Blaine; Elk City, J. L. Proffitt; Au-- 

180 Kansas State Historical Society. 

gusta, L. B. Edwards; Arkansas City station, Peter St. Clair; Arkansas 
City circuit, Pierce Muncey; Bucyrus and Stillwell, J. E. Owen; Hillsdale, 
B. F. Coburn; Bronson, R. F. Lyon; Corbin circuit, J. D. Z. Muncey. 

Jasper E. Holley. — Received on trial but discontinued at end of one year. 

Georg:e M. Blaine. —A young preacher of splendid qualities; still active. 

Louis M. Brummitt. — A faithful man and true. Died in 1909. 

Larkin B. Edwards. — Was received in orders from the Disciple's Church; 
has been identified with Kansas for years. He transferred to Missouri in 

The thirty-third session of the Western Conference was held in Arkansas 
City, Kan., September 4 to 7, 1902. Bishop E. R. Hendrix, president; J. H. 
Cleaves, secretary. Admitted on trial, Van Deventer Swearingen, Joseph 
A. Chaney; received by transfer, A. R. Williams; transferred, M. H. 
Kauffman, J. H. Torbett; died, Charles Boles. Number of members, 2876; 
a decrease of 8. Following were the appointments: 

Atchison district, T. C. Downs, presiding elder. —Atchison station, W. H. 
Young; Effingham, V. D. Swearingen; Potter and Cummings, J. A. Chaney; 
Holton, L. M. Brummitt; Waterville, to be supplied; Fairmount, R. T. 
Stith; Everest and Kickaooo, W. D. Kelley; Rulo and Troy, to be supplied; 
Barada, J. D. Harris; Julian, R. U. Waldraven; Oskaloosa, H. D. Hogan, 
Wyandotte, D. E. Bundy; Rosedale, A. R. Williams; Kansas City station, 
J. W. Payne. 

Council Grove district, W. H. Comer, presiding elder. —Council Grove 
station, J. H. Cleaves; Kelso, G. M. Blaine; Elk City, to be supplied; Au- 
gusta, W. D. Martin; Arkansas City station, Peter St. Clair; Arkansas City 
circuit, R. F. Lyon; Bucyrus and Stillwell, J. E. Owen; Hillsdale, B. F. 
Coburn; Corbin, L. B. Edwards; Bronson, J. L. Proffitt. 

Van Deventer Swearingen. — Received on trial. Discontinued in 1903. 

Joseph A. Chaney. —Admitted on trial. Discontinued in 1904. 

A. R. Williams.— A Kentuckian. Received by transfer. Had charge of 
churches at Rosedale, Council Grove and Kansas City, Kan. He withdrew 
from the Methodist Episcopal Church South in 1906. 

The thirty-fourth session of the Western Conference was held in Atchi- 
son, Kan., August 27 to 31, 1903. Bishop Charles B. Galloway, president 
J. H. Cleaves, secretary. Readmitted, D. E. Bundy, A. C. Clendenning 
received by transfer, W. A. Brewer, J. T. Loyall; discontinued, V. D. 
Swearingen; transferred, W. H. Youngman, J. H. Cleaves. Number of 
members, 2792; decrease of 92. Following were the appointments: 

Atchison district, T. C. Downs, presiding elder. — Atchison station, R. U. 
Waldraven; Effingham, W. D. Kelley; Kickapoo and Potter, G. W. Rubush 
Holton, L. M. Brummitt; Fairmount, J. T. Loyall; Rulo and Troy, J. H. 
Kincaid; Julian, D. E. Bundy; Oskaloosa, B. E. Christlieb; Wyandotte, t 
be supplied; Rosedale, A. R. Williams; Kansas City station, J. W. Payne 

Council Grove district, W. H. Comer, presiding elder. —Council Grove 
station, to be supplied; Kelso circuit, G. M. Blaine; Augusta, Peter St. Clair 
Arkansas City station, B. F. Coburn; Winfield and Elk City, R. F. Lyon 
Bucyrus and Stillwell, J. E. Owen; Hillsdale, A. C. Clendenning; Corbin 
L. B. Edwards; Bronson, W. A. Brewer. 

A. C. Clendenning.— Readmitted into the Western Conference, and did 
faithful work in Kansas for five years. 

The M. E. Church, South, in Kansas. 181 

W. A. Brewer. — Came to Kansas from the Indian Mission Conference, 
where he had done heroic service among the Comanche Indians for years. 
He was earnest and faithful in his work in Kansas until he was forced by 
failing health to retire. He is superannuated. 

J. T. Loyall.— Transferred from the Southwest Missouri Conference to 
the Western, and remained three years in Kansas. He was superannuated 
in 1906. 

The thirty-fifth session of the Western Conference was held in Rosedale, 
Kan., August 25 to 28, 1904. Bishop E. R. Hendrix, president; R. U. Wald- 
raven, secretary. Received by transfer, J. M. Porter, T. C. Puckett, Geo. 
W. Rubush; transferred, G. W. Rubush, J. M. Porter, L. M. Brummitt; 
died, T. C. Downs, W. D. Martin. Following were the appointments: 

Atchison district, J. W. Payne, presiding elder. — Atchison station, R. U. 
Waldraven; Eflfingham, W. D. Kelley; Kickapoo and Potter, H. I. Miller; 
Holton, L. B. Edwards; Fairmount, J. T. Loyall; Ruloand Troy, J. H. Kin- 
caid; Julian, D. E. Bundy; Oskaloosa, W. E. Tull; Wyandotte, C. W. Litch- 
field; Rosedale and Belleview, to be supplied; Kansas City station, A. R, 

Council Grove district, W. H. Comer, presiding elder. Council Grove 
station, T. C. Puckett; Kelso, W. A. Brewer; Augusta, G. C. Summers; 
Arkansas City station, R. F. Lyon; Elk City, A. C. Clendenning; Bucyrus 
and Stillwell, J. E. Owen; Hillsdale, G. W. Blaine; Corbin, B. F. Coburn; 
Bronson, to be supplied. 

T. C. Puckett. —Transferred to the Western Conference and served faith- 
fully churches at Council Grove and Bucyrus, Kan., for six years. He is 
now in charge of a church in Sheldon, Mo. 

G. W. Rubush. —Remained but a short time in Kansas. 

The thirty-sixth session of the Western Conference was held in Kansas 
City, Kan., August 24 to 29, 1905. Bishop E. R. Hendrix, president; A. R. 
Williams, secretary. Admitted on trial, Ira Karr; transferred, R. U. Wald- 
raven, L. B. Edwards. Number of members, 2586; decrease of 91. Follow- 
ing were the appointments: 

Western district, W. H. Comer, presiding elder. —Kansas City station, 
J. W. Payne; Rosedale and Belleview, C. W. Litchfield; Wyandotte, J. T. 
Loyall; Oskaloosa, E. D. Sheresberger; Julian, D. E. Bundy; Rulo and 
Troy, to be supplied; Fairmount, J. E. Owen; Holton, H. I. Miller; Kicka- 
poo and Potter, W. E. Tull; Effingham, W. D. Kelley; Atchison station, 
J. S. Smith; Augusta, B. F. Coburn; Arkansas City, C. B. and L. B. Cot- 
terman; Elk City, A. C. Clendenning; Bucyrus and Stillwell, T. C. Puckett; 
Hillsdale, G. M. Blaine; Corbin, R. F. Lyon; Bronson, Ira Karr. 

Ira. Karr. —Was received into the Western Conference in orders. He 
had charge of churches at Corbin and Bronson, Kan., and did faithful work. 
He transferred to the Pacific Conference in 1911. 

At this session of the Western Conference, 1905, a resolution was adopted 
requesting the General Conference to annul the organization and attach the 
territory to the Southwest Missouri Conference. The request was granted 
and such action taken. The causes which led up to the disbandment of the 
Western Conference may be stated briefly: 

First. — For many years very few immigrants had come from states 

182 Kansas State Historical Society. 

where the Church South existed, and consequently few members were re- 
-ceived from incoming Methodists. 

Second. —For nearly forty years there had been a constant emigration of 
our members to other sections. Especially when Oklahoma was opened for 
settlement, the removal was so great as to amount almost to an hegira. 
Societies in some cases were broken up and in others greatly weakened. 

r/iird.— A new generation had grown up which knew little and cared 
less for past differences. Young men in many cases crossed the imaginary 
Mason and Dixon's line from both sides to seek their wives. When it came 
to church matters they could see no reason for the existence of two churches 
of the same faith and name where only one could be respectably sustained. 
In the very nature of the case, they would usually unite with the stronger 
of the two, which was rarely ours. There were other reasons, but these 
will suffice. 

In some places where we still have strong societies and valuable church 
property our labors will continue as long as circumstances indicate that the 
work is profitable and progressive. The time may come when it will be 
expedient for us to entirely abandon the field. 

In looking back over the fifty years of labor and hardship endured by 
these faithful preachers of the gospel, the questions arise: Did we do 
right? Are the results such as to justify our course? Has the work paid? 
The first question has been answered. The second finds a sufficient answer 
in the fruits of more than eight thousand souls converted during the exist- 
ence of the Western Conference. This should satisfy the interested ones 
and silence any disposed to criticize and find fault. Has any other church 
•done better? We doubt it. 

Church buildings and parsonages, representing the property of the 
•church, consisted at one time of forty-eight churches, valued at $105,000, 
and twenty-one parsonages, valued at $20,000. 

The Western Conference Journal for 1903 gives location, number and 
valuation of churches, as follows: 

Kansas City, Seventh Street (1), $23,000; Atchison, Park Street (1), 
$9000; Rosedale and Belleview (2), $5000; Julian circuit (3), $4400; Potter 
and Cummings (2), $2445; Kickapoo and Everest (2), $3000; Troy circuit 
(1),$4000; Holton circuit (3), $3000; Effingham circuit (2), $2000; Oskaloosa 
circuit (3), $2500; Wyandotte circuit (2), $1800; Fairmount circuit (2), 
$8000; Council Grove station (1), $4500; Bucyrus and Stillwell (2), $4200; 
Kelso and Moss Springs (2), $3000; Bronson circuit (2), $1200; Augusta cir- 
cuit (2), $4000; Arkansas City station (1), $4000; Arkansas City circuit (3), 
$4000; Corbin circuit (2), $1600; Hillsdale circuit (2), $3000; Elk City circuit 
(1), $2200. 

This Journal, also shows that there were 19 parsonages, valued at $17,125. 
Since the above date the following societies have disbanded and their prop- 
erty has been disposed of: Arkansas City, Troy, Elk City, Everest and 

Kansas State Historical Society. 183 


By Miss Clara Gowing, ' of Reading, Mass. 

MOVED by a sermon which I heard preached in Concord, Mass., my 
home at that time, from the text, "Lord, what will thou have me 
do,?" I decided to engage in mission work if an opportunity offered; and in 
October, 1859, accompanied Miss E. S. Morse, ^ who had come east from the 
mission, on a visit to the Delaware Baptist Mission ^ in Kansas, under ap- 
pointment of the American Baptist Missionary Union, Rev. J. G. Pratt and 
wife^ having charge of the station and Miss Morse being a teacher with 
whom I was to be associated. 

The mission buildings consisted of five houses and the stables. A large, 
square house with an "L" was occupied by Mr. Pratt and family, the lower 
part being the family dining room; over it was a chamber, and beyond the 
dining room was the kitchen. Part of this house was originally a log 
church at the Shawnee mission, and was the first building used for worship 
in the country. Another large, square house was used as a dormitory for 
the school. There was also a long schoolhouse divided by folding doors. 

Note 1. — Miss Clara Gowing was born at Charlestown, Mass., May 22, 1832, and was 
the daughter of Jabez Gowing and Hitty Eames Gowing. She received her education in 
Concord, Mass., developing into a young woman of earnest mind. That she was consid- 
ered an acquisition in the mission field is shown by the following letter written by J. G. 
Warren, October 3, 1859, to Rev. Pratt: "We have succeeded in securing Miss Clara 
Gowing for the Delaware school. She is a person of firm constitution, good mind and 
mature age, and earnestly devoted to the service of Christ. The committee appointed her 
last week at the usual salary and with $50 for expenses of travel. ... I think sister 
Gowing will prove the very person you need." Miss Gowing has been president of the 
local W. C. T. U. at Reading, Mass., where she now lives, for ten years. She taught 
three years in the colored schools of Lynchburg and Alexandria, Va., and Nashville, 
Tenn., also in the State Primary School of Massachusetts. She has been matron in the 
Old Ladies' Home at Lowell, Mass. Both her grandfathers served in the Revolutionary 
War, and both were at the battle in Concord, Mass., April 19, 1775. They were farmers, 
and lived and died in Wilmington, Mass. 

Note 2.- — Miss Elizabeth S. Morse was first a teacher among the Cherokee Indians, 
having been sent out from Boston in 1842 by the American Baptist Missionary Union. 
Upon her arrival in the Cherokee Nation she found there was no building suitable for 
school purposes, so, not willing to be idle, she opened a day school. She boarded in an 
Indian family, eating at table with them, and her room was so open that snow and rain 
came through, falling upon the bed in which she slept. She lived in this way for a year, 
when she had a cabin built in which she set up housekeeping. The only means of light- 
ing and ventilating was by the door, there being no windows. The chimney was built of 
logs, with stones laid at the bottom in place of jams, so it was unsafe to have any but a 
very small fire. At first there was no floor in her cabin, but later one of puncheons was 
laid. Miss Morse stayed with the Cherokees several years, but as the building for the 
school seemed as far off as ever, owing to a difference of opinion as to where it should 
be built, she left the tribe and went to the Delawares about 1848. She remained at the 
Delaware Mission School until the removal of those Indians to the Indian Territory, in 
1867. Miss Morse then went to live with friends. She died in Kansas in November, 1899, 
at the advanced age of 85. 

Note 3. — "The Delaware Mission School was started in 1837 by Ira D. Blanchard, and 
was situated where the Edwardsville station now is, at the Grinter crossing of the Kaw 
river. The military road from Fort Leavenworth to Fort Scott crossed the river 
there. In 1844 the overflow of the river caused by the great flood broke up the school 
for a time. The Indians moved away from the Kaw bottom lands. In 1848 I moved 
the building of the mission school up to where I now live. It was a log building. I 
moved the logs and put the building up in the same form as it stopd at the river. It 
stands now where I then placed it. It forms the middle portion of my house, and is clap- 
boarded over the logs like the other portion of the frame building." — Rev. John G. Pratt, 
in an interview, July 10, 1895. 

Note 4. — John Gill Pratt was born at Hingham, Mass., September 9, 1814, and 
died at his home near Piper, Wyandotte county, Kansas, April 23, 1900. Mr. Pratt was 
educated in the academy at Wakefield, Mass., and at Andover Seminaiy, graduating m 

184 Kansas State Historical Society. 

All these were frame buildings, facing south; a small house, formerly used 
for the school but then in use as a wash house or laundry, the usual smoke- 
house of that part of the country, and stables built of logs, completed the 
group that was known through the territory as the Baptist, or Pratt's, 
mission. The location was on rising ground on the border of timber land 
and rolling prairie. About a quarter of a mile away, on a hill, was the 
chapel— a frame building, but not strong enough to bear the bell which had 
been given to the mission, and so it was hung on a framework in Mr. Pratt's 
back yard, and rung to call the meals, school, and daily worship. Its tones 
were gladly heard far away, and served the purpose of a town clock to all 
within its sound. 

We arrived at the mission, by stage from Leavenworth, at noon October 
14, and after dinner went about preparing the beds for the children. School 
was to open Monday; so the children usually came to church with their par- 
ents Sunday and remained with us, except in those cases where their crying 
and teasing to go back would induce the parents to take them home. But 
the next day the clouds poured forth their treasure and there was no service 
at the chapel. I occupied myself much of the day scratching my body, 
wondering what could cause the irritation. I thought at first I had gathered 
something in my journey that occasioned it, but found that thus soon the 
process of acclimation had begun what was known as Kansas itch, the 

1836. At Andover he was licensed to preach, and was immediately employed by the Baptist 
Missionary Society for work in the Indian Territory. March 29, 1837, he married 
Olivia Evans, and two weeks later they left Boston on their journey west, where they 
were to labor among the Shawnee Indians at the Shawnee Baptist Mission, in Johnson 
county. They arrived there May 14, 1837. Mr. Pratt had learned the trade of printing at 
the University Press, Cambridge, Mass, and on his arrival at the Shawnee Mission took 
charge of the printing office, the Rev. Jotham Meeker then being engaged in establishing 
the mission among the Ottawas on the Marais des Cygnes. At this printing office were 
printed, for the use of the Indians, primary textbooks, translations from the Gospels, 
hymns and other books, in the Delaware, Shawnee, Iowa, Ottawa and other Indian tongues. 
A newspaper, the Shawanoe Sun, was published here from 1836 to 1842. Mr. Pratt was 
associated with the Stockbridge Indians for a time, going to them in 1844 and having 
charge of the mission situated near where the National Soldiers' Home at Leavenworth 
now stands. In 1848 he took charge of the Delaware Baptist Mission. It was at this 
mission that Mr. Pratt was ordained to the ministry, November 19, 1843. In 1864 Mr. 
Pratt succeeded Maj. F. Johnson as United States Indian agent to the Delawares, serving 
the tribe in that capacity until they moved to the Indian Territory. 

Mrs. Pratt shared all the hardships and privations of her husband's lot. She in- 
structed the Indian girls in the rudiments of domestic economy, and had always the 
burden of a large household on her shoulders. In the early days at the mission she did 
all of the cooking and sewing herself. She was often obliged to sew until late into the 
night, for the Indian children had no other clothing than the garments in which they 
came to the school, and these were always laid aside and the mission clothes worn while 
the child remained there. Mrs. Pratt was a woman of very prepossessing appearance— ;-a 
round face, with black, sparkling eyes, a clear complexion and black hair worn in 
ringlets. Her keen sense of humor did her good service in her wild, rough home, and 
helped her through situations which would have dismayed a less wholesome woman. The 
cabin to which she was brought as a bride consisted of four walls and a roof, all of logs, 
and built as children build corn-cob houses, with projecting ends. The "chinking" was 
done with sod and mud, and the chimney was built of the same material. There were no 
windows, only holes cut in the log walls. The floor was of rough lumber, and it is said 
that Mrs. Pratt became accustomed to removing splinters from her own hands as she 
washed up the floor, but that later on it was harder to take them from the tiny hands of 
her babies as they crept about the room. Often in cold weather four or five Indians would 
gather around her fireplace before she was dressed in the morning. In such weather her 
feet would freeze as she worked about the room, and coffee left in the cups on the table 
would freeze while she was clearing away the food ; and that, too, with the table standing 
on the hearth. Mrs. Pratt had seven children, and she had no medical attention at such 
times except such as Mr. Pratt could give her, and no nurse but an Indian woman. At 
one time her Indian nui'se could neither speak nor understand a word of English, and Mr. 
Pratt's range of the Indian language was inadequate to the occasion ; so an Indian man 
who could understand some English was stationed on the doorstep and interpreted Mr. 
Pratt's directions to the "nurse." Of the many discomforts and the loneliness which Mrs. 
Pratt endured she once said : "The sacrifices and inconveniences were forgotten by us 
when we considered the great object for which we lived and labored — the conversion of 
the Indians and their advancement to civilization." Mrs. Pratt was born in 1814, being 
one month her husband's senior, and survived him a little time. 

Life Among the Delaware Indians. 185 

breaking out of which frequently prevented a fever or other sickness. It 
continued until cold vi^eather, and returned with renewed vigor the next 
summer, blotches and scabs all over my body. 

As the rain ceased toward night, George Washington came, bringing three 
boys. They backed up against the outside of the house when he left them, 
with anything but a cheery expression, til! called in by Miss Morse. When, 
they first came she had made a fire in the stove and put on a wash boiler, 
brought out a tub, and to my surprised question, "What are you going to 
do?" replied: "Wash the boys. We never put them into our clean beds 
without bathing. " That those boys, the oldest ten or twelve, should quietly 
answer the question plied by Miss Morse, "Did your mother wash you be- 
fore you came? " and then passively submit to her examining their ears to 
see if they were clean, filled me with amazement, as I sat in silence taking 
in the situation. I found that clean ears was the test of a thorough bath. 

It was arranged that Miss Morse should have care of the boys out of 
school, and I of the girls, each looking after the work and the clothes of her 
charge; also caring for them in sickness. A few of the children came from 
civilized, Christian homes, were neatly dressed and tidy. Others required 
an entire outfit of clothes and attention to their heads; and for that a daily 
examination was necessary. This process was called by the boys "hunting 
buffaloes" ; and that none might escape, and to make their capture easy, 
their hair was kept short, though boys as well as girls plumed themselves 
on long braids with gay ribbons plaited in the hair. 

A woman brought her own and a neighbor's child one day. Both needed 
to be barbered. Usually we kept that till the parent was gone, but this 
time I wanted to attend to it before changing my dress, and through an 
interpreter told them to unbraid their hair ready for cutting. When the 
mother understood what was to be done she took her girl home. When wit- 
nessing for the first time the rather unique process of combing heads, I 
said to Miss Morse, "Do you ever get lice in your hair?" "Certainly," 
she replied; "we never pass a term without them." Then I thought, "Can 
I ever come to this? " 

One day in summer a party of young people from Wyandotte came out 
to the mission to have a little picnic by themselves, and camped on a bluff 
opposite the schoolhouse. The children wondered what it meant. We said, 
"They are having a picnic." Immediately the word went round, "picknits, 
picknits. " Evidently they thought it the same process they went through 
every morning but Sunday. One day in school I noticed two boys very busy 
over each other's heads, as if they were picking lice and putting them on 
the cover of their reading books. Watching them a while, I saw they did 
not kill them. So I asked, "What are you doing with the lice? " "Making 
them fight," one replied. 

But few of the children spoke English, and in doing their work an inter- 
preter must be used. A child from one of the Christian families usually 
acted for us in that way. The girls especially were not ambitious to learn 
English. They said if they spoke it people would call them "old white 
folks." The girls were taught to sew, besides doing the chamber and 
dining-room work. The boys brought water from the spring for laundry 
and family use, split and sawed the wood and kept the wood boxes supplied. 
In summer the older ones were sometimes taken to the field to work. 
Evenings and stormy days when they could not be out of doors they were 

186 Kansas State Historical Society. 

taught to knit, and thus made themselves many stockings. Both boys and 
girls wore earrings when they came to school, but the boys soon left them 
off when they learned they were not considered the right thing for the edu- 
cated male. 

The dinners were usually soup and warm corn bread; for supper, white 
bread and molasses; breakfast, warmed-up soup, white bread and coffee. 
Sunday morning they had cookies and a piece of apple pie, and for supper 
warm biscuits and butter. They were taught to say, ''I thank you" for 
this or that. 

I had twin girls named Adeline and Emeline, six-year-old children of 
Charles Journeycake,^ who looked so nearly alike it was difficult to tell one 
from the other. When I wanted one I frequently spoke both their names, 
or sometimes said "twin." One night when one was sick I went to give 
her some medicine, and thought I had wakened the right child when, to my 
surprise, she said, "I am not sick; it is Adeline." And, sure enough, I had 
almost made the well one take the powder. 

Unused to restraint" at home, the discipline of school life was very irk- 
some to the children, and not easy for us, especially out of school and in 
winter when they could not exercise out of doors. A room full of lively 
children, jabbering an unknown tongue, was very trying on one's nerves. 
Wishing to avoid corporal punishment as much as possible, we resorted to 
rather original methods to preserve necessary order. To keep little ones 
from mischieviously annoying one another we often pinned their aprons 
over their heads or tied their hands behind them, even blindfolded them on 
occasion. If the tongue became unruly a chip was put between the teeth. 
Around the yard were numerous stumps, two or three feet high, where the 
quarrelsome boys were sent to stand, living statues adorning the grounds 
for a while. One Saturday afternoon a severe storm came up at the time to 
wash the floors, making it useless to have it done. As it cleared just at 
night, I regretted that through Sunday I must see muddy floors; but after 
the girls were in bed they were disorderly, so for punishment I had them 
get up and wash the stairs and floors. 

When I went to the mission Mr. Pratt was receiving a salary of $5.00; 
previously he had only $300, and nothing extra allowed for educating his 
children. He used to set aside a pony or cow for each one, from which to 
raise money for their schooling, but quite often the creature died or was 
stolen. He received not quite $1 per week, or $50 a year, for each Indian 
child at school— that to cover clothing, food, books, medicine and all. The 
children were hard on shoes, and required much medicine. The Delawares 

Note 5. — This name is often seen "Johnnycake," but the form in the text is the correct 
one, and was so signed by Charles Journeycake to the articles of agreement and conven- 
tion between the United States and the Delaware tribe of Indians, drawn May 6, 1854. 

"The name 'journeycake' is said to come from a kind of bread used by the Indians on 
a journey. The Yankees easily changed this to their favorite breakfast cake, viz., 'johnny- 
cake.' " — Mss. of Miss Cowing. 

Note 6. — "I believe it will not be disputed that the Indian women love their children 
■with as much affection as parents in the most civilized states can boast. Many proofs 
-might be adduced to support this assertion. . . . From their infant state they endeavor 
to promote an independent spirit. They are never known either to beat or scold them, lest 
the marital disposition which is to adorn their future life and character should be weak- 
ened. On all occasions they avoid everything compulsive, that the freedom with which 
they wish them to think and act may not be controlled. If they die they lament their 
death with unfeigned tears, and even for months after their decease will weep at the 
graves of their departed children." — Thwaite's Early Western Travels, vol. 2, pp. 96-97. 

Life Among the Delaware Indians. 187 

numbered about 800, did not increase, and were a rich people. ■ Their reser- 
vation, forty miles long by ten miles wide, was the best land in the United 
States. But the Indian did not enjoy tilling the ground; he preferred hunt- 
ing and riding over the prairie, hiring some white man to do his work. 

All kinds of wild animals were abundant — owls, wolves, wildcats, turkey 
buzzards, etc. ; vermin of all kinds and reptiles of every description were 
to be seen. One day, coming from the schoolhouse, as I was about to step 
on the piazza at the back of the house, I saw a snake in my path. I ran 
around to the front door, and there lay a lizard at the doorstep. As I must 
go in, I gave a bound and landed in the hall. 

Wild game also was plenty; prairie chicken, pigeons, wild turkeys and 
rabbits were often on our table. Lucius shot 130 pigeons in one morning, 
and one turkey he shot weighed twenty-three pounds. Once when out call- 
ing on the Indians with Mr. Pratt, we had a fine view of an eagle. He was 
resting on the top of a tall, barren tree, quite near us, giving a grand 
chance to notice his white head. Mr. Pratt said he never saw one quite so 
near. We stopped and looked at him closely, and the eagle seemed to un- 
derstand there was no gun aboard and that he was therefore perfectly safe. 
When we had looked long enough Mr. Pratt frightened him away, so I had 
an opportunity to see his wings spread. We thought they must measure 
six feet from tip to tip. 

Mr. Thomas B. Sykes, the agent, who came from Beaufort, N. C.,came 
to the mission to board in December, 1859. When he left the agency he 
entered the Confederate army. It was through his courtesy we attended 
the Indian payment at Stranger creek next summer. Mr. Johnson followed 
Mr. Sykes as agent, and Rev. J. G. Pratt succeeded him and continued 
agent till the Delawares removed to the Cherokee country. 

During the spring vacation of 1860, Mr. Pratt's oldest son, Lucius, mar- 
ried Nannie, daughter of Charles Journeycake. There was quite a wedding 
in the afternoon. The bride was dressed in white muslin, with veil and 
orange blossoms, and looked very pretty. The ceremony was followed by 
an elaborate supper, the wedding supper being a prominent feature of a 
white, or "strong," marriage, as the Indians termed it. Opposite me at 
the table sat George Washington with his two wives, one on each side of 
him, and each with a babe in her arms. Polygamy was allowed but not 
generally practiced in the tribe. Washington was a large man, with broad 
face, brown, greasy skin, and long, black hair. His hunting shirt lay open 
at the neck, in his leather belt hung the tomahawk worn on all occasions, 
and in his ears were silver ear-loops. The two women wore the usual In- 
dian head covering— a bright-colored silk handkerchief, which had slipped 
back and was lying loosely on the neck. These handkerchiefs are worn 
summer and winter. They had rings on their fingers and in their ears, and 
wore many bracelets. Some of these ornaments were of silver and some of 

Lucius took his wife to his father's to board while a new house was being 
built for them. A few weeks after the wedding I accompanied them to the 

Note 7. — The Delawares "number at present 1034, and their personal property averages 
almost $1000 to each individual." — Report Commissioner Indian Affairs, 1861, p. 11- 

The Osage Indians are known as the richest communal people in the world, their per 
capita wealth being in excess of $20,000. In 1906 this tribe possessed funds in the United 
States treasury to the amoiant of $8,562,690, besides which they had 1,470,058 acres of valu- 
able land. 

188 Kansas State Historical Society. 

old mission site, where Mr. Blanchard labored before Mr. Pratt took charge. 
The distance was four miles, most of the way through timber land, the wil- 
derness all around. Large trees lay where they had fallen, sometimes lodg- 
ing against other trees, and sometimes lying full length on the ground, 
moss-covered and going to decay. The old mission site was not as pleasant 
nor as healthy as the present mission. 

From a house near by Lucius procured a tin cup; and we drank from a 
spring where a stump had been burned out and placed over it to hold the 
water. It was a fine draught. From a creek beyond we watered our horses; 
then went on to Kansas river, half a mile further, and looked over into the 
Shawnee country. Our way home was through what is called ' ' the bottoms. ' ' 
The path led through little creeks and clumps of bushes, over stumps, down 
steep declivities, then up again, like the letter V. Dodging here and bowing 
our heads there, to avoid being caught, Absalom-like, in a tree, or brushed 
from our horses by the bushes, starting up wild turkeys and other game, was 
all a new and exciting experience to me. Urged by my companions, I made 
my first attempt at leaping "Pacer" over a large tree fallen to the ground, 
and to my surprise found myself in the saddle when "Pacer" struck the 
ground on the other side. I enjoyed the wildness and novelty very much, 
and arrived home for dinner with good appetite, and found the mercury reg- 
istering 78 degrees (March 31) . I had gathered five varieties of flowers, but 
the flora of this part of the country was not fragrant— for why ' 'waste sweet- 
ness on the desert air"? 

April 2 I went with Mr. Pratt in the buggy about six miles to see chief 
Ketchum, who was sick. The first few miles were on the open prairie; then 
we drove through woods. The house, of one story, with the roof coming 
down over the piazza, was situated in a clearing, and around the door were 
ponies and cattle, pigs and fowls. The door opened into a small room, in 
which was a bed, a cooking stove, table and chairs. On the bed was a hen, 
laying her egg. The next room was small also, with a large fireplace, a bed 
and lounge and two bureaus. On the lounge lay the chief. While we were 
there two Indians came in. One had been to the mountains among a wild 
tribe. He was dressed in buckskin, the coat trimmed with beads with a 
fringe of buckskin around the bottom, the same kind of fringe ornamenting 
the seams of his pants. 

At another chief's we found the children playing out of doors (it was 
vacation time), and looking as well dressed as many white children. Although 
the children from this family came to school, the parents were very heathen- 
ish in their views. We were shown a hat worn by women in their dances. 
It was as tall as a bearskin military cap and covered with feathers of all 
colors, some of great beauty. Around the bottom was a band of silver two 
inches wide, from which hung all kinds of gold and silver jewelry, earrings 
and finger rings. This chief had two wives, and in one room there was a 
sofa and upholstered chairs arranged after their own taste. 

Another time Miss Morse and I were visiting some of our school chil- 
dren and stopped at the Hunneywell house. He was a white man with an 
Indian wife. As we rode up to the fence she came out on the porch, saying, 
"Will you alight?" She then took away the rails to assist us over, the 
horses being left tied to the fence. The usual square room which we en- 
tered had been partitioned, so there was no bed in it. On the floor was a 
tidy rag carpet, and there was a nice spring-seated sofa and other com- 

Life Among the Delaware Indians. 189 

fortable furniture, all looking neat. Being near noon, Mrs. Hunneywell 
went about dinner, and laid the table, in the room we were in, with care 
and order, with white cloth and white ware of ponderous weight. From 
the kitchen savory odors stole in whenever the door opened, and in due time 
we were informed that dinner was ready and were invited to be seated at 
the table, and as the men had not come in from the field, we obeyed the in- 
junction to help ourselves. Our keen appetites, sharpened by our ride, 
were not necessary to tempt us to try the smoking ham and eggs, nice light 
biscuits, stewed beans, apple sauce, etc., with excellent coffee for drink. 

In April, 1861, the war news became alarming and frightfully near, 
keeping us in constant excitement. The people of Missouri threatened to 
take Fort Leavenworth and tear up the St. Joseph & Hannibal railroad 
within ten days. The school was to commence after the spring vacation, 
and there was much apprehension, some thinking it was better not to begin; 
but we did, and were not disturbed. 

One day, when Mr. Pratt was in Leavenworth, a boat bearing a seces- 
sion flag came up the river and stopped there. The people immediately 
thronged the boat, tearing down the flag and stripping it to bits, thus show- 
ing their sentiments. « Soon after that secessionists were ordered to leave 
the city forthwith. Anxiety was felt that the mails might be intercepted, 
and caution was given to our friends east not to write anything that might 
be turned to our injury should the letters fall into "secesh" hands. 

In July, 1861, the commissioners from Washington boarded at the mission 
while they assigned to the Indians their several lots — eighty acres of land 
for every person, old or young. The rest of the reservation was sold to the 
Pacific Railroad, s The Indians were in quite an excited state, many pre- 
ferred to remove entirely.^" There was some talk of the treaty being so 
changed as to allow those to go who wished, leaving their land in a body, 
to be sold or exchanged for land elsewhere; but it was not done, and from 
this time on the talk over the treaty and the war news kept us in a state 
of excitement. 

On the Fourth of July, to make the day a little different from all the 
rest, we took the children into the woods, taking along bread and butter 
for supper in a bushel basket. The boys carried the drums (a present from 
Agent Johnson), the girls bore the flags, and, arriving at the creek, the 
girls and myself remained on one side while the boys and Miss Morse passed 
over. One boy threatened to go hunting birds' nests, but was taken pris- 
oner and tied to a tree till he promised obedience. We ate our supper, 
drank from a spring, pipked a few blackberries, sang songs, cheered, shouted, 
laughed, and marched home single file, forming quite a procession, and 

Note 8. — "April, 1861. — The steamer Sam Gaty, at Leavenworth, hoisted a rebel flag, 
but was compelled to lower it and raise the stars and stripes." — Paxton's Annals of Platte 
County, Missouri, p. 308. See, also, Kansas Historical Collections, vol. 9, p. 310. 

Note 9. — "On May 30, 1860, by treaty with the Delawares, eighty acres were assigned 
to each member of the tribe, in one compact body, to be held in severalty, the Leaven- 
worth, Pawnee & Western Railroad Company (afterward the Union Pacific) to have the 
privilege of purchasing the remainder of their land, at not less than $1.25 per acre. 
. . . The treaty was made at Sarcoxieville, on the Delaware Reservation."- — Cutler's 
History of Kansas, p. 69. See, also, Indian Affairs, Laws and Treaties, vol. 2, p. 803. 

Note 10. — "When this treaty was made they desired very much to sell all their coun- 
try within the limits of Kansas and go down among the Indians south of Kansas. This 
was because they had suffered so much from the evil and wicked acts of the whites that 
surround them. "^Thomas B. Sykes, U. S. Indian Agent, in Report Commissioner of 
Indian Affairs, 1860, p. 103. 

190 Kansas State Historical Society. 

cheering now and then. If making a great noise is being patriotic and 
comprises a good time, surely the Delaware Indian children were both 
patriotic and happy on this their first picnic. The accidents and incidents 
were many, but not serious. A boy in cheering threw his hat into a tree 
and had to pelt it down; Miss Morse slipped down, but was uninjured; Miss 
Vaughn, the seamstress, almost had a fall; a girl lost her shoe; while poor 
I almost made my throat sore trying at one time to keep the girls quiet 
and at another helping to make a noise. 

In passing the schoolhouse one day part of a company of cavalry from 
Quindaro drew up in front of the building, giving three cheers for the stars 
and stripes, which they carried; then three for the mission. Some of the 
men had worked on the reservation, and came in to say good-by to the 
children they knew. They then passed on to the spring for water, and as 
they returned the children sang "The Sabbath School Army." The sol- 
diers halted, and at the close of the song again gave us three cheers. 

In September, 1861, Mr. Hunney well, the white man who had the Indian 
wife, went into Missouri to see about some horses for Mr. Pratt. While 
talking with a man he was arrested on suspicion of treasonable views, but 
through the influence of a friend was released the next day. A reign of 
terror existed through the entire region; all ill-disposed persons took ad- 
vantage of the disturbed times to plunder and commit whatever depreda- 
tions their evil hearts suggested, either through malice or gain. The Quin- 
daro ferry boat was sunk by Missourians, they said, to prevent slaves from 

Parkville was raided, and what could not be taken away, belonging to 
Union men, was destroyed. A family from Missouri passed the mission one 
day. They had gathered what they could of their possessions into a wagon 
and left their home, intending to return when peace was restored. They 
sold Mr. Pratt a cow to help them on their way. One of a company of 
soldiers who passed told the following: Four rebels rode up to a man work- 
ing in a field and asked his views. On his telling them that he was for the 
Union they shot him. Going on to the house the murdered man's wife came 
to the door, and she, too, was shot, and for the same reason. The soldier 
who told this, coming along with some others, found the little daughter of 
these people crying. She told them what direction the men had taken, 
they pursued, overtook and shot them; on the body of the man who had 
killed the father they found $25, which they gave to the girl. 

The annual meeting of the Baptists was given up that fall (1861), as all 
the ministers had gone into the army as chaplains. In October Charles 
Journeycake was chosen chief, thus making two Christian chiefs, as his 
brother Isaac had been chief for some years. 

One chilly morning, about nine o'clock, eight men rode up and wished 
breakfast. They were on their way to Wyandotte and had taken bread and 
cheese to last them, but, stopping in a barn the night before, the pigs 
breakfasted on their lunch; so we gave them their breakfast. Mr. Pratt 
said that was all the way he could serve the cause, and he did it faithfully. 
But few days passed without some traveler, friend or otherwise, being en- 
tertained at the mission. 

One night I was awakened by loud knocks at the door. It being vacation 
and Miss Morse away, there was no one in the dormitory but the seamstress 
and myself. Going to the window I could discern horsemen just outside the 

Life Among the Delaware Indians. 191 

yard, seen dimly in the darkness. There appeared to be quite a company, 
but really only fifteen. They had been dismissed from Wyandotte just at 
night, and, wishing to get home, started out, but lost their way on the 
prairie. They managed to get to the mission, where we sheltered them the 
rest of the night. 

The second call for the Delawares in the army was to go as warriors. 
The first call for guides and spies had proved a failure, each Indian wanting 
the same pay as the captain. 'i The missions of the other tribes were badly 
broken up by the war. The Cherokees and some others joined the Southern 

In November, 1861, Mr. Pratt's son John, an unusually bright youth of 
thirteen, passed away after a short but very distressing illness, which the 
doctors (Logan '2 and Sinks ^3) pronounced the plague, a black spot on the 
ankle proving to be the plague spot. He was beloved by all and missed 
from every part of the mission. 

For my "Merry Christmas" that December, one of the girls had winter 
fever, and for New Year's another girl had fever. Miss Morse was confined 
to her bed; so her cares were added to mine, making the day more busy 
than festive, with, as Miss Morse said, a prospect of my long, long legs be- 
coming diminished by wear— but better wear out than rust out. During 
that season we had our usual winter siege of colds and coughs, having sev- 
eral ailing at one time. One night, when Miss Morse was taking medicine 
herself, she had six little boys sleeping in her room, requiring attention 
during the night. About this time the agent, Mr. Johnson, allowed Mr. 
Pratt money for medicine and visiting the sick. Mr. Pratt had never had 
an allowance for that purpose before, although he had visited the Indians 
for miles about and many a doctor would have been glad of his practice if it 
had carried with it the usual fees of a physician. 

About the middle of June, 1862, Mr. Pratt returned from Washington 
D. C, where he went with the chiefs to arrange about their land. They 
concluded to remain on their present reservation, and encourage schools and 
improvements. The government, on their part, promised to restore them 
their stolen bonds, which was a large amount, and afterwards an academy 
was to be built, but nothing of this kind was ever done. 

Note 11. — Adj. Gen. C. K. Holliday made the following statement in regard to Kansas 
troops, to Governor Crawford, January 17, 1865 : "A number of Indians were regularly 
recruited in the white regiments. These were our home Indians, such as the Delawares, 
Shawnees, Pottawatomies, etc. ... In addition to the foregoing, there are three 
regiments of Indians in the service, officered originally almost exclusively by citizens from 
Kansas." — Wilder's Annals, p. 415. 

In 1862 Major Johnson said there were 170 Delawares in the Union army. — Report of 
the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, 1862, p. 99. 

Note 12. — Dr. Cornelius Ambrosius Logan was born in Deerfield, Mass., August 24, 
1832. He was the son of Cornelius A. Logan, a pioneer theatrical manager in Cincinnati 
and one of the greatest comedians of his time. Doctor Logan's sisters were actresses of 
note in their day. He came to Kansas, settling at Leavenworth in February, 1857. In 
1873 he was appointed United States minister to Chili, afterward was sent to Guatemala, 
and again to Chili in 1881, remaining there until 1883. For twelve years he was editor 
of the Leavenworth Medical Herald, and was a frequent contributor to medical journals 
all over the country. Doctor Logan organized the first grand lodge of Odd Fellows in 
Kansas. Subsequently he was grand master of the order, and finally became grand sire of 
the sovereign lodge. He was well known politically in the early days of the state. He 
died at Los Angeles, Cal., January 30, 1899. 

Note 13. — Dr. Tiffin Sinks was one of the pioneer physicians of Leavenworth, having 
located there November 25, 1856. He was born in Williamsburg, Ohio, December 5, 1834, 
and received his medical education at the Ohio Medical College, in Cincinnati. Doctor 
Sinks was associated with Doctor Logan in the publication of the Leavenworth Medical 
Herald, one of the earliest medical journals of the state. He still resides in Leaven- 

192 Kansas State Historical Society. 

In July the trouble increased around the mission; jayhawkers and more 
modern parties, styled bushwhackers, were abundant. It was reported at 
one time that the famous Quantrill was killed, which, it was thought, might 
lessen the depredations, but the report was false. One night a negro man 
was stolen from Charles Journeycake's, where he was working, and taken 
off in the dark by a party of men, flourishing their pistols and threatening 
to blow out the brains of his protectors if they moved. In November the 
bushwhacking business received a setback on account of the falling of the 
leaves, thus making the brush more open and hiding places less secure. In 
Missouri the disaffection toward Lincoln's proclamation ^^ became very 
strong. The people said "they did not enter the army to fight for negroes; 
it was to protect the Union and not abohsh slavery." 

August 21, 1863, occurred the burning and sacking of Lawrence. The 
details are too horrible to be written at this late date, and they have al- 
ready passed into history. The mission being on the opposite side of the 
river from Lawrence, it was considered unlikely that the guerrillas would 
attempt to cross; but a few days after the burning of Lawrence some of 
the Indians became alarmed by seeing a fire, and a boy was sent to the 
mission for the children at school. He reported that 500 guerrillas had 
crossed the river (Kansas), and that night would burn the mission and ev- 
erything on the way. All the children left in a hurry, save two who lived 
too far away to get home that night. We were not alarmed, however, and 
slept as well as usual, and were not surprised to find later that the alarm- 
ing fire was only burning brush. 

The first«week in October, 1863, I attended a teachers' association at 
Leavenworth. It was the first one held in the young state, and during the 
session a state association was formed. ^^ Later I attended the first agri- 
cultural state fair, i" One day there was an exhibition of fancy and domestic 
articles, a very good but not large exhibit; the fruit and vegetable display 
was very large. 

It took but little to get up a scare, even at the mission. For instance: 
One morning the hired man was going to Leavenworth with the team, 
and went earlier than usual— before daylight, in fact— to feed the horses. 
The opening of the stable door and the stamping of the horses roused the 
other men, and one of them, springing up suddenly, imagined he could see 
horses coming out of the stable, so he quickly gave the alarm that the horses 
were being stolen. Lucius started, pistol in hand, but when at the gate he 
heard the corn drop into the cribs and concluded how affairs were. A lady 
from Lawrence who was visiting at the mission said it seemed just like the 
raid in Lawrence. She started up and inquired if she would have time to 
dress; for in Lawrence she took her dress in hand, threw a bonnet over her 
nightcap, and left her wig and false teeth behind. I heard the noise from 
the dormitory, and thought surely some one was after the horses; then, re- 
calling that John was going to town, concluded he was the cause of the 
racket, and turned over for another nap. 

Note 14. — Preliminary proclamation of emancipation issued September 22, 1862. 

Note 15. — The Kansas Educational Journal, vol. 1, p. 2, contains an interesting account 
of the meeting of this first teachers' association. 

Note 1G. — The earliest state fairs were held under the direction of the State Agricul- 
tural Society in various towns over the state, the first one being at Leavenworth, October 
6 to 9. 1863. 

Life Among the Delaware Indians. 193 

On the 27th of December, 1863, there was quite a fall of snow; a day or 
two afterward the wind blew, as it often did in Kansas, and the two united 
in forming a complete blockade on the Hannibal & St. Joseph railroad. For 
sixteen days no mail from the east was received at Leavenworth. Travel- 
ers reaching St. Joe ^ere obliged to turn back or remain there until teams 
were fitted up to take them on their way. Freight trains were blocked; in 
one a large number of hogs were frozen to death. Saturday, the 24th of 
January, 1864, Mr. Pratt was too ill to go to Leavenworth as usual. At 
noon a man came for him to go five miles, just off the reservation, to marry 
a couple of whites. Mr. Pratt said he was too ill to go— that he would 
come the next morning, but the rnan was imperative. There was to be a 
dance that evening which the couple wanted to attend, and the wedding 
had been put off once; it was to have been on New Year's, but the groom 
was from Chicago and could not get here on account of the blocked roads. 
Now that he had come, a minister must be found, and no other was handy. 
Mr. Pratt had compassion on them, and mounted his pony and rode away 
to make the two happy. 

Later in the winter, about eight o'clock one morning, a man and woman 
rode up to the gate and sent in word by one of the children for Mr. Pratt 
to come out and marry them without their alighting. Mr, Pratt was not 
well, was lying on a couch, and sent back word that if they would dismount 
and come in he would marry them. They were white people and had ridden 
eight miles. From the man's boots his toes peeped out, and his elbows 
showed through holes in his coat sleeves. The woman was tidy in a home- 
spun woolen dress, blue-checked apron and the usual "slat" sunbonnet, 
which she did not remove. This sort of bonnet was worn in the outh and 
West, both indoors and out. Mr. Pratt told them to stand together and 
take hold of hands, but had to move them around into proper position and 
place the bride's right hand in the right hand of the groom before he per- 
formed the ceremony which made them husband and wife. The man asked 
"what was to pay ? " Mr. Pratt told him what he would have to give to 
record the marriage, and taking it from his pocket, the groom gave the 
amount to Mr. Pratt, and the bridal party mounted their horses and de- 

In February, 1864, I left the mission, arriving at my home in Concord, 
Mass., on the 24th of the month. A day or two before I left Kansas the 
weather was very mild; so much so that a snake ventured out of his winter 
retreat and the boys captured him. But one of those sudden changes, 
which the West is noted for, came; the wind blew cold and froze up things 
generally. It was very cold when I left the mission, but I was well-clothed 
and had a hot brick for my feet. When we reached Leavenworth, fifteen 
miles away, the brick was cold and I was chilled through. The boats from 
Kansas City had been running a week or more, but we found the river so 
filled with broken ice that the boat would not make the trip up that day, so 
I was compelled to wait over until the next. When we finally arrived on 
the west bank of the Mississippi we found that river but partially open, and 
we were landed from our boat on solid ice in mid river, being cautioned 
meanwhile not to walk ashore in a body. However, we saw a large wagon 
drawn by two horses coming out over the ice from the land to the boat, so 
we thought the people could not be in danger. 

This ended my Kansas»experiences, as I never returned to the Delaware 





Prepared by Charles Hanford Landrum. ^ 

A T THE beginning of the Revolutionary War the various colonies claimed 
-^ all the territory north of the thirty-first degree, extending westward 
to the Mississippi river and the Great Lakes. The boundaries of these 
claims were not well defined, which gave rise to frequent disputes among 
the colonies. The territory west of Pennsylvania and north of the Ohio 
river was claimed by Virginia, Connecticut, New York and Massachusetts. 
No survey of the territory ever had been made, and the claims overlapped. 
As early as 1775 the disputes between Pennsylvania and Connecticut became 
so serious that they were laid before the Revolutionary Congress, which in 
December of that year accordingly recommended "that the contending par- 
ties cease hostilities in regard to conflicting claims on the Susquehanna 
river, near Wyoming, until the dispute could be settled by legal process." ^ 
A similar dispute arose in 1779 between Massachusetts and New York over 
the New Hampshire land grants. Early in that year, owing to trouble be- 
tween the citizens of New York and those of the land grants, Congress ap- 
pointed a committee "to inquire into the reasons why they refuse to con- 
tinue citizens of the respective states which heretofore exercised jurisdiction 
over said district."^ This committee never met, and on September 24 Con- 
gress passed a resolution recommending "to the states of Massachusetts 
Bay, New Hampshire and New York forthwith to pass laws expressly 
authorizing Congress to hear and determine all differences between them 
relative to their respective boundaries in the mode prescribed by the 
Articles of Confederation. "^ One week later this resolution was repealed, 
because the Articles of Confederation did not provide "for hearing and de- 
termining disputes between any state and the guarantees of another state. "^ 
Before the close of the Revolution it was evident that conflicting claims 
would be a cause for discord among the states. The government, owing to 
the expense of the war, was in debt and much in need of money to estab- 

NOTE 1 (by the author). — This paper was submitted as a thesis in the department of 
history in the State University of Kansas, and was accepted as a partial requirement for 
the degree of master of arts. The work is incomplete and perhaps inaccurate ; but the 
author hopes it may be of service to some fellow student who is studying the same or a 
kindred field. 

Note 2. — Charles Hanford Landrum was born April 1, 1881, at Frankfort, Marshall 
county, Kansas, the son of George B. Landrum and Sarah (Vaughn) Landrum. His 
father was from Dekalb county, Missouri, and his mother from Henderson, 111. He was 
educated in the Frankfort high school, and later secured degrees for work at Kansas 
University and at Yale. In 1905-'07 he was superintendent of schools at Belle Plaine, in 
1907-'09, at Eskridge, and is now superintendent at Onaga. He is unmarried, and is at 
present engaged on a thesis concerning the territorial courts of Kansas. 

Note 3. — Journals of Congress, vol. 1, p. 279. Note 4. — Ibid., vol. 5, p. 180. 

Note 5. — Ibid., vol. B, p. 276. Note 6. — Ibid., vol. 5, p. 283. 


1S6 Kansas State Historical Society. 

lish and maintain itself. One of the principal grievances of the colonies 
against the mother country was that of taxation; to suppose they would be 
more loyal to the Confederation was inconsistent with their past history; 
to assume the right which had been refused to crown and parliament would 
be extremely dangerous. The only source of revenue under the Articles of 
Confederation was contributions from the states, and these had not been 
sufficient to meet the demands of war and other expenses of the newly es- 
tablished government. The Congress of the Confederation might advise the 
states, but they had no coercive power. It remained with the states whether 
or not they would comply. There were, therefore, two reasons why the 
general government should possess the public lands; to settle the disputes 
between the states, and to secure for the government a source of revenue. 

The question of disputed claims was again taken up by Congress, and 
September 6, 1780, a committee was appointed to investigate the proposal 
of settlement offered by Maryland, and also to consider a remonstrance 
presented by the general assembly of Virginia. This committee reported 
"that it appears more advisable to press upon the states which can remove 
the embarrassments respecting the western country, a liberal surrender of 
a portion of their territorial claims, since they can not be preserved entire 
without endangering the stability of the general Confederacy." In com- 
pliance with this request New York relinquished her c!aims to the western 
territory March 1, 1781." Two months before this Virginia had offered to 
relinquish her claims upon certain conditions, which were not accepted by 
Congress until September 13, 1783. On March 1, 1784, Virginia ceded "to 
the United States in Congress assembled, for the common benefit of the 
states," all claims to the territory northwest of the Ohio river. s The ex- 
ample of these states was followed by the others. 

When the lands came into possession of the general government the 
question of their disposal naturally arose. That this territory would be or- 
ganized into states which Would rank among the richest in the Union was 
not anticipated. The value of the country as part of the United States was 
not considered. Congress hoped that the western lands would furnish a 
source of revenue sufficient to pay the debts and bear the expenses of the 
government. This attitude toward the western country was shown at a 
later time, after the purchase of Louisiana from France, when Jefferson 
proposed to sell the territory, "reserving that part of the country com- 
manding the mouth of the Mississippi river." 

It devolved upon Congress to arrange for the survey of the western ter- 
ritory. On May 20, 1785, an ordinance was passed providing for the disposal 
of the ceded territory. This ordinance provided for the survey of the 
country into townships, and as an inducement to settlers to occupy the land it 
reserved "the lot number 16 of every township for the maintenance of public 
schools within said township."" This grant was first given to the company 
that settled Ohio. The company was organized in Boston, March 1, 1786, 
for the purpose of securing a large tract of land on the Ohio river for the 
soldiers of the Revolutionary War. The directors of the company, Samuel 
Holden Parsons, Manasseh Cutler and Rufus Putnam, were given full pow- 
ers to negotiate with Congress for the purchase of the lands. Cutler was 

Note 7. — Journals of Congress, vol. 6, pp. 179, 180. 

Note 8.— Ibid., vol. 8, p. 258. Note 9.— Ibid., vol. 10, p. 121. 

A History of the Kansas School Fund. IQI 

sent to New York, where Congress was assembled, and began negotiations 
which led to the ordinance of 1787— an ordinance for the government of the 
Northwest Territory. This ordinance provided that, "Whereas, religion, 
morality and knowledge being necessary to good government and the happi- 
ness of mankind, schools and the means of education shall forever be en- 
couraged." i" This pledged Congress to make provision for education, and 
ten days later, July 23, 1787, in a resolution granting powers to the board. 
of treasury to contract for the sale of western lands, it was provided that 
"lot number 16 in each township to be given perpetually for the purpose 
contained in said ordinance; ^i the lot number 29 in each township or frac- 
tional part of a township to be given perpetually for the purposes of reli- 
gion. ' ' The grant for religious purposes was only given in two cases— in the 
grant to the Ohio company, now cited, and in that to John Cleves Symmes; 
but section 16 of each township, or its equivalent, has been reserved for the 
support of schools in all territory since organized under the authority of the 
United States. 

There has been some variation in the forms of the grants made to the 
different states. The grant to the Ohio company provided that the section 
number 16 should be granted "to the inhabitants of such township for the 
use of schools." In this case the township was granted control of the land 
appropriated for school purposes. When Illinois was organized the school 
grant was given into the custody of the state "for the use of the inhabit- 
ants of the township for the use of schools." There was a fund for each 
township of the state, but kept by the state. The final change in the form 
of grant was made at the time Michigan was organized. This provided 
that section "numbered 16 in every township of the public lands . 
shall be granted to the state for the use of schools." By this provision 
the common-school fund in the state of Michigan became a state fund,, 
and this form of grant has been used in all states subsequently organized. 

In 1848, when the territory of Oregon was organized, another section 
(number 36) was added to the grants for school purposes. This additional 
section was first given to California in 1850, and has been given to all states 
organized since that time. 

When the territories of Kansas and Nebraska were organized by the 
Kansas-Nebraska bill, provision was made for the regular reservation of 
sections 16 and 36 in each township. In the following year a constitution 
for the territory of Kansas was framed at Topeka, which provided that all 
funds arising from the sale of public lands, granted to the state for educa- 
tional or religious purposes, should be preserved inviolable and undiminished 
and the income from such funds applied to the specific object of the original 
grants. '2 The constitutions framed successively at Lecompton, Leavenworth 
and Wyandotte, had similar provisions. The Wyandotte constitution, the 
one finally adopted, added several clauses, among which was one providing 
that "The school-lands shall not be sold, unless such sale shall be authorized 
by a vote of the people at a general election; but, subject to revaluation 
every five years, they may be leased for any number of years, not exceed- 
ing twenty-five, at a rate established by law." '^ 

Note 10.^ — McDonald's Select Documents. See Ordinance of 1787. 

Note 11. — This refers to the preceding Ordinance of 1785. 

Note 12. — Thorpe's Constitutions and Charters, 1909, vol. 2, p. 1189, art. 7, sec. 1.. 

Note 13. — Ibid., vol. 2, p. 1252, art. 6, sec. 5. 

198 Kansas State Historical Society. 

During the early part of the territorial period little attention was given 
to formulating any system of schools. The early flood of immigration 
poured in from the North and the South — on the one hand to make Kansas 
a free state, on the other to extend and perpetuate the institutioh of slavery 
as it existed in the Southern states. In this great crisis the matter of edu- 
cation was secondary to the great political issues. But when the territory 
was rescued from the grasp of the South the free-state men turned their 
attention to internal developments, and to the education of those who were 
to be the future citizens. 

In his message to the first territorial legislature, 1855, Governor Reeder 
recommended to their consideration the subject of education;'* but the 
breach between the governor and the legislature over the temporary re- 
moval of the seat of government occurred just then. This trouble led to a 
petition of the legislature to President Pierce asking that Governor Reeder 
be removed, and affairs became so complicated that the subject of schools 
and their support was completely subordinated to more pressing issues. 

For two years the subject of public schools and land grants lay quite 
dormant. In 1857 the house passed resolutions petitioning Congress for a 
grant of the equivalent of sections 16 and 36 on lands sold by the general 
government to the Indians and on lands preempted by citizens under laws 
of the United States. No action was taken by Congress upon this petition, 
and the subject was abandoned within the territory until 1860, when the 
movement began which finally formulated the public-school system of Kan- 
sas. On December 31, 1859, the territorial superintendent of the common 
schools laid before the legislature the first report of the condition of the 
public schools. This report also contained recommendations from the super- 
intendents of public instruction in Michigan, Wisconsin and Iowa, advising 
the sale of public lands. '^ 

On January 3, 1860, the governor's message to the legislature recom- 
mended the subject of education to their consideration. He also protested 
against a resolution in the constitution framed at Wyandotte (1859) which 
provided that "the legislature shall make provision for the sale or disposal 
of the lands granted to the state in aid of internal improvements and for 
other purposes, subject to the same rights of preemption to the settlers 
thereon as are now allowed by law to settlers on public lands. '^ According 
to this provision no more would be derived from these lands than from any 
other equal amount of public land. This part of the message was referred 
to the committee on education, but a breach occurred between the governor 
and the legislature over the removal of that body to Lawrence for the ses- 
sion, which rendered legislation upon the subject impossible. 

Early in the year 1861, after Kansas had been admitted as a state, a 
resolution was submitted to the committee on public lands to report on ordi- 
nance. ^^ On April 17 two reports were sent by the committee— one by the 
majority, reporting that the grants of Congress had not given a sufficient 
recompense for the relinquishment of the right of the state to tax the public 
domain, and that the grants to other states had been more liberal; one by 
the minority, asserting that the propositions to Kansas had been as liberal 
as those to any other state. The minority report was taken up and accepted 

Note 14. — House Journal, 1855, p. 15. Note 15. — House Journal, 1860, pp. 34-82. 

Note 16. — Ibid., p. 22. Note 17. — Senate Journal, 1861, pp. 96, 97. 

A History of the Kansas School Fund. 199 

by joint resolution. January 20, 1862, an act was passed giving the governor 
power to select the lands granted to the state in the Act of Admission, and 
appropriating a sum sufficient to defray the necessary expenses, is The 
governor appointed a committee of three, who selected the land granted to 
the state institutions and that given in lieu of sections 16 and 36, otherwise 
disposed of. 

The grants to the state as offered in the enabling act were thus confirmed. 
This provided. First, that sections numbered 16 and 36 in every township of 
public lands in the state, and where either of said section or any part 
thereof had been sold or otherwise disposed of, other lands, equivalent 
thereto and as contiguous as might be, should be granted to the state for 
the use of schools; Second, that seventy-two sections should be reserved for 
the benefit of the State University; Third, that ten sections should be re- 
served for the purpose of completing or erecting public buildings; Fourth, 
that the lands adjoining or contiguous to the salt springs, not to exceed 
seventy- two sections, were to be granted to the state for its use; Fifth, 
that the five per centum of the sales of public lands lying within the state 
should be paid to the state, after deducting the expenses incident to the 
same, for the purpose of making public roads, internal improvements and 
for other purposes as the legislature should direct. By a clause in the 
state constitution, the five-per-cent grant was turned over to the state 
school fund. 

In accordance with the provision of the constitution that the school lands 
should not be sold until the sale was approved by a vote of the people, the 
legislature passed an act February 26, 1864, providing that the sale of the 
pubHc school lands should be submitted to a vote of the people at the next 
general election, i** The act also provided for the appraisal of the land by 
committees, and established a minimum price of $3 per acre. Purchasers 
were to pay one-tenth of the price of the land down, and the remainder in 
not more than ten equal installments, bearing interest at ten per cent. The 
proceeds of the sales were to be invested in interest-paying securities of the 
state or of the United States, at the current market price. At the election 
in the fall the sale of the school lands carried and the land was immediately 
placed upon the market.-" 

The first investment was made on February 1, 1866. During this year 
over $26,000 was received from land sales, and all invested in state bonds 
except a 1000-dollar United States bond bought at 101. From this time the 
school fund has increased annually from the sale of public lands and other 
sources, and has become a valuable source of income for the support of the 
common schools of the state. Mismanagement and frauds have doubtless 
reduced it to half the amount it would have reached had it been managed 
in a more business-like and sincere way. 

The constitution provides that "The state superintendent of public in- 
struction, the secretary of state and attorney-general shall constitute a 
board of commissioners for the management and the investment of the 
school funds. "21 They have been controlled, at least to some extent, by 

Note 18.— Laws of 1861, chap. 40. Note 19.— Laws of 1864, chap. 102. 

Note 20.— The vote to sell carried by 3437 to 2186. See Public Documents of 1861-'64. 
abstract of votes in appendix. 

Note 21. — Constitution of Kansas, art. 6, sec. 9. 

200 Kansas State Historical Society. 

legislation, althaugh in the first case they successfully maintained their 
independence of the legislature. 

On Mai'ch 2, 1868, the legislature passed a bill authorizing the school- 
fund commissioners to invest $25,000 in state bonds, to be issued in pursu- 
ance of an act "Providing for the issuance and sale of bonds of the state 
for the purpose of paying the officers and members of the state legislature 
and current expenses of the state." The commissioners met and adopted a 
resolution to the effect that they would invest the amount in pursuance of 
the act, "if after the law had been published it seemed that they were 
bound to do so." On receipt of this resolution, the legislature passed a 
joint resolution, which was duly signed by the governor, prohibiting the 
commissioners from investing the fund in any other bonds authorized to be 
issued by and under any law passed during that session of the legislature. 
The commissioners, however, questioned the constitutionality of the act 
authorizing the issue of bonds of the state for the purpose specified in the 
bill, and refused to invest in the bonds in question. A petition for a man- 
damus was filed and the case brought before the supreme court. The court 
in an able and exhaustive opinion sustained the commissioners and held that 
the commissioners could not be compelled to invest in bonds other than 
those provided by general statute. ^^ jjad the commissioners vigorously in- 
sisted upon this right at later times the school fund would to-day be larger 
than it is. During the same year another suit was begun which was of im- 
portance in its effect upon the school fund of Kansas. The constitution as 
adopted provided that the 500,000 acres of land granted to the new states, 
under an act of Congress distributing the proceeds of public lands among 
the several states of the Union, approved September 4, 1841, "shall be in- 
violably appropriated to the support of common schools. " -^ The lands had 
been chosen by the committee appointed by the governor and registered as 
school land. 

Contrary to the provisions of the state constitution, the legislature of 
1866 appropriated this land to four railroads of the state.-* State Superin- 
tendent McVicar instituted a case in the form of an injunction, restraining 
the officers constituted by the law of 1868 to consummate the sale from is- 
suing patents to purchasers of the land, granting certificates or receiving- 
moneys on such sales. A formal decision was rendered in the district court 
and the case taken before the supreme court. In the supreme court it was 
agreed to waive all technical points and present to the court for decision 
simply the question whether or not the title to these lands, as stipulated by 
the constitution, vested in the state for the benefit of the common schools. 
The attorney-general rendered an opinion that the state had no right to ap- 
propriate these lands to schools -^ without the direct approval of Congress 
by special act, as had been done in the cases of Iowa, Wisconsin and Ne- 
vada, ^s He held, by the clause in the Act of Admission in which Congress 

Note 22. — Supreme Court Reports, vol. 4, pp. 223-233. 

Note 23. — Constitution of Kansas, art. 6, sec. 1. 

Note 24. — Laws of 1866, chap. 61. 

Note 25.— Webb's Statutes, 1897, vol. 1, pp. 769-773. 

Note 26. — For Iowa see U. S. Statutes at Large, vol. IX, p. 117; Wisconsin, ibid., 
p. 179; Nevada, U. S. Statutes at Large, 39th Cong., 1st Sess., 186B-'66, p. 85. 

A History of the Kansas School Fund. 201 

refused to recognize "any or all grants as provided in the constitution of 
the state of Kansas," that the right to transfer this grant to the school 
fund had been denied. By this decision the school fund was deprived, if 
it ever possessed it, of 500,000 acres of land— a loss keenly felt by those in- 
terested in the schools of the state. The railroads appropriated these lands 
to their use as fast as the fulfillment of their contracts entitled them to it. 
However, in 1885 there was a little over $8000 of the proceeds of this land 
still unused in the railroad fund of the treasury and 4500 acres of land still 
unsold.-" By act of the legislature this was transferred to the permanent 
school fund of the state, ^s This insignificant sum was all that the school 
fund received from what had bidden fair to be one of its chief sources of 

Thus far the permanent school fund had been invested in state and United 
States bonds. The demand for a new building at the State University be- 
came so pressing that Lawrence, in order to make sure of the permanent 
location of the institution at that place, voted to raise $100,000 for that 
purpose. The bonds were voted, but found no ready market. In 1870 the 
legislature passed a bill giving the commissioners of the permanent school 
fund the power to invest a sum not to exceed $100,000 in Lawrence Uni- 
versity bonds. The commissioners purchased $50,000 worth of the bonds at 
90, but refused to invest a larger sum in the bonds of any town. However, 
they finally put in an additional $10,000, refusing to jeopardize the school 
fund for a greater amount. After the University building had been started 
and the funds exhausted, the legislature passed a resolution pledging the 
credit of the state for the amount of $50,000 in addition to that already in- 
vested in the Lawrence bonds. -'^ After the passage of this resolution the 
school commissioners invested an additional $40,000, thereby increasing the 
liabilities of Lawrence to the permanent fund to $100,000, as provided in 
the original act of the legislature. 

By this liberality the citizens of Lawrence assumed a considerable bur- 
den, which it was the duty of the state to bear. In 1883 Senator Solon 
Thacher^o introduced and succeeded in carrying through the legislature a 
bill for the relief of the city of Lawrence and protection of the common- 
school fund, releasing the town of Lawrence from the payment of the 
principal of the bonds when the amount of interest paid should equal the 
face of the bonds. When this amount had been paid the regents of the 
University were to issue an equal amount of bonds running for twenty 

Note 27.— Webb's Statutes, 1897, vol. 1, p. 166. 

Note 28.— Laws of 1885, chap. 2, sec. 269. 

Note 29. — Laws of 1871, chap. 52. 

Note SO.^Solon Otis Thacher was born at Hornellsville, N. Y., August 31, 1830. 
The Thacher family came to America from England on the second or third vessel after 
the Mayflower. He was the son of Otis and Hannah Kennedy (Graves) Thacher^^ His 
father was born at Gloucester, R. I., but emigrated to New York in 1804. Solon O. was 
educated in the common schools of his native town, graduating from Union College. He 
pursued his legal studies at th^ Albany Law School and was admitted to practice by the 
New York supreme court in 1856. He entered politics that year as a stump speaker, and 
was elected to the New York legislature, serving as a member m the winter of 1857. ihe 
same year he opened a law office in Chicago, and in July, 1858, came to Kansas, lie 
became interested in the Lawrence Republican. In 1859 he was elected a delegate to the 
Wyandotte constitutional convention. On the admission of the state he was elected judge 
of the fourth judicial district. In 1864 he was the anti-Lane candidate for governor^ He 
was in the state senate of 1881 and 1883. In 1884 President Arthur appointed him a 
member of a commission of three to negotiate treaties with South American countries. 
He was president of the Kansas State Historical Society in 1895. He died August 11, 1895. 

202 Kansas State Historical Society. 

years, and the interest on the same was to be paid from the income of the 
University endowment fund. It is not necessary to go into the considera- 
tion of the constitutionality of this act, as Lawrence never fulfilled its re- 
quirement, but stopped paying interest on the bonds in 1884. In his report 
of 1891 and 1892 the state superintendent of public instruction recommended 
the appropriation of $100,000 by the state legislature, ^i to be used in pur- 
chasing and canceling the Lawrence obligations, thus preserving the two 
funds entire, but the legislature never acted upon his advice. Thus it was 
necessary for the commissioners of the school fund to bring the controversy 
into the courts, where the case is still pending judicial decision. ^^ 

The question of investing the school fund by 1869 had become a difficult 
one. The law thus far limited the investments to state and United States 
bonds. At the time the law was enacted government bonds could be pur- 
chased at par and state bonds at a large discount. Under the continued 
prosperity of the country, government bonds had advanced to a high pre- 
mium, and the issue of state bonds was exhausted. The constitution forbids 
the state to issue over one million in bonds, except in time of war.^s This 
amount had already been issued, and of the sum the school-fund commission- 
ers had secured only $289,450 worth, the balance being held by capitalists in 
Wall Street. To meet this difficulty the superintendent recommended the 
establishment of a sinking fund sufficient to cancel the bonds of the state, 3* 
but the legislature took no steps toward adopting his plan. 

Many felt that the money should be expended in the state for improve- 
ments, and insisted that the bonds in Wall Street could be carried and the 
school fund applied to the internal development of the country. Many 
schools could be established throughout the state but for the want of funds 
to build schoolhouses and to provide for the necessary equipment to carry 
on school work. A plan was finally formulated which would aid such locali- 
ties to establish schools, and at the same time make what has proven to be 
a satisfactory and secure way of investing the school fund of the state. 
This plan was incorporated into our school system when, in 1872, the legisla- 
ture passed a bill extending the power of the school-fund commissioners so 
that they could invest in district-school bonds. ^s The first year 150 schools 
were established under the system and over $100,000 of the permanent 
school fund safely invested where it would bring adequate returns both to 
the common-school fund and to the districts using such moneys. At the 
present time over $500,000 of the school fund are invested in these district 

The lands given to the state for school purposes were not well defined, 
and in some instances were only secured after a long and expensive process. 
However, the custodians of the school fund made a manly efl^ort to secure 
the full amount of lands due the state, according to their interpretation of 
the Act of Admission. This act provided expressly that "nothing in said 
constitution respecting the boundary of the state shall be construed to im- 

NOTE 31. — Public Documents, 1891-'92, vol. 2 ; Report Supt. Pub. Instruction, p. 149. 

Note 32. — This case was decided in favor of Lawrence, the opinion of the Douglas 
district court being affirmed. — Kansas Reports, vol. 79, p. 234. 

Note 33. — Constitution of Kansas, art. 11, sec. 5. 

Note 34. — Report of State Superintendent, 18G9, p. 25. 

Note 35. — Laws of Kansas, 1872, chap. 190. 

A History of the Kansas School Fund. 203 

pair the right of the persons or property now pertaining to the Indians in 
said territory, so long as such rights shall remain unextinguished by treaty 
between the United States and such Indians, or include any territory which 
by treaty with such Indian tribe is not without the consent of the tribe to 
be included within the territorial limits or jurisdiction of any state or terri- 
tory. " 3" The grants for school purposes within the territory to be acquired 
at a later time from the Indians depended upon the interpretation of this 

In May, 1867, N. G. Taylor was sent from Washington, as president of 
a commission, to hold a council with the Osage Indians and to draw up a 
treaty, subject to ratification by the senate, ceding part of the Osage lands 
to the general government. Superintendent McVicar met the commission 
at Humboldt and presented the claims of the common schools to sections 16 
and 36, which should revert to the schools of Kansas. His claims were dis- 
regarded, and the treaty signed by the commissioners and chiefs of the 
tribe. By the terms of the stipulation not a single acre was reserved for 
school purposes, but the whole domain, with slight exception, was to come 
into the possession of a Mr. William Sturgess, of Chicago, representing the 
Leavenworth, Lawrence & Galveston Railway Company, at a price less 
than 20 cents per acre. Indignation meetings were held over the state and 
petitions sent to Washington against the action of the commissioners, ^^ and 
Congress reversed the construction given to the clause of the Act of Ad- 
mission by passing an act, in the form of a joint resolution, securing to the 
state, for the use of public schools, sections 16 and 36 in the ceded Osage 
district. However, the railway company took the matter before the De- 
partment of the Interior, and the secretary, in a lengthy opinion, decided 
that the ceded lands were not a part of the state, but were held in trust by 
the United States, and the benefit derived therefrom could not be given to 
the school fund and must be returned to the Indian tribe. -^^ 

No further action was taken in regard to the treaty depriving the state 
of this land until 1875. In his report of that year the state superintendent 
announced that he had no means of determining the amount of school lands 
sold unless it was reported .by the superintendents in the various counties. 
During the year he had received reports from only forty-seven counties, so 
that any report for the whole state of the sale of public lands would neces- 
sarily be inaccurate. "Moreover," he continued, "the exact amount of 
land to which the state is entitled has never been determined." He further 
showed that the keeping of the school-land account was not included within 
the duties of any officer, and recommended that the legislature authorize 
the governor to appoint a land officer, who should make a list of all lands 
owned by the state and also take measures to secure the full amount of 
school lands to which the state was entitled by the Act of Admission. ^^ 

In accordance with this suggestion the legislature passed an act author- 
izing the governor to appoint an agent to prosecute to final decision the 
claims of Kansas against the United States for school lands not received, 

Note 36.— U. S. Statutes at Large, vol. XII, p. 127. 

Note 37. — Report State Superintendent Public Instruction, 1868, p. 12. 

Note 38. — Report State Agent, 1868, p. 4. 

Note 39. — Report State Superintendent Public Instruction, 18?5, p. 11. 

204 Kansas State Historical Society. 

and also to secure the proceeds of the grant of five per cent on the sales of 
public lands within the state. ^" Ex-Governor Samuel J. Crawford was ap- 
pointed land agent, and was to receive ten per cent of the lands and money 
he should secure as agent for the state. ^i 

Mr. Crawford was a man thoroughly acquainted with the situation and 
exceedingly tactful in his proceedings. So ably did he present his cases 
that he gained his point in every one, either by a direct presentation of the 
case before the proper authority or by appealing to Congress after an un- 
favorable decision. He entered upon his duties March 6, 1877, and first 
took up the loss of the school lands in the tract ceded by the Osage Indian 
tribe to the general government. In accordance with the opinions of the 
Department of the Interior, these lands had been turned over to the rail- 
road without respecting the claims of the school-fund commissioners. He 
presented the case of the state to the commissioner of the general land 
office, and showed that all precedents were contrary to that decision. ^^ jje 
received an opinion from the commissioner of public lands, approved by the 
Department of the Interior, reversing the former opinion and guaranteeing 
to the state the benefit of sections 16 and 36 in the land ceded by the Osages to 
the general government. 

The decision was accompanied by a request that the governor should se- 
lect the indemnity lands and certify the selection in the local land offices, 
in order that they might be withdrawn from market and be certified to the 
state. This would entail an expense to defray which it would be necessary 
for the legislature to make an appropriation. Public land was being taken 
up rapidly, and to delay the selection until the meeting of the legislature 
would cause great loss to the state, in location and quality of the land. 
Accordingly, Governor Anthony called a meeting of the state officers and 
solicited their advice. They responded, and the conclusion was reached that 
the interest of the state demanded immediate action. It was agreed to se- 
lect competent men, commission them as agents of the state, and set them 
to work according to their instructions. To meet the expenses the state 
officers assumed jointly personal obligations by which they were paid. The 
commissioners selected the land and submitted a report to the state auditor, 
together with a detailed account of their expenditures. *3 i^ his annual 
message Governor St. John recommended an appropriation sufficient to re- 
move the obligations of the state officers, in accordance with which the 
legislature made the appropriation to defray the expense of the commission.** 

When the lists of the lands selected by the commission reached the Sec- 
retary of the Interior a question was raised by the solicitor as to the validity 
of the decision in favor of the claim of the state, in so far as it related to 
certain Indian reservations, and the whole subject, by agreement, was re- 
ferred to the Attorney-general for his opinion. After a careful examina- 
tion he delivered an opinion that the state was entitled to indemnity for 
sections 16 and 36 in all Indian reservations except in the Cherokee Neutral 

Note 40. — Laws of 1877, chap. 176. 

Note 41. — See copy of contract in governor's message, 1879, p. 5. 

Note 42. — Crawford's Briefs, vol. 1, pp. 95-113. 

Note 43. — Public Documents, 1877-'78, pp. 13, 14. 

Note 44. — Laws of 1^79, chap. 14. 

A History of the Kansas School Fund. 205 

Lands. As to these he expressed doubts, for the reasons that the tract had 
been sold and conveyed by patent in fee simple to the Cherokee Nation 
prior to the date of grant to the state. ^^ in this opinion the department ac- 
quiesced and proceeded with the work of certification on all lists except 
those on the Neutral Lands. 

Mr. Crawford was unwilling to yield to the point made in regard to the 
Neutral Lands, and appealed to Congress for relief. On March 3, 1881, a 
joint resolution was passed "authorizing the Secretary of the Interior to 
certify school lands to the state of Kansas," providing "that the lands so 
selected by the state of Kansas be and are hereby confirmed to the said 
state; and the Secretary of the Interior be and is hereby authorized to certify 
the same to the said state in lieu of sections 16 and 36 sold and disposed of 
by the United States within the limits of any former Indian reservation as 
aforesaid."^"' This resolution not only authorized the secretary to certify 
indemnity lands in lieu of sections 16 and 36 in all Indian reservations within 
the state, but confirmed the title of the state to all lands selected in ac- 
cordance with the original decision. In pursuance of this resolution and the 
former decision of the department, thirteen lists, comprising an aggregate 
of over a quarter of a million (267,898) acres were certified to the state. 

At the time Mr. Crawford presented the case of the state for the lands 
sold by the general government, he also presented the claims of the state 
to the five per cent on the sale of public lands within the state, given for 
school purposes.^' As soon as the Indian reservations ^s were declared to be 
public lands, after the title of the Indians had been extinguished, it was 
clear that this grant would be easily assured to the state. The state agent 
pressed the claims, and on December 3, 1877, it was accepted by the first 
comptroller of the treasury. J. A. Williamson, commissioner of the land 
office, reported that $190,566.08 was due the state, and demand was made 
upon the Secretary of the Treasury for the same. '^ 

The decision of the comptroller was rendered May 6, 1880, but the money, 
having been paid into the treasury, could not be paid out except by appro- 
priation from Congress. This was made by an act approved March 3, 1881. 
Of the amount thus appropriated, $154,489.81 was paid direct to the state, 
and the remainder ($35,778.46) was carried to the credit of the state on ac- 
count of a balance claimed to be due the general government on a direct 
tax levied in 1861. so 

The five-per-cent grant was paid annually until 1884. When the account 
for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1884, was presented the commissioner of 
the general land office, whose duty it was to certify the same to the Treas- 
ury, declined to do so, and referred the whole matter as to the validity of 
the comptroller's decision to the Secretary of the Interior for his opinion. 

This stopped the payment of the annual proceeds from the sale of lands, 
and made it necessary to go over the same ground a second time. The Sec- 

NOTE 45. — Crawford's Briefs, vol. 1, p. 195. 

Note 46. — Statutes at Large, vol. XXI, p. 310. 

Note 47. — Crawford's Briefs, vol. 1, p. 196. 

Note 48. — Shawnee, Miami, Osage, Kaw. Cherokee and New York reservations. 

Note 49. — A small amount of the claim ($197.81) was rejected. 

Note 50.— U. S. Statutes at Large, vol. XXI, p. 446. 

206 Kansas State Histoi^ical Society. 

retary decided against the state and was sustained in his opinion by the 
attorney-general. Crawford was unwilling to yield and again turned ta 
Congress, which accordingly passed an act granting to the state, on account 
of the five-per-cent fund arising from the sale of public lands within the 
state, the full amount due for the year. Since this act the grant has been 
paid annually. 5' 

A constitutional question arose in regard to the payment of the state 
agent. By the terms of the contract he was to receive ten per cent of all 
the lands and money secured for the state. However, the constitution pro- 
vides that the common-school fund shall be perpetual and shall not be di- 
minished. The case was submitted to the attorney-general, who brought in 
an opinion that the state agent could not be paid out of lands or money be- 
longing to the school fund. To avoid this constitutional difficulty, the leg- 
islature appropriated out of the general fund of the state not only the 
amount due on land and moneys secured for the school fund, but on all land 
and moneys secured for the state. s- In 1891 Senator W. W. Martin ^^ ^^g^ 
appointed successor to Mr. Crawford. When he asked the governor, state 
auditor and attorney-general to enter into a contract for his services as 
state agent the attorney-general maintained that the law authorizing them 
to make the contract was unconstitutional. An agreed case was made and 
submitted to the supreme court on application for a mandamus to compel 
the three officers before named to enter into a contract as required by stat- 
ute. The supreme court sustained the attorney- general in his opinion, and 
the office of state agent came to an end.^* 

The year of 1876, so far as the school fund is concerned, may be appro- 
priately called the year of scandals. During this year some of the most 
criminal dishonesties were brought to light. These frauds deprived the 
school fund of $14,500. It was only due to the care of the state officers that 
a scheme of A. J. Mowry, representative in the third district, from Doni- 
phan county, was disclosed to the public, which would have cost the school 
fund $40,000, had it been successfully carried out by it perpetrators. ^^ 

Note 51. — Ibid., vol. XXV, p. 921. A complete table of the receipts of the five per 
cent is given in the appendix of this paper, table "A." 

Note 52. — The state agent took charge of all land claims of the state against the 
United States. The position proved to be the most lucrative in the state. See appropria- 
tions 1878. 1883. 1887. 

Note 53. — William Wallace Martin was born November 12, 1840, at Crawfordsville, 
Ind., the son of Owen and Sarah (Reese) Martin. They were natives of Virginia, of 
Scotch-Irish ancestry. Mr. Martin was educated in the common schools of that state, and 
after four years' service in the army he graduated from the law department of Michigan 
University, in 1866. He enlisted as a private in the Fifty-fifth Indiana infantry, and 
subsequently served in the One Hundred and Sixteenth and One Hundred and Fifty- 
fourth Indiana. In 1866 he married Caroline Mills, and in that same year located in Fort 
Scott. His wife died in 1878, and in 1882 he married Elizabeth Truby. For many years 
he was the law partner of Hon. C. W. Blair. He served as city attorney of Fort Scott, 
probate judge of Bourbon county, and register of the United States land oflSce at Inde- 
pendence. In 1888 he was elected state senator. In 1900 he was made department com- 
mander of the Grand Army of the Republic. In 1901 he was appointed state agent at 
Washington. Major Martin is now and has been for several years paymaster at the 
National Military Home, Leavenworth. 

Note 54. — Report of State Superintendent, 1892. See, also. Attorney-general's Report, 

Note 55. — The years 1875 and 1876 were very vexatious ones for the state school fund. 
The Attorney-general's Report for 1876 is a pamphlet of about 200 pages, and it is de- 
voted almost entirely to district No. 8, Raymond, A. J. Mowry and Samuel Lappin. The 
counties of Harper, Barber and Comanche were organized in fraud for fraudulent pur- 
poses. A. J. Mowry, a very prominent man in those days from Doniphan county, sold 
the school fund $2000 of bonds for $1750, representing a school district fraudulently or- 

A History of the Kansas School Fund. 207 

Mowry and several of his accomplices had fraudulently organized Comanche 
county and issued the above amount of bonds, which they contemplated 
selling to the school-fund commissioners. Only $2000 worth were purchased, 
at 85i, when the fraud was discovered. Mowry took to the brush, but was 
captured at St. Joseph. He was expelled from the house and brought to 
trial, but the state failed to secure anything by his prosecution. 

In 1872 an election was held in Rice county, school district No. 8, and 
$10,000 in bonds voted for the purpose of building a schoolhouse, to be located 
at Raymond, 56 a small town within that district. The bonds were sold to 
the school-fund commissioners at 75. The next year they were discovered 
to be fraudulent. Both houses of the legislature took it upon themselves 

ganized in the fraudulently organized county of Comanche. He was charged with forgery 
•and perjury. Mowry was born in Cortland county, N. Y., in 1833. He went to Minne- 
sota, where he remained until 1858, when he came to Kansas, settling at Wathena. He 
represented Doniphan county in the legislature of 1868, 1869 and 1870. He had served as 
a private soldier in the Fourteenth Kansas cavalry. In 1874 he appeared as a member 
from Comanche county, claiming to have secured 272 votes. In the special session of that 
legislature, held in September, 1874, his seat was declared vacant, together with that of 
William H. Horner, of Harper county. Hornor was a resident of Baxter Springs, but he 
received 256 votes in Harper. According to the story, a buifalo hunting party in the 
summer of 1873 found Mr. Mowry, a Mr. Dunlap, of Doniphan county, and a man named 
Mills from Topeka, and two men from Hutchinson, five in all, engaged in organizing 
Comanche county, where there were just two bona fide settlers in the whole county. They 
filled all the county offices, and Mowry's part of the program was to be elected to the leg- 
islature and procure the passage of an act authorizing the issue and sale of $40,000 of 
Comanche county bonds to pay current expenses. An old directory of St. Joseph fur- 
nished the names of about 240 voters. The county seat was located at Smallwood, and 
school districts created. The buffalo hunters asked how they expected to sell such bonds, 
and the reply was: "There is just as good a market for fraudulent school bonds in Topeka 
as there is' for legal bonds; there is only a difference in the price." Mowry got his bill 
passed, and the total indebtedness on that county under this arrangement was $72,000, 
with no people and no property to tax. Mowry returned to Doniphan county, and was 
elected to the legislature of 1876 from district No. 3 in that county. But in this session 
he was caught and expelled. He was arrested and tried in the district court of Shawnee 
county. The court held that there was not sufficient evidence of the fictitious character of 
the supposed officers who signed the bonds, which knocked the state out. A nolle was en- 
tered and Mowry discharged. The Historical Society has in manuscript a remarkable 
story of the gang who organized Harper county. The job was conceived in Baxter 
Springs. Three men got $10,000 each out of a fraudulent issue of $40,000 of bonds on 
Harper. The account says : "A team was hired, a camp outfit and grub for the trip 
procured, and several loafers around the saloons were hired at three dollars a day for the 
occasion. These saloon bummers are the ones who gave the whole thing away after they 
came back, being somewhat disgruntled when they discovered that they had been made 
cat's-paws of." The party was gone between two and three weeks. W. H. Hornor was 
elected representative and served through the session of 1874, and at the close went to 
St. Louis and cashed the bonds. Attorney-general Williams said : "Harper and 
Comanche were organized solely for plunder. The vast amount of bonds issued by the two 
last-named counties has seriously impaired our credit abroad. To issue those bonds re- 
quired wholesale forgery and perjury." 

Note 56. — The Raymond schoolhouse was one of the jokes of the day. The Santa Fe 
road reached Hutchinson June 10, 1872, and Great Bend the latter part of July, 1872. 
Raymond is between these two points. An election to vote school bonds in district No. 8 
was held July 30, 1872, and on the 26th day of August following twenty bonds of $500 
each were issued. The notice posted calling the election was in the handwriting of S. N. 
Wood. At the time of the voting of the bonds, one witness says, there was a population 
of 300 ; one year after it was about 25. After considerable manipulation through two or 
three banks, the bonds were sold to the state school fund, the proceeds, $8750, going to 
S. N. Wood. Joseph G. Waters, who was then attorney for the Atchison, Topeka & 
Santa Fe, was a witness in an investigation made by a committee of the legislature. We 
quote: "About the 1st day of August, 1872, I had occasion to go into Rice county. 
People were then first commencing to come in the town of Raymond, a station on the 
line of our road. In fact, I went with about the first train of cars that took any people 
to that station. They consisted of a large proportion of strumpets and gamblers from 
Newton and other points on the road. They constituted nearly the entire population of 
Raymond at that time, and did so for two or three months after. They erected tents and 
booths for the purpose of gambling and prostitution. Probably eight or ten persons went 
there for the purpose of legitimate trade ; not more than that. That school district was 
formed a few days after that population went there. I was frequently at Raymond. My 
business was to keep posted as to the issuance of bonds, even of school districts. I had 
no intelligence of an election having been had or anything about the issuance of bonds for 
at least two or three months after they bear date." A contract was made with S. N. 
Wood to build a schoolhouse. S. N. Wood is one of the most conspicuous characters in 
the territorial history of Kansas. He was killed in a county-seat fight at Hugoton, 
Stevens county, June 23, 1891. (For sketch see volume 10, Kansas Historical Collections, 

208 Kansas State Historical Society. 

to investigate the case, and recommended it to the attorney-general for 
prosecution, but he was unable to secure the money invested in these bonds. ^^ 
In this same year the commissioners were duped into buying $2500 worth 
of bonds of Norton county, issued for the purpose of building a school- 
house. It was found by the attorney-general that the county commissioners 
had fraudulently issued this amount, first as script, and then converted it 
into bonds for the purpose of selling them to the school-fund commissioners. 
This they succeeded in doing, and thus deprived the school fund of the full 
amount of the bonds. Several times in later public documents the attention 
of the legislature has been called to the deficiency of the school fund in the 
amount of these bonds. The governor in his message of 1887 recommended 
the consideration of these losses, amounting to $14,500. That part of the 
message was referred to a select committee, which recommended that an 
appropriation be made, thus preserving the integrity and permanency of the 

page 242.) The population of Raymond had followed the end of the track, and when 
anything was said to Wood about building the schoolhouse he would I'espond, "I am 
waiting for some one to tell me where to build it." The contract called for a "belfry and 
a good bell that could be heard two miles." The legislature of 1876 made an investiga- 
tion, and ordered suit brought against two banks and S. N. Wood. The attorney-general 
said the district was "twelve miles long and six miles wide, containing almost as many 
square miles as several of the minor Germanic principalities." At the time suit was 
begun three other districts were taken from it, leaving No. 8 "merely a sandy, unin- 
habited and treeless tract of land six miles in length and three in width, lying wholly 
, south of the Arkansas river" from the site of Raymond. The schoolhouse remains unbuilt 
to this day. Capt. Joseph G. Waters contributed the following poem to the humor of the 
occasion, which had great circulation at the time : 

The Raymond Schoolhouse. 

"I bind my.self to build Raymond school district a house for school purposes, and will 
place on it a bell which can be heard two miles down the Arkansas." — Dying words of 
Sam Wood. 

In bonds I bind myself and heirs. 

And also each assign. 
To build, complete, a schoolhouse good. 

Of stone and brick and pine ; 
With desks and seats, likewise a stairs 

That reach a belfry high. 
And prompted by, says Colonel Wood, 

My strong affections' tie, 
I '11 place within a deep-toned bell. 

Where every breeze that fans us 
Shall waft its sweetest note and swell 

Two miles down the Arkansas. 

The spire shall keep the dying light 

Of sun, as shadows grow. 
And noon shall see, as birds in flight. 

The children hither go. 
Of peace and joy the bell shall chime 

Delightfully rotund ; 
The bonds shall run full ten years' time. 

To please the state school fund ! 
And westward as we pioneers 

Ere trains shall stop to land us. 
The dulcet strains shall reach our ears 

Two miles down the Arkansas. 

And thus the edifice did rise. 

But is not builded yet ; 
No steeple reaches to the skies. 

For all its bonded debt ! 
The children weep upon the spot 

And tell the passer by 
Of Colonel Wood, not quite forgot. 

And ask, "How's that for high?" 
But why should we the longer dwell 

On this, which so unmans us? 
No breeze shall bear the sound of bell 

Two miles down the Arkansas. 

Note 57. — Senate Journal 1876, pp. 254-257 ; House Journal 1876, pp. 545-626 ; Attor- 
ney-general's Report 1876, pp. 13-17. 

A History of the Kansas School Fund. 209 

school fund; but the report was never acted upon, and the school fund is 
short that amount. 

An example of the most flagrant abuse of public trust is furnished by 
Samuel Lappin. That he did not succeed in his attempt upon the public 
money redounds to the credit of honest men in whom a similar trust had 
been placed. Lappin occupied no prominent place in politics, but was purely 
by accident nominated to the responsible position of treasurer of the state, ^s 
His principles were immediately questioned by the public, but his honesty 
was attested by reputable citizens of Nemaha county, where he resided and 
where he had been instrumental in founding the town of Seneca. He had 
amassed a considerable fortune in a few years, and was noted for his shrewd 
business ability. After a bitter contest he was elected by a bare majority 
in 1874. 

In September of 1876 a lot of bonds, purporting to be issued by districts 
of Mitchell county, were sent to the commissioners of the school fund by a 
Mr. S. Whitcomb, of St. Joseph. The bonds were in regular form, and the 
state treasurer assured the commissioners that he "knew the gentlemen," 
so the commissioners purchased the bonds and ordered the money sent ac- 
cording to instructions. The treasurer remitted the price of $5400 worth of 
bonds, at 90. A few days later the commissioners received an offer to sell 
bonds purporting to be issued by school districts in Jewell county, and then 
owned by a Mr. Manford, of St. Joseph. He spoke of the purchase of bonds 
from Mr. Whitcomb, and solicited an offer on his bonds. The commission- 
ers answered the communication, and succeeded in procuring $7000 worth 
at 90. 

A little later, in November, a communication was received from Richard 
Milner, of Kansas City, soliciting the sale of $7500 worth of bonds issued by 
school districts in Republic county. The commissioners invested $6650 in 
these bonds, and Mr. Lappin remarked he paid the money over the counter 
of the state treasurer's office. 

In December six bonds, amounting to $8500, were received from J. S. 
Kibby, of Kansas City, soliciting the sale of the same and asking their im- 
mediate return if they were refused. By accident it was discovered that 
these bonds were all in the same handwriting, and an investigation was 
made which disclosed their fraudulent character. An investigation of all 
the bonds purchased was made and it was discovered that both batches 
from St. Joseph and the one from Kansas City were forgeries. In a few 
days the disappearance of the brother-in-law of Lappin. a partner of the 
state treasurer in a store at Seneca, caused considerable comment. This 
aroused suspicion that the state treasurer might have his brother-in-law, 
Mr. Sci'afford, as an accomplice in looting the state treasury. Investigation 
confirmed the suspicion. Lappin was placed under arrest and lodged in the 
Topeka jail. The case was set for the August term of court, but on July 
12 Lappin, after a second attempt, broke jail and escaped. He was traced 
through the northern part of the United States to Canada, but was last 
heard of in Peru, where he was safe because no extradition treaty existed 

Note 58. — He was nominated by accident. In the Republican state convention held in 
1874 about twenty-five delegates from southern Kansas bolted immediately upon the 
nomination of Governor Osborn. These men were all friends of John Francis, the then 
incumbent of the treasurer's office. Their absence from the convention gave Lappin a 
majority." — Atchison Champion, January 5, 1875. 


210 Kansas State Historical Society. 

between that country and the United States. His accomplice joined him 
somewhere on the way, and both arrived in Peru after a long chase by 
authorities. Later Mr. Scrafford was caught in Peru, and requisition papers 
being recognized, he was brought back for trial. He was tried as an ac- 
complice and found guilty, but the case was taken to a higher court where 
the decision was reversed and Scrafford given his liberty. ^^ 

Mr. Lappin left a considerable amount of real estate, which was imme- 
diately levied upon by the officers of the state. The amount of the forged 
bonds was secured, and the school fund sustained no loss, though the state 
incurred an expense of over $2500 in the prosecution of the case connected 
with this fraud. ^^ 

Note 59. — Public Documents 1879-'80, Attorney-general's Report, pp. 26-67. 

Note 60. — Samuel Lappin was born near Cumberland, Tuscarawas county, Ohio, 
January 4, 1831. He was the son of Finley Lappin, and his family was a wife, two 
daughters, Ella and Jessie, and son, Grover. He came to Kansas from Louisiana in the 
winter of 1866-'57, settling first at White Cloud, but moved to Seneca in the autumn of 

1857, being one of the town incorporators. He was elected justice of the peace. May 5, 

1858, and commissioned on May 26. He was elected register of deeds for Nemaha county 
November 8, 1859, serving to 1861 ; a member of the senate in the first state legislature, 
and again in 1862, and served in the house of 1869. He was a director and president of 
the "Northern Kansas Railroad and Telegraph Company" (the St. Joseph & Grand 
Island). In a list of Kansas post offices, 1876, a town by the name of Lappin appears, 
located in Nemaha county, east of Seneca and about the present situation of Oneida. 

Sol Miller said that when he landed in White Cloud, March, 1857, Lappin was a stock- 
holder in the town company and had a claim near ; that Scrafford and Lappin had a 
sawmill, and had come in 1856, but went to Seneca. They named the town for Seneca 
county, Ohio. Mr. Miller bought Lappin's land in 1862. 

On November 26, 1862, Lappin was commissioned by the President assistant quarter- 
master general, with rank of captain, and mustered out September 20, 1865. He was 
elected state treasurer in November, 1874, serving from January to December 20, 1875, 
when his resignation was demanded W Governor Osborn. On December 9 the school-fund 
commissioners discovered that forged school bonds of Jewell, Mitchell and Republic 
counties had been bought with money from the state treasury, funds being sent to 
Richard Milner, S. Whitcomb and Thomas Manford, supposed to be of St. Joseph and 
Kansas City. Upon investigation by two members of the commission in Kansas City, 
they were convinced that Lappin was the forger of the bonds and the recipient of the 
'money, and on December 11 so notified the governor, who instructed the attorney-general 
to bring the guilty parties to justice. Detectives were employed and evidence was com- 
pleted before December 20, when the governor instructed the attorney-general to begin 
proceedings against Lappin and his securities for recovery of the funds taken, which was 
$19,050. Peck & Ryan, of Topeka, were employed to assist in the prosecution. The 
governor wrote a two-page letter to Lappin requesting his resignation, which was at once 
tendered and accepted. Lappin employed A. H. Horton and the firm of Guthrie & <Brown 
to defend him. 

The governor appointed John Francis as treasurer. Thus was Mr. Francis called 
upon the second time to fill vacancies caused by defaulting treasurers, the first being 
Josiah E. Hayes in 1874. Each time he restored order and public confidence, as was 
attested by his nomination by acclamation in the Republican convention of August, 1876, 
and his election for three successive terms, serving until January, 1883. Mr. Francis 
had been a candidate for the nomination in the convention of August 26, 1874, against 
Lappin, who received the nomination. A bolting faction of this convention tendered 
to Mr. Francis the nomination as treasurer on a reform ticket, which he declined. De- 
cember 30 the treasury was turned over to Mr. Francis. 

Civil and criminal suits were begun, charging Lappin with forgery, counterfeiting and 
embezzlement. On December 31 he was allowed to go to Seneca, in charge of a deputy, 
to arrange for bond. Jacob Smith went on his bond, and then Lappin left for Chicago. 
In the meantime he was found to be short $830 in his cash account, and the governor 
ordered his arrest, which was made by sheriff E. S. W. Drought, of Wyandotte county, in 
Chicago, January 13. They arrived in Topeka January 15, and Lappin was lodged in 
jail January 18, with bond placed at $15,000, which he could not secure. His accomplice, 
Charles G. Scrafford, of Seneca, who was his brother-in-law and business partner, left 
December 13 and fied to Peru. Their conspiracy to defraud the state dated from about 
August 1, 1875. 

Lappin attempted to escape from jail on the night of June 10, 1876, through the aid 
of an ex-prisoner, Bob Odell, but was caught in the act of crawling through a hole in the 
floor of his cell — a difficult feat considering his weight, which was 235 pounds. On July 
11 he succeeded in escaping through the window, again assisted by Odell and another 
colored man. "Filibuster" Stanley, whom Lappin had employed as a treasury guard, was 
■waiting with a two-horse team and spring wagon. They traveled by night until in 
Nebraska, part of the time Lappin lying on the bed of the wagon covered by a tarpaulin. 
This Walter Stanley had been in the United States army in 1856, and a captain in 
Walker's filibustering expedition in Nicaragua, thus earning his nickname. He had also 
served in the Civil War. 

The route taken by the fugitives was through Nebraska to Sioux City, Iowa ; then to 
Duluth, where they took boat for Samia, Canada ; then to Quebec, and from there to. 

A History of the Kansas School Fund. 211 

Experience teaches a dear lesson, and is commendable if its cost is not 
too great. The people are never willing to see the public money appro- 
priated to private purposes virithout a protest. Accordingly, an issue of the 
campaign of 1877 vpas the security of the public money The commissioners 
of the school fund were attacked by a most scurrilous press and charged 
with being negligent in their business relation with the school fund. John 

Portland, Me., by rail. From Portland they took steamer to New York where they sailed 
for Aspinwall, August 14, 1876. They were joined at Callao, Peru, by Scrafford who 
had earned his passage from New York to South America, working as a stoker, starting 
with only eighty cents in his pocket. Later Lappin and Scrafford quarreled and did not 
speak for several years. 

Lappin, escaping arrest with Scrafford at Callao in 1877, went to Central America and 
to Brazil in 1879. He arrived in Boston January 3, 1880, where he took an agency to sell 
books and maps in southern states. Then he sold rubber goods for a Philadelphia house, 
traveling about on foot and in ill health. He had been in nearly every state, and attended 
the Cincinnati Exposition in 1882. He had seen many Kansans who recognized him In 
South America he met General Caldwell, United States minister to Argentine Republic 
He visited his two daughters in Chicago, but he had not seen his wife since his escape froni 
the state, and much of the time had not known where she was. (Eugene Ware said that 
Mrs. Lappin had sold most of their belongings to raise money to send him, and that she 
lived in poverty in Chicago, supporting herself and one child with her needle and a 
washtub.) The other daughter, Ella, was employed in the mailing department of the 
Commonwealth. The son, Grover, had left home soon after the father's disgrace, drifting 
from bad to worse, and at the time of Lappin's return was in the penitentiary, sent from 
Emporia for robbery of a post office. 

From Chicago Lappin went to Texas, then to Los Angeles, San Francisco, Portland, 
Victoria and Tacoma, where he met Jacob Wiesbach, a Kansan, who informed upon him. 
He had b.ien selling books and magazines under the name of S. J. Campbell. He was 
brought back by the sheriff of Tacoma, arriving in Topeka October 23, 1884, and was 
lodged in jail. 

Governor Click employed Thomas P. Fenlon to assist Attorney-general Bradford in the 
prosecution. Mr. Fenlon's charge for services was $1000. To provide for payment of this 
and other expenses of procuring evidence, the governor applied to the ways and means 
committee of the legislature of 1885 for an appropriation of $2000, which was not made, 
discussion indicating that the committee believed the case could not be continued. So 
when Lappin appeared in court December 23, 1885, Attorney-general Bradford entered a 
nolle prosequi on the grounds that the forged bonds were missing, witnesses scattered, 
some of them dead ; that the state had been fully reimbursed for the loss ; that there was 
no chance for conviction, and that Lappin had been sufficiently punished. The case was 
dismissed December 24, 1885. Lappin returned to Seneca, where he was joined by his 
wife. There he was loaned about $1000 by Scrafford and other friends, also given letters 
of credit, enabling him to open a store in Lenora, Norton county, in 1886. He proved 
unfaithful to his friends, putting all business in his wife's name. "They compelled him to 
sign notes to protect them, which he did by forging his wife's name. The store was 
burned and creditors sued for the insurance money. Eugene F. Ware was attorney in 
the case of German Fire Insurance v. T. B. Bullene et al., and characterized Lappin as a 
Kansas derelict. According to the attorney-general, Lappin had the following aliases : 
S. Whitcomb, Thomas Manford, Mrs. Thomas Manford, Richard Milner, J. S. Kirby, and 
David J. Parkhurst. 

His next venture was at La Centre, Wash., where he conducted a business in the 
name of a son-in-law, at whose house he died, August 4, 1892, aged sixty-one, his death 
being caused by hemorrhage of the lungs. 

In the archives department of the State Historical Society is a most interesting file of 
original and copied executive correspondence, December 11, 1875, to December 24, 1885, 
\^ich includes the blue-ribboned letters of Wm. H. Evarts, State Department, Washing- 
ton ; the United States Minister to Peru, Peruvian Minister of Foreign Affairs, Governors 
Osborn, Anthony, St. John, Click and Martin ; five attorneys-general, from A. M. F. 
Randolph to S. B. Bradford ; the Kansas congressional delegation ; lawyers, detectives and 
informers ; a petition from Nemaha county friends of Scrafford, asking the governor not 
to issue a requisition, which was followed by a letter from Edwin Knowles, of Seneca, who 
declared "the petition did not reflect the views of Nemaha county. This county fur- 
nished the state with a thief for treasurer and a brother-in-law to assist him in his dis- 
honesty, and this is enough without our now trying to screen them from punishment." 

The file also includes a letter from the city marshal of Evansville, Ind., dated December 
18, 1877, saying he had in custody Robert Odell, who wanted to return to Kansas and 
give evidence about Lappin who, he affirmed, was helped to escape through friends who 
were well paid for it, and with full knowledge of the sheriff. The marshal asked if there 
was a bounty for the return of Odell. The reply to him from the governor's secretary is 
quoted : "In answer to your letter about Odell, I have to say : that, he is not wanted in 
Kansas ; no bounty is offered for him ; nobody has a desire to offer a bounty for him. 
Keep him on the rock pile ; keep him from Kansas. Do what you will with him, but 
protect us from his presence if possible." 

One S. C. Gregory wrote from Callao to the governor May 20, 1877, that Lappin and 
Scrafford were there under assumed names, and desired to be commissioned to arrest 
them, asking about the reward. The governor informed him that the reward was $1000 
for arrest and delivery of both at Topeka, or $500 for either; or $500 for arrest and 
delivery of both to the United States consul at Callao, or $250 for either. The governor 
forwarded to the State Department all the papers required for extradition, but before they 

212 Kansas State Historical Society. 

Francis/'i who had taken charge of the treasury since the Lappin affair, 
was elected treasurer upon the issue of the security of the public money, 
while public interest was such as to stimulate legislation upon the subject. 

By an act of March 4, 1876, the state auditor had been made ex-officio 
register of the state land office. Acting in this capacity, he was to keep 
and preserve all records complete, showing the accurate chain of title from 
the government to the purchaser, along with all correspondence with any 
department of the general government. In relation to the state lands, 
separate tract books were to be kept for the University, the Saline lards, 
the half-million-acre grant, the 16 and 36 sections and lands in lieu of the 
same for common schools. 

When the legislature met two bills were passed which were intended to 

reached Callao the men had fled. Lappin escaped, but Scrafford was arrested in the north 
of Peru by Gregory, who had trailed him across the Andes with a guide to talk to the 
natives, and landed him in jail at Callao, October, 1877, after a hand-to-hand scuffle in 
which Scrafford pushed Gregory overboard from a Pacific steamer. Gregory came to 
Washington and to Kansas to claim his reward, June 1, 1878. 

The vice consul of the United States at Callao was about to return home, and in his 
■custody Scrafford was started back in handcuffs, but at Panama was released by that 
^government on a claim that person could not be held under arrest whilst in transit 
between two countries in rn intervening one having no treaty obligations with the others 
to surrender fugitives. The United States protested against this meddling, demanding 
rearrest, but Scrafford, finding himself free, voluntaiily returned home. He had been 
provided at Callao, by order of the United States consul, with warm clothing and extra 
iood, as he was in almoist a starving condition. The vice consul presented a bill to the 
state of $1022 for his services, but was allowed $518, deduction being made for his own 
passage and expenses, on the ground that he was making the voyage home anyway. 

There are also letters from Scrafford, in jail at Callao, to the United States minister, 
•complaining of ill treatment (1877), and from St. Louis to the governor, dated July 27, 
1878, saying he would return to Topeka July 30 to meet all charges, expecting Nemaha 
county friends to sign his bond, and hoped for a speedy trial, adding that he was tired 
of bearing other men's sins. He returned July 30, surrendered to the sheriff, and was 
released on bond given by Nemaha men and others, including Sol Miller. On November 
22, 1878, the sale of the property of Lappin and Scrafford yielded about $20,000, or more 
than enough to satisfy the state's claim. 

On December 19, 1878, Serafford's trial was called. It lasted seventeen days, when a 
verdict of guilty was returned. He was granted a new trial, which began July 11, 1879, 
and on July 25 he was acquitted. He returned to Seneca, where his subsequent career 
justified the trust placed in him by his friends. 

Note 61. — John Francis, who has had the unique distinction of being called at two 
different times to take hold of the state treasury in days of chaos, and establish order, 
resides on a farm in Allen county, and on the 23d day of February, 1912, celebrated his 
golden wedding. Mr. Francis was born in Norfolk, England, April 24, 1837. By the 
death of his father, John Francis, he was left at two years of age to the care of his 
mother, whose maiden name was Sarah Kitteringham. She was a woman of much energy 
and unusual strength of character, and under her hand he was educated and brought to 
his majority, in the meantime doing what he could toward his own support. Having 
acquired a taste for lefding, he knew all about the free-soil contest in Kansas, and in 
August, 1858, he left England, coming direct to Kansas, remaining at Osawatomie for a 
time and mixing with the friends and followers of John Brown. In March, 1859, he 
filed on a claim in Alien county, which he afterwards entered, and which is within a mile 
of his present home. In July, 1861, he enlisted in the Third Kansas, Col. James Mont- 
gomery commanding. In the spring of 1862 the company to which he belonged was 
transferred to the Fifth Kansas, where it was known as company D. He was mustered 
out in November, 1863, on account of disabilities contracted in the line of duty. He 
returned to Allen county and was elected county clerk, and reelected in 1865, during which 
time he read law. He also held, under appointment of the late Judge D. M. Valentine, 
then judge of the fourth district, the office of clerk of the district court, and at the 
expiration of his appointive teim was elected to the office, which he resigned in 1868. 
In November, 1867, he was elected county treasurer, and reelected in 1869. From 1869 to 
1877 he engaged in merchandising at lola. May 1, 1874, he was appointed state ti-easurer 
by Governor Osborn, and served until January 12, 1875. December 25, 1875, he was 
again appointed, this time followed by thi-ee elections, November 1876, November 1878, 
and November 1880. In his message to the legislature of 1876 Governor Osborn said : 
"For the second time during my incumbency of the executive office Hon. John Francis was 
invited to assume the arduous and responsible duties of state treasurer, and his accep- 
tance is a sufficient guaranty to the people that those duties will be honorably dis- 
charged." February 23, 1862, he was married to Lodeska Coffield, whose parents came to 
Allen county in 1860 from Indiana, of which state she is a native. Mr. Francis repre- 
sented Allen county in the legislatures of 1899, 1901 and 1903. In 1899 he was chairman 
of the committee on state affairs and a member of the ways and means committee, and in 
the sessions of 1901 and 1903 he was chairman of the ways and means committee. For 
the year 1901 he was president of the Kansas State Historical Society, having been a 
member since its organization. 

A History of the Kansas School Fund. 213 

place a check upon the dishonest actions of unscrupulous officers and give 
greater security to the public money. March 3, 1877, a bill was passed re- 
quiring the payment of the principal or interest on school bonds to be made 
at the treasurer's office, thus removing the opportunity for such frauds as 
those perpetrated by the former state treasurer. On the next day a bill 
was signed which made it necessary for all bonds purchased by the school- 
fund commissioners to be registered by the state auditor before they should 
be deposited with the state treasurer. ^2 By this bill the danger of fraud by 
the dishonesty of any one man was eliminated and the school fund rendered 
more secure. 

In his report of 1880 State Superintendent Lemmon presented to the 
legislature a bill that would have formed a more economical system for the 
management of the school land. According to law, the land should be ap- 
praised every three years, the cost of which should be deducted from the 
sales of the land. The appraisers were men appointed for that purpose 
from the county in which the land to be appraised was located. The result 
was that neighborly feeling and logrolling had full play in the process. The 
school land often sold at far less than it was really worth. 

Governor St. John, in his message of 1879, recommended that the sale 
and management of all school lands of the state, including the lands of the 
Agricultural College, State Normal, State University and common schools, 
be concentrated under one general head, to be known as the state land de- 
partment. He renewed this recommendation the following year in a mes- 
sage which received the support of the other state officers. The state su- 
perintendent, in his report of l!-80, showed that the expense for the sales 
and collection on school lands for that year had been $15,681.57. He also 
gave illustrations of a land department as established in Iowa, Wisconsin, 
Minnesota and other states, and showed that such a department could be 
maintained for $7000 a year, thus saving to the school fund a considerable 
sum. 63 Moreover, the appraisement of the land would be more nearly cor- 
rect if made by those who were interested in the school fund, rather than 
in the individual who procured the land. The unfairness of the appraise- 
ment as it had been made was clearly shown by the difference in the ap- 
praisement of railroad land and that of the school land. Thus far the price 
of school land had been about 25 per cent less than the railroad lands, not- 
withstanding that the rate of interest was lower and the time longer on 
the sales of school lands. The superintendent submitted a bill providing 
for a state land department as it existed in Iowa, but the senate moved a 
substitute, which was finally dropped."" This negligence on the part of the 
state legislature has doubtless cost the state 20 per cent of the receipts 
from the sales of school lands made since that time. 

The investment of the school fund wasat first limited to state and United 
States bonds. When it was found impossible to invest the funds in these 
bonds the legislature passed an act extending the power of the commission- 
ers so that they might invest in school-district bonds. The funds were in- 
vested exclusively in these bonds, except in cases provided for by special 
legislation. The value of state and United States bonds increased until they 
could only be bought at a premium, which would dimini sh the school fun d. 

Note 62. — Laws of 1877, chap. 72. 

Note 63. — ^Report of Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1880. 

Note 64.— Senate Journal, 1881, p. 696. 

214 Kansas State Historical Society. 

The districts of the state, it was estimated, would never use more than 
three miUion dollars at any one time, while ^^ the school funds would ulti- 
mately be several times that amount. 

By the end of the year 1882 the aggregate amount of the school fund was 
$2,592,854.35. Of this amount, $607,925 was invested in state bonds, $1,410,- 
269.23 in school-district bonds, $390,000 in United States bonds, $100,000 in 
Lawrence University bonds, while over $80,000 lay in the state treasury not 
drawing a cent of interest."" Over $100,000 of the bonds fell due the 1st of 
January, and these were immediately paid. 

Governor Glick, in his message of January 9, 1883, called the attention 
of the legislature to the fact that there was $187,769.95 of the permanent 
school fund in the treasury uninvested, and probably would remain so un- 
less proper legislation was had extending the power of the commissioners 
so that they could invest in other bonds than those to which they were then 
limited. He recommended that they add county bonds to the three already 
named. "^ The senate referred this part of the governor's message to the 
proper committee, which returned a bill extending the powers of the com- 
missioners to invest in "first mortgages on improved real estate, not ex- 
ceeding one-third its value, at six per cent interest, and in city school-, 
district bonds or in township bonds." The bill passed the senate and was 
sent to the house, where another was substituted for it, extending the 
powers of the commissioners so as to invest in "bridge, courthouse bonds, 
. . . county, township or city refunding bonds of the several counties, 
township and cities of the state of Kansas." The substitute bill was ac- 
cepted by the senate and signed by the governor March 5, 1883. "« 

However, the commissioners were prohibited from investing in bonds 
which, together with the other outstanding indebtedness, should exceed ten 
per cent of the assessed valuation. The superintendents in their various 
reports called the attention of the legislature to the fact that this clause 
practically prohibited the commissioners from investing in county, town- 
ship and city bonds. The state superintendent recommended in 1903 that 
the legislature pass a bill partially removing this restriction, which it did 
by amending the act of March 9. 1883, so as to raise the limit of outstand- 
ing indebtedness of any county, township or city in which the commission- 
ers might invest the school fund to fifteen per cent of the assessed valua- 

In addition to the losses previously cited, there has been considerable loss 
caused by the defaulting of county treasurers. By the law authorizing the 
sale of the land, the money accruing from the sales should be paid to the 
treasurer of the county in which the land was located. The county treas- 
urer should turn the money over to the state treasurer after deducting the 
expenses incurred in effecting the sale. This law provided that the county 
treasurer should remit annually. In a great many cases this was not done. 
The state superintendents have frequently protested against the negligence 
of the county treasurers to report the sales of public lands. These treas- 
urers can apply the proceeds of the sales to their own private use, and, 

Note 65. — Over five million is invested in these bonds now. 

Note 66. — Biennial Report Attorney-general, 1881-'82, p. 34. 

Note 67. — Governor's Message, January 9, 1883, p. 7. 

Note 68.— Laws of 1883, chap. 143. Note 69.— Laws of 1903, chap. 73. 

A History of the Kansas School Fund. 215 

owing to the negligence which characterizes the management of the school 
fund, can go out of office, thus releasing their bondsmen, and after three 
years are themselves released by the statute of limitation from any obliga- 
tion to remit. The total loss to the school fund by this means can only be 
approximated. In the late seventies the state auditor threw out accounts 
amounting to $37,000, which may without question be considered as lost. 
The old system, however, continues, with very similar results. At the 
present time, by the books of the state auditor, about $70,000 of the school 
fund is barred by the statute of limitation. Of this sum no doubt part will 
be paid, but it is safe to say that the state will lose one-half of this amount, 
which will increase the loss caused by the embezzlement of county treas- 
urers to over $70,000. 

The management of the school land and the proceeds derived from its 
sale has been extravagant and unbusinesslike. The first mistake was in 
providing for the sale of land at a time when there was little demand for it. 
It is never good policy to keep a large tract of land exempt from settle- 
ment when it is needed by the people of the state for homes; but there 
were large tracts of other land in the state open to settlement, offered in 
competition with the school land. The land could have been leased for a 
term of years and the rent applied to the annual school fund. As has been 
shown by later experience, this would have yielded a better income, and at 
the same time given the permanent fund the benefit of the increase in the 
value of the land. The state received over 2,800,000 acres of land for 
school purposes, which under proper management would easily have brought 
$20,000,000. However, all of this, except about 675,000 acres located in the 
western part of the state, has been sold, and the permanent school fund 
amounts to a little over $8,000,000, of which the sale of school land has 
yielded less than $6,000,000. ""> 

When the sale of the school land was provided for, a more economical and 
businesslike method of disposal should have been adopted. This might have 
been effected by the establishment of a land department, as established in 
other states. In Iowa, Minnesota and Wisconsin such a department was 
created and proved to be very satisfactory. Such a course would have been 
more economical, in that it could have been maintained for about one-half 
the expense incurred under the present system. ^^ It would have been more' 
businesslike, in that there would be a proper officer who would be responsi- 
ble for the conduct of that department, and whose interest would be to 
secure the best returns from the sale of school lands in the state. 

However, the legislature has been negligent and dilatory in its relation 
to the school fund. At the present session (1905) the bill providing for the 
management of the school fund was dropped, and ten days spent in discuss- 
ing the bill to establish an experiment station for destroying obnoxious 
insects. Such negligence has doubtless deprived the permanent school fund 
of half its principal and the annual fund of an equal portion of its income. 
The total income from the rent of school lands and the interest upon the 
bonds of the permanent school fund amounted to about a half million dol- 
lars for the year ending June 30, 1904. This income is perpetual. Great 

Note 70.— A recapitulation of the sale of school lands is given in the appendix of this 
paper, table "B." 

Note 71. — The land department in Iowa is supported at an annual expense of $7000, 
•while Kansas has paid as high as $15,000 under the present system. 

216 Kansas State Historical Society. 

care should be taken to preserve the principal entire, that future genera- 
tions may enjoy its benefit. 

No subject more imperatively demands legislation than the school-land 
law. The present procedure by w^hich the sale of school land is effected is 
very unsatisfactory. Resulting, as it has, from the tinkering and patch- 
work of forty years of disjointed legislation, it is cumbersome, impractical 
and expensive. The methods are unwieldy and complex, and there are in- 
stances where the entire proceeds of the sale have been consumed in ap- 
praisers', officers', printers' and witnesses' fees — all provided for and 
warranted by law. There is still a considerable amount of land unsold, 
which with proper precautions and management could be disposed of at a 
price that would increase the principal of the permanent school fund to a 
total of $10,000,000. However, the practice has grown up by which all 
school lands are invariably appraised and generally sold for the minimum 
price of $1.25 an acre, as established by the law of 1901, a'though adjacent 
lands of private owners, no more valuable, readily command their $3, $5, $10, 
and in some instances even if20 an acre. There is no doubt that the best 
interests of the school fund would be conserved by committing the matters of 
fixing prices to a school-land commissioner, with power to visit all lands, 
and, on actual view and comparison with adjacent lands, to set a price at 
which each tract shall be offered, and with authority, subject to proper 
regulations, to make sales and terms. That such a plan will ever be 
adopted is very improbable, but at least an attempt should be made to se- 
cure better protection for the school fund and more businesslike methods in 
its management. 

Table A. 

Amount received from the five- per-cent fund on sale of lands. 

Year ending Amount. 

Jun. 30, 1867-'77 $190,268 27 

1878 2,443 52 


1880 3,082 96 

1881 4,155 80 

1882 73,122 72 

1883 2^1,074 36 

1884 43, 137 49 

1885 26,636 22 

1886 35,226 97 



1889 159,749 92 

1890 253,550 17 

1891 181,99123 



1894 6,545 81 

1895 1,194 94 

1896 500 48 

1897 123 96 


1899 • 105 72 

1900 76 96 

1901 135 09 

1902 231 74 

1903 520 47 

Total $1,182,874 

A History of the Kansas School Fund. 217 

Table B. 
Recapitulation of school lands fatented. 

Year ending Acres. Amount of sale. 

Jan. 1, 1865 523 $1,855 00 

1866 2,499 13,809 70 

1867 4,234 21,624 55 

1868 6,624 30,817 60 

1869 10,183 46,996 71 

1870 9,680 49,276 84 

1871 15,037 57,834 87 

1872 21,816 92,94120 

1873 19,911 86,945 47 

1874.... 22,044 85,50175 

1875 21,119 89,251 15 

1876 24.787 108,30149 

1877-'78 56,756 226,309 00 

1879-'80 117,557 448,010 12 

188l-'82 117,989.88 445,852 90 

1883-'84 103,017.09 381,302 46 

1885-'86 177.569 613.940 91 

1887-'88 286,034.44 969,643 57 

Jun. 30, 1888-'89 72,701.27 249,435 49 

1889-'90 44,166.71 155,189 61 

1890-'91 26,305.50 98,457 52 

1891-'92 27,476.64 95,146 12 

1892-'93 38,822.09 130,766 8^ 

1893-'94 17,686 60,80185 

1894-'95 13,980.75 50,148 86 

1895-'96 17.717.69 56.159 54 

1897-'98 46.401.21 167,344 14 

1899-1900 80.747.33 292,0.=S1 80 

1901-'02 120,562.40 408.925 22 

1903-'04 143,882.82 422,115 44 

Totals 1,666,202.82 $5,956,758 41 


Prehistoric Kansas. 


By James Newton Baskett,' of Mexico, Mo. 
TT IS well known that in the year 15^0 Coronado led an army from Mexico 
J- to the Santa Fe region of the valley of the Rio Grande. He had gone in 
search of wealthy villages of which Cabeza de Vaca had heard in his wan- 
derings and concerning which he had many mysterious things to say after 
he arrived in New Spain. These villages had later been investigated by 
Marcos de Niza, and he made such a glorious report that the viceroy, Men- 
doza, determined to send an army to conquer the rich realm, which was 
called "The Seven Cities of Cibola." 

It has been established that this army encountered the first pueblo at 
-what is now the site of Old Zuni, passed on by "the rock of Acoma," and 
wintered on the Rio Grande at a pueblo which the chroniclers of the expe- 
dition called Tiguex — with variations of spelling. By its location with ref- 
erence to the mesa, Acoma, the Sandia range of mountains and to certain 
villages in these hills, and from many later historical statements, the site 
of this village has been convincingly located by Bandelier, Hodge and others 
at the ruins of an old pueblo near the modern town of Bernalillo. 

Note 1. — Though a Missourian, Mr. Baskett was born a Kentuckian, in Nicholas 
county, November 1, 1849, and came to Audrain county, Missouri, when he was eight 
■years old. Here, at Mexico, he has lived most of his life. He was graduated Ph.B. from 
the Missouri University in 1872, and subsequently, in acknowledgment of his work, was 
given the degree of A. M. by his Alma Mater. He began life as a surveyor and engineer, 
but, incurring pulmonary trouble through field exposure, he went to Colorado in 1879, 
■where, after three years spent in the open in the midst of nature, he recovered. 

Having been aroused by the many new forms of plant and animal life found west of 
the plains, he began certain studies, which resulted in his becoming a contributor to va- 
rious journals in attempts to popularize natural history, and, returning to Missouri in 
1881, he drifted into a literary career. In 1896 Dr. William T. Harris, then ' United 
States commissioner of education, undertook to edit for the Appletons a home-reading 
■series of books, and asked Mr. Baskett to write the initial volume. The result was "The 
:Story of the Birds." Subsequently "The Story of the Fishes" and the "Story of the 
Amphibians and Reptiles" followed in the same series, the latter in collaboration with 
Dr. R. L. Ditmars, then the curator of reptiles in the Bronx Zoological Gardens at New 

Previously, 1893, Mr. Baskett was solicited to read a paper before the World's Congress 
of Ornithologists, at the Columbian Exposition of Chicago, on "Some Hints of the Kin- 
ship of Birds as Shown by Their Eggs." This was then, perhaps, the most extensive 
review of the topic in America, and attracted the attention of Dr. Elliott Coues, forming 
the basis of a lasting friendship with that great ornithologist and historian. On his 
commendation, the Macmillan Company, of New York and London, asked Mr. Baskett to 
write a nature book, and to thread a light story through it which would hold the reader s 
interest ; but when it was submitted the house informed the author that he had written 
a novel, and, as such, they would publish it. So Mr. Baskett found himself suddenly in a 
new realm, as the author of a piece of romance, which he scarcely designed as such. 
The result was "At You-All's House: A Missouri Nature Story"— a compound of didac- 
ticism and sentiment which had the virtues and frailties of its pecuhar_ origin. Its 
literary success, however, both in America and England, was marked, giving a new 
name and habitation to the "Show-me" state, and was one of the pioneer books to call 
attention to the wealth of local interest which may cling about the rural life of the Middle 
"West generally. Subsequently "As the Light Led" came from the same house, the theme 


220 Kansas State Historical Society. 

Coronado found the villages disappointing— not by any means another 
Mexico— and he was concerned about anything beyond them which promised 
greater wealth. While he was yet at the first village of Cibola, the Zuni pueblo 
of Hawikuh, there came to meet him, from a town twenty-five leagues be- 
yond the Rio Grande, a deputation of Indians that had with it a hide of the 
bison and a man with a picture of the animal tattooed upon his skin. The 
Spaniards wondered at the queer sort of cow,2 and began to desire to see not 
only these animals, but also the great plains beyond the Rio Grande, on 
which these Indians said that the herds ranged. Thus the snarly, woolly 
cow became one of the factors in bringing Coronado to Texas and to the 
valley of the Missouri; and it was solely by subsisting on the flesh of this 
animal that he was able to go to these regions and return. To be certain, 

based on the denominational debates which were so frequent and acrimonious a fourth of 
a century or more apro. Later still the W.. A. Wilde Company, of Boston, asked for a 
story similar to "At You-All's House," and Mr. Baskett wrote for them "Sweetbrier and 
Thistledown," which is in a certain sense a sequel to the former story, but of independent 
plot. It is a study of the uplifting influences which nature and rural life may have upon 
the character of a city-reared girl, and has, desi.c:nedly, at the request of the publishers, 
much nature study in a populpr fcim woven in with the stciy. 

Some years later Mr. Baskett, noting what he thought to be many inconsistencies and 
errors in the tracing of the routes of the old Spanish explorers of the Southwest, began a 
detailed and systematic study of these from every point of view which he could obtain, 
but especially from thpt of topography. To this end he went over the originals of the 
narratives, and found that the usual renderings did not always conform to the situations, 
and were sometimes set> forth in the light of prejudged conceptions. What is so far the 
most elaborate and detailed study of the route of Cabeza de Vaca from the eastern Texas- 
Gulf coast to Sonora was published by him in the Historical Quarterly of that state, in 
the issues of January and April, 1907, with the help and commendation of the then 
editor. Dr. George P. Garrison, and of the scientific staff of the faculty of the State 
University. The germ of the article was first presented in an address to the Missouri 
Historical Society at St. Louis, of which Mr. Baskett is an honorary member. 

Previous to this he had written a manuscript book on the entire route and various 
features of the Coronado expedition, from Mexico to Quivira ; but failing to interest any 
publisher in the same, he had thrown it aside. Later, however, he was invited to read a 
historical paper on a topic of his own choosing before the Mississippi Valley Historical 
Society, when it met in St. Louis, and he made an address on the theme, "Did Coronado 
Reach the Missouri ?" — claiming that he did not. Subsequent study of this matter con- 
vinced him that, with the exception of Hodge and Richey and a few Kansas students, a 
proper conception of the route from the Rio Grande to Quivira had not even been formed, 
many historians placing the latter place either north of the Platte or east of the Missouri 
river. Hence arose the study of the route of Coronado across the plains, to "the end" of 
which, the explorer says, he never came ; and its presentation occurs in the accompanying 
paper, in which the author has gone into every detail from every point of view which he 
has been able to command, giving the results of many years of investigation. 

Mr. Baskett hqs been connected with various scientific, historical and literary societies 
of the country, such as the American Association for the Advancement of Science, 
American Ornithologist's Union, Washington Biological Society, National Geographic 
Society, and many state historical societies. He is a frequent lecturer on the topics of 
his studies, especially those connected with birds, and he also is a regular contributor to 
sundry periodicals on various nature topics. His permanent address is Mexico, Mo., 
though he is now resident in St. Louis. — Secretary. 

Note 2. — The "cows" were naturally a source of curiosity to the Spaniards, and this 
feeling was whetted by the crude pictures and descriptions of the animals made by the 
Indians. When Alarcon gained an entrance into the Gulf of California, in 1540, and 
thence into the Colorado river, the Indians whom he met described the "cows" as follows: 

"The Indian was asked about the leather shields, and in. reply described a very great 
beast like an ox, but more than a hand longer, with broad feet, legs as big as a man's 
thigh, a head seven hands long, and the forehead three spans across. The eyes of the 
beast were larger than one's fist, and the horns as long as a man's leg, 'out of which 
grew sharp points an handful long, and the fore feet and hind feet about seven handfuls 
big.' The tail was large and bushy. To show how tall the animal was, the Indian 
stretched his arms above his head." — Bureau of Ethnology, Fourteenth Annual Report, 
Winship's Coronado, p. 405. 

To Coronado and his men the vast herds of buffalo were a cause of constant comment, 
as all the narratives of the expedition show. This marveling at numbers was true of a 
later day than Coronado's, and the following accounts will be of interest here: 

"Between the Rocky Mountains and the states lying along the Mississippi river on the 
west from Minnesota to Louisiana, the whole country was one vast buffalo range, in- 
habited by millions of buffaloes. One could fill a volume with the records of plainsmen 
and pioneers who penetrated or crossed that vast region between 1800 and 1870, and 
were in turn surprised, astounded, and frequently dismayed, by the tens of thousands of 
buffaloes they observed, avoided or escaped from. They lived and moved, as no other 
quadrupeds ever have, in great multitudes, like grand armies in review, covering scores 

A Study of the Route of Coronado. 221 

the general sent forward Captain Alvarado, with a picked squad, to tha 
plains past the homes of these visiting Indians, to investigate the wonderful 
beast and its equally wonderful habitat. 

On his way Alvarado passed the village of Tiguex, crossed the Rio 
Grande, vvound through the breaks and foothills of the Sandia mountains, 
and after four or five days from the river came to Cicuye,'^ the village of 
the visitors. From here Alvarado started to the plains where the cows 
were, and for a guide the Cicuyens gave to him an Indian prisoner, whom 
they had taken from some of the far southern or eastern tribes and were 
holding as a slave. Before they started from Cicuye this fellow— whom the 
Spaniards called " the Turk, " because he was brown and ' ' looked like one" — 
had told Alvarado that there were "large settlements" in his country and 
beyond; and after he had led the captain to the cows, he spoke of vast 
countries and rich cities further on. After going one hundred leagues down 
the first river which they encountered on their way to the plains, and meet- 

of square miles at once. They were so numerous they frequently stopped boats in the 
rivers, threatened to overwhelm travelers on the plains, and in later years derailed loco- 
motives and cars, until railway engineers learned by experience the wisdom of stopping 
their trains whenever there were buffaloes crossing the track. On this feature of the 
buffalo's life history a few detailed observations may be of value. 

"At my request Colonel Dodge has kindly furnished me a careful estimate upon which 
to base a calculation of the number of buffaloes in that great herd (a herd seen by 
Colonel Dodge in May, 1871), and the result is very interesting. In a private letter 
dated September 21, 1887, he writes as follows : 

" 'The great herd on the Arkansas through which I passed could not have averaged, at 
rest, over fifteen or twenty individuals to the acre, but was, from my own observation, 
not less than twenty-five miles wide, and, from reports of hunters and others, it was 
about five days in passing a given point, or not less' than fifty miles deep. From the 
top of Pawnee Rock I could see from six to ten miles in every direction. This whole 
vast space was covered with buffalo, looking at a distance like one compact mass, the 
visual angle not permitting the ground to be seen. I have seen such a sight a great 
number of times, but never on so large a scale. This was the last of the great herds.' 

"With these figures before us it is not difficult to make a calculation that will be some- 
where near the truth of the number of buffaloes actually seen in one day by Colonel 
Dodge on the Arkansas river during that memorable drive, and also of the number of 
head in the entire herd. 

"According to his recorded observation, the herd extended along the river for a 
distance of twenty-five miles, which was in reality the width of the vast procession that 
was moving north, and back from the road as far as the eye could reach, on both sides. 
It is making a low estimate to consider the extent of the visible ground at one mile on- 
either side. This gives a strip of country two miles wide by twenty-five long, or a total 
of fifty square miles, covered with buffalo, averaging from fifteen to twenty-five an 
acre. Taking the lesser number, in order to be below the truth rather than above it, we 
find that the number actually seen on that day by Colonel Dodge was in the neighborhood 
of 480,000, not counting the additional number taken in at that view from the top of 
Pawnee Rock, which, if added, would easily bring the total up to a round half million. 

"If the advancing multitudes had been at all points fifty miles in length (as it was 
known to have been in some places, at least) by twenty-five miles in width, and still 
averaged fifteen head to the acre of ground, it would have contained the enormous num- 
ber of 12,000,000 head. But, judging from the general principles governing such migra- 
tions, it is almost certain that the moving mass advanced in the shape of a wedge, which 
would make it necessary to deduct about two-thirds from the grand total, which would 
leave 4,000,000 as our estimate of the actual number of buffaloes in this great herd, which 
I believe is more likely to be below the truth than above it. 

"No wonder that the men of the West of those days, both white and red, thought it 
would be impossible to exterminate such a mighty multitude. The Indians of some tribes 
believed that the buffaloes issued from the ground continually, and that the supply was 
necessarily inexhaustible. And yet in four short years the southern herd was almost 
totally annihilated." — Extermination of the American Bison, pp. 388, 390-391. 

"Gen. P H. Sheridan and Maj. Henry Inman were occupying my office at Fort Dodge 
one night, having just made the trip from Fort Supply, and called me m to consult as to 
how many buffaloes there were between Dodge and Supply. Taking a strip fifty miles 
east and fifty miles west, they had first made it 10,000,000,000. Genera Sheridan said, 
'That won't do.' They figured it again, and made it 1,000,000,000. Finally they reached 
the conclusion that there must be 100,000,000, but said they wei;e afraid to give out these 
figures ; nevertheless they believed them. This vast herd moved slowly toward the north 
when spring opened, and moved steadily back from the far north when the days began to 
grow short and winter was setting in. „ , , . , ^, ^ ^ • * ti, ^^■„■^,;=^„ 

"Charles Rath and I shipped over 200,000 buffalo hides the first winter the Atchison, 

NOTE 3.— Bandelier has shown that Cicuye was near the modern village of Pecos, 
N. M. ; in fact, identifies it with Pecos. 

222 Kansas State Historical Society. 

ing great bison herds every day, Alvarado became so exercised about the 
new and wealthy region that he thought no more of "cows," but rushed 
back to tell Coronado of his good news. He found the army at Tiguex, 
where it had come and settled into winter quarters. He had brought the 
Turk back with him, and the Indian continued to tell wonderful things of 
the regions far beyond, often varying his story, and hinting at locations 
which ranged from the mouth of the Red river to that of the Platte. He 
so confused his hearers that his native country may be deduced from their 
varying statements as existing anywhere within these limits; but he espe- 
cially stressed a province, which he called "Quivira," as being rich in gold, 
and mentioned "Arche and Guaes" as being still richer. The story of the 
Turk, therefore, was the chief cause of the journey of Coronado to Texas 
and to the watershed of the Missouri. 

The Turk was too precious an asset to be allowed to escape; so the 
Spaniards determined to imprison him at Tiguex till spring, when they 
would start for Quivira. They did not treat him kindly, and provoked his 
animosity. Neither did they behave decently toward his old masters, the 
Cicuyens. In the hatred thus aroused in the Turk and the Cicuyens lay de- 
termining factors of the route which the army took later in the spring. As 
the Spaniards went by Cicuye they allowed the Turk to converse with his 
masters. He said later that the latter had promised him that if he would 
take this horde out on the desert plains and starve it, or confuse it so that 
it would be weakened, and therefore easily beaten and destroyed as it re- 
turned, he might have his liberty, so far as they were concerned. At least 
this was his confession when, a few months after, he felt the throttle 
tighten on the plains of Kansas. And it is in keeping with this story that 
the Cicuyens did make an attack on the army as it passed back by their vil- 
lage. That he so nearly succeeded, with well chosen means and skillful 
strategy, is another ground for trusting his statement. He had led them in 
a great detour "toward Florida, to the south," where one writer says he 
lived; and his last word was that one reason for leading them that way was 
that he wished to destroy them and because his country was in that direc- 
tion. The homesickness of the poor, brown captive, then, was another 
factor in the march of the army of Coronado into Texas. 

Beyond Cicuye four days, was a river. At about two days, going al- 
most directly away from the river, Coronado's men came to the plains; 
at four or five days they saw bison bulls ;^ and at two or three more 

Topeka & Santa Fe railroad reached Dodge City, and I think there were at least as many 
more shipped from there, besides 200 cars of hind quarters and two cars of buffalo tongues. 
Often have I shot them from the walls of my corral for my hogs to feed upon. Several 
times have I seen wagon trains stop to let the immense herds pass ; and time and time 
again, along in August or September, when putting up hay in the Arkansas bottom, 
would we have to put men out both night and day to keep them out of our herd of work 
cattle. We usually hunted them on horseback ; that is, we would single out one animal in 
a herd and ride along by the side of it and shoot it with a six-shooter. Sometimes we 
would kill several buffalo on a single run, but very few white men killed them wantonly." 
— Frontier Life in Southwest Kansas, by R. M. Wright, in Kansas Historical Collections, 
vol. 7, p. 78. 

"When in the West in 1872 I satisfied myself by personal nquiries that the number of 
buffalo then being slaughtered for their hides was at leaf^t 1,000,000 per annum. In the 
autumn of 1868, while crossing the plains on the Kansas Pacific railroad, for a distance 
of upwards of 120 miles, between Ellsworth and Sheridan, we passed through an almost 
unbroken herd of buffalo. The plains were black with them, and more than once the 
train had to stop to allow unusually large herds to pass." — Plains of the Great West, by 
Richard I. Dodge, p. xiv. 

Note 4. — The Turk had led Alvarado to "a river on the edge of the plains," which 
was plainly the one that passed near Cicuye. Then he came, in four days, to the cows- 

A Study of the Route of Coronado. 223 

days found bulls, cows and yearlings mixed. Among this latter they en- 
countered the first tribe of nomad Indians seen on the journey, which 
the chronicles call Querechos. These confirmed the Turk in mentioning 
great settlements toward sunrise, because he had so instructed them. 
Two days further he made a more direct turn eastward, or to the right; 
and here the Spaniards became skeptical and sent an exploring party 
east, because a free Quivira Indian, called Isopete or Ysopete, kept saying 
that they were leaving the way to the left. Here a soldier was lost on the 
very level plains, Cardenas fell from his horse, and the general rested a 
day, and on the next followed after the captain, Lopez, whom he had sent 
toward the rising sun the morning before. After reaching what Castaneda 
calls a "little river," he waited the return of Lopez, who met him and said 
that in twenty leagues he had seen nothing but cows and sky. 

From this point a certain Maldonado went "forward," and at the end of 
four days found another tribe of nomads, called Teyas, in a ravine, which 
was the first crack in the earth which they had seen in their travels; and 
here the army rested and explored the country. These Teyas did not con- 
firm the Turk about Quivira being east, but said it was forty days north on 
"no good road"— an Indian's good road meaning plenty of water, meat and 
wood on the way. 

When Coronado became sure that the Turk was treacherous, he de- 
termined here that he would take thirty picked men and go north, and that 
the main army should go back to Tiguex. Then they all went "forward" 
one day to another ravine, where the army camped and rested for a fort- 
night, and which had "good meadows" and "a little bit of a river" in it, 
and some trees. 

Taking guides from the Teyas— since Isopete, the Quivira, was so far 
out of the way that he did not know his way home — the general went north 
for about thirty days, when he came to a river with a great trend in it run- 
ning northeast. Because they first saw it on St. Peter and St. Paul's day, 
they gave it that name, but one called it the River of Quivira. Here Isopete 
first knew where he was by recognizing it. After crossing and going about 
three days down this northeast trend, three days more to the valley of 
another river, and five or six days more across six or seven tributaries of 
this second stream, passing as many settlements, they came to the end of 
Quivira, on a third yet greater river, and stood on the border of the other adja- 
cent provinces first mentioned by the Turk. After spending twenty-five days 
here in a vain search for wealth, Coronado started back to Tiguex by a 
more direct way, merely passing the edge of and recognizing the peculiar 
plains where he had nearly famished as he came out. He had strangled 
the Turk and left Isopete free in Quivira. As he had been guided to the 
river at the north by the Teyas, so now he was led homeward by Quiviras. 

In like manner the Teyas had led the army home from the desert ravine 
by a shorter way, going much of the distance up the same river which they 
had bridged and down which Alvarado had gone. The army reached Tiguex 
in July, and the general arrived sometime before the 20th of October. He 
wintered again at Tiguex, on the Rio Grande, and in the following spring 

on the plains. It seems quite probable that this was the extent of this journey away 
from this stream, since Alvarado went 400 leagues down it. But the Turk at once led 
Coronado away from this river, and though he bore back southward toward the last, he 
left the army at a place from which it took it many days to reach this river again as it 
went home, though it went the most direct route to it. 

224 Kansas State Historical Society. 

went home to Mexico— his whole expedition being a failure, from his view 


The chronicles of this journey of Coronado from the Rio Grande to Qui- 
vira are mostly to be found in part 1 of the Fourteenth Annual Report of 
the Bureau of Ethnology. The text and notes of Mr. George Parker Win- 
ship's excellent paper, published in that volume, present all the main facts 
connected with the entire expedition. Therefore, for convenience in the 
present discussion, reference to his paper is made solely by means of the 
page figures of the volume. Other sources will be mentioned distinctly. 

1. The chief chronicler was an old soldier known as Castaneda,^ who, 
though he says he wrote twenty years after, goes into much detail. He 
has made errors of statement, but they are such as are easily recognized. 
He went on the journey toward Quivira only as far as the Ravine where 
Coronado left the army, and he returned with it up the valley of the bridged 
river. In detail he is almost exclusively the narrator of this return journey 
by the shorter route. 

2. The next in giving details of the trip was a Captain Jaramillo,^ who 
also wrote his narrative twenty years after the events. He admits that hia 
memory is not always clear, but his narrative bears evidence of sincerity 
and observation. He was inclined specially to note the location of rivers 
and to indicate directions between points. In these latter he was often 
confused, as may be readily seen, but, on the whole, he was quite trust- 
worthy. He was a man of position and wide travel in the Old World. He 
went with the general to Quivira and return. 

3. The third chronicle in importance is called the Relation del Suceso,' 
and the name of the author is unknown. He appears to have been one of 
the most scientific men of the army. He notes the latitude of various 
places, and was given to brief general statements of apparent sincerity. 
He, so far as we know, was the only chronicler who went with Alvarado on 
his journey of one hundred leagues down the Cicuye river in search of "the 
cows." He, too, was with Coronado on the journey "to the end of Qui- 
vira," and is the only narrator who gives the distance which the western 
edge of that province was from the crossing of the St. Peter's and St. 
Paul's river, and how far the squad traveled through it till it came to an- 
other river at its eastern edge. In this discussion this account is referred 
to as "the Suceso. " 

4. The narrative known as "The Relation Postrera de Sivola''^ is like- 
wise by an unknown hand, and has little reference to this expedition. It 
contains the best brief description found in literature of the intimate rela- 
tions between the Indian and the bison, and it describes briefly the plains 
on which they are found. The author did not go on to Quivira, and a state- 
ment in his relation implies that he wrote it in the interval between the 

Note 5. — Relacion de la Jornada de Cibola compuesta por Pedro de Castaneda. 

Note 6. — Relacion hecha por el capitan Juan Jaramillo, de la Jornada que habia hecho 
a la tierra neuva en Neuva Espana y al descubrimiento de Cibola, yendo por general 
Francisco Vasquez Coronado. 

Note 7. — Relacion del Suceso de la Jornada que Francisco Vasquez hizo en la descu- 
brimiento de Cibola. 

Note 8. — Bandelier has attributed it to Fray Tovibio de Paredes, better known as 
Motolina. — H. 

224 Kansas State Historical Society. 

went home to Mexico— his whole expedition being a failure, from his view 


The chronicles of this journey of Coronado from the Rio Grande to Qui- 
vira are mostly to be found in part 1 of the Fourteenth Annual Report of 
the Bureau of Ethnology. The text and notes of Mr. George Parker Win- 
ship's excellent paper, published in that volume, present all the main facts 
connected with the entire expedition. Therefore, for convenience in the 
present discussion, reference to his paper is made solely by means of the 
page figures of the volume. Other sources will be mentioned distinctly. 

1. The chief chronicler was an old soldier known as Castaneda,^ who, 
though he says he wrote twenty years after, goes into much detail. He 
has made errors of statement, but they are such as are easily recognized. 
He went on the journey toward Quivira only as far as the Ravine where 
Coronado left the army, and he returned with it up the valley of the bridged 
river. In detail he is almost exclusively the narrator of this return journey 
by the shorter route. 

2. The next in giving details of the trip was a Captain Jaramillo,^ who 
also wrote his narrative twenty years after the events. He admits that hia 
memory is not always clear, but his narrative bears evidence of sincerity 
and observation. He was inclined specially to note the location of rivers 
and to indicate directions between points. In these latter he was often 
confused, as may be readily seen, but, on the whole, he was quite trust- 
worthy. He was a man of position and wide travel in the Old World. He 
went with the general to Quivira and return. 

3. The third chronicle in importance is called the Relation del Suceso,^ 
and the name of the author is unknown. He appears to have been one of 
the most scientific men of the army. He notes the latitude of various 
places, and was given to brief general statements of apparent sincerity. 
He, so far as we know, was the only chronicler who went with Alvarado on 
his journey of one hundred leagues down the Cicuye river in search of "the 
cows." He, too, was with Coronado on the journey "to the end of Qui- 
vira," and is the only narrator who gives the distance which the western 
edge of that province was from the crossing of the St. Peter's and St. 
Paul's river, and how far the squad traveled through it till it came to an- 
other river at its eastern edge. In this discussion this account is referred 
to as "the Suceso. " 

4. The narrative known as "The Relation Postrera de Sivola"^ is like- 
wise by an unknown hand, and has little reference to this expedition. It 
contains the best brief description found in literature of the intimate rela- 
tions between the Indian and the bison, and it describes briefly the plains 
on which they are found. The author did not go on to Quivira, and a state- 
ment in his relation implies that he wrote it in the interval between the 

Note 5. — Relacion de la Jornada de Cibola compuesta por Pedro de Castaneda. 

Note 6. — Relacion hecha por el capitan Juan Jaramillo, de la Jornada que habia hecho 
a la tierra neuva en Neuva Espana y al descubrimiento de Cibola, yendo por general 
Francisco Vasquez Coronado. 

jvlQrfg 7 — Relacion del Suceso de la Jornada que Francisco Vasquez hizo en la descu- 
brimiento de Cibola. 

Note 8. — Bandelier has attributed it to Fray Tovibio de Paredes, better known as 
Motolina. — H. 

















A Study of the Route of Coronado. 225 

army's return to Tiguex and Coronado's return there, since he states that 
it was not known at the time of writing whether the general had returned 
or not, 

5. The freshest chronicle of the whole journey across the plains is con- 
tained in the letter of October 20, 1541, which Coronado, shortly after his re- 
turn from Quivira, wrote from Tiguex to the king of Spain. » While this is not 
so detailed as the account of Castaileda, it is graphic and fairly complete, 
especially with reference to the journey out; and, so far as we can see, it 
is often more accurate than the other narratives, from which it sometimes 
differs. Its only blemish is a tone of complaint running all through it, along 
with a tendency to stress the hard luck of the expedition, in order to atone 
for the failure. There are hints of slight exaggeration at certain places, 
and the chronicle should be read in this light. 

6. Besides these more immediate chroniclers, there are at least three 
historians who wrote ambitiously of Mexico and of Spanish affairs generally 
in America, and who have related much incidentally concerning Coronado's 
expedition. They are Mota Padilla,io Gomara and Herrera. " They were 
not with Coronado, and must have had their information at second hand, 
but there is in their accounts much evidence of originahty and accuracy. 

7. In the writings of both Benavides and Zarate-Salmeron concerning the 
history of New Mexico may be found many statements bearing on the loca- 
tion, direction and distance of Quivira from the region of Santa Fe, but 
some of these are so evidently preposterous that they must all be used with 

The collation of all these accounts, in connection with the topography, 
and the hopes and animus of the Turk, should enable the student to approx- 
imate the position of the final camp of the main army at "the Ravme," 
and to determine the region of "the end of Quivira" reached by the gen- 
eral—along with something of his route thereto. 


Now that we know the cause, purpose and scope of the expedition to 
Quivira, we may note the stages and incidents of the way, as elements of 
our study. Briefly they are as follows: 

From Tiguex to Cicuye (or Pecos) ; thence to a river which the Span- 
iards called "the Cicuye," which ran down "from toward" that village; 
the tarrying here four days while the stream was bridged (only Castafieda's 
narrative mentions this, p. 504); the edge of the plains; among the first 
"cows"; to the first nomads, called Querechos; the point beyond these 
where the route changed to the right, or toward east, and where a soldier 
strayed and was lost, where Cardenas fell from his horse, where Lopez was 
sent forward one day toward sunrise in search of Haxa, mentioned by the 
Turk, and where the army rested at least one day; the journey thence to 
a "little river," where the horsemen heaped bisons in the ravines on ttie 
way (505); the waiting here for Lopez, and his return; the sending of 

j<[OTE 9. — Carta de Francisco Vasquez Coronado al Emperador, dandole cuenta de la 
€spedicion a la provincia de Quivira. . . . Desta provincia de Tiguex, 20 Octubre, 1541. 

Note 10. — Mota Padilla derived his information from papers of Tobar. 

Note 11. — Herrera's account is so palpably derived from that of Jaramillo as to be of 
little additional value. 


226 Kansas State Historical Society. 

Maldonado "forward four days"; the march of the army after him; "lost 
in these plains" (505 and 581); the finding of the Teyas in a ravine, which 
was the "first crack in the earth since they had left Tiguex" (504, note 3), 
where Cabeza de Vaca had passed (506); the side trip to the settlement of 
Cona; the final Ravine, where the army camped a fortnight; the revelation 
of Isopete, the native of Quiyira; the confirmation of his claims by the 
Teyas; the Turk's disgrace, and the general's departure for Quivira with a 
picked squad. 12 

The events on the main army's way home were: The many bisons killed; 
the journey back past the Teya camp; the vastness of the plains; the 
shorter route taken; the Teya guides holding their way by arrows shot; 
the many salt lakes passed; the entrance of the Cicuye valley, "more than 
thirty leagues" below the bridge; the statement of the Teyas that this 
stream ran into the Rio Grande at "more than twenty days," turning east- 
ward below; the Teya slave woman's escape; the passing of Cicuye; the 
threatened attack by these villagers, and the arrival at Tiguex in the mid- 
dle of July, twenty-five days from the Ravine. 

Of the general's journey to Quivira and return, the following are the 
main incidents: 

No mention of rivers on the way for thirty days; he reaches the St. 
Peter and St. Paul river on the day of these saints; on the way no wood 
except at the streams, and water scarce; good appearance of the country at 
the crossing; three days toward the northeast, on the north side of this 
stream, they meet some Quiyira hunters; three days more to their village; 
all Quivira villages found on small streams, running to another river with 
more water than the first; the western edge of Quivira settlement found at 
thirty leagues from the first crossing of the first river; the journey of 
twenty-five leagues through Quivira settlement; then passage of six or 
seven villages in five or six days; the coming to the end of Quivira on a 
still greater river, with Harahey (variously spelled) beyond; the twenty- 
five days spent here; the return over the same route to the former crossing 
of first river, and then home, going a more direct way to the right; the 
passing sufficiently near to the country of the Querechos to recognize it; 
the town of Cicuye passed, and Tiguex reached at last by October 20, 1541, 
when the general writes the king. 


If now we present a table giving the number of days, the number of 
leagues, and the direction of every important stage of the journey, we 
shall have in hand for ready reference all the material necessary for the 
discussion of the probable route by which this army went from the Rio 
Grande to the Ravine and Coronado's squad went on to Quivira— and back. 

For convenience in the use of this table, the stages of the journey have 
been lettered. The figures following the statements designate the pages of 
the Fourteenth Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology, 1892-'93, part 1, 
whereon the data cited may be found. 

Note 12. — In this connection it would be well to read all the descriptions of the plains. 
These are found in the Fourteenth Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology, part 1, 
pp 504 (note 3), 505, 506 (note 2), 508-510, 527, 641-543, 670, 571, 580, 681, and 589. 


A Study of the Route of Coronado. 227 


From Tiguex to Cicuye. 
Castafieda has it: Twenty-five leagues, as the army went (503, bot.); 
but five days as Alvarado went (490, bot.). 

Jaramillo: Four days for the main army. (587, bot.). 
Postrera: Perhaps four days. (570, tp.). 


From Cicuye to the River or Bridge. 

Castafieda: Four days, (504, mid.). Four days spent at bridge. 
Jaramillo: Three days. 

Suceso : Notes only that the river was on edge of plains, as Alvarado went. 
Postrera: Four days to plains; no river noted. 


From River to Plains. 

Castaheda: Thirty leagues from Cicuye to where the plains begin. 
(526, bot.) He makes it five plus four days from Tiguex to the River, and 
fifty-five leagues from Tiguex to edge of plains. See A, 

Coronado: Nine days from Tiguex he came to "some plains." (580, bot.) 
Before starting he had heard that these plains were eight days from Tiguex. 
This was probably the Indian rate. 

Jaramillo: "We . . . began to enter the plains, where the cows are," 
after crossing the river, implying a short interval between. (588, tp.) 

Suceso: [Alvarado] "proceeded to these plains, at the border of which 
he found a little river" (flowing southwest). 

Postrera: Four days from Cicuye (570, tp.) to "a country as level as 
the sea, [with] a multitude of cows." 

From, the River to the Cows. 
Postrera: See above. 

Suceso: Cows four days from the river as Alvarado went. (576, tp.) 
Jaramillo: Four or five days to bulls, and two or three days further to 
cows and bulls together. (588, tp.) 

Castafieda: Reached the Querechos in ten days, and had seen the cows 
for two days (504, mid.); it was more than forty leagues from where they 
began to see the bulls to where they began to see the cows (543, tp.). 

From the River to the First Querechos. 
Castafieda: Ten days. (504, mid.) 
Coronado: Seventeen days from Tiguex. (580, bot.) 
Jaramillo: "Among the first cows. " (588, tp.) See D. 
Postrera: "After many days. " 

Mota Padilla: Four foggy days to the tracks of these Indians, and then 
some more before overtaking them. (528, note 2.) 

228 Kansas State Historical Society. 


From the First Querechos to Bend in Route, Eastward. 

Castaneda: Two days "through other roaming Querechos." (504, hot.) 

Mota Padilla: Three days northeast, (504, note 3.) 

From Other Narratives: Those who mention this bend in the route speak 
of it as occurring at the first meeting of these Indians generally, or in the 
region of their camp. See Discussion. 


From the Querecho Bend to the Teya Ravine. 

Coronado: Five days. (581, tp.) 

Jaramillo: After more than twenty days (from Tiguex.) (588, hot.) 
^' Eight or ten days . . . along those streams" where the cows were. 
(588, mid.) 

Mota Padilla: Five days to first ravine seen. 

Castafieda: Implies that about eight days were consumed, with about 
three spent in resting, leaving five for travel. See Discussion. 

Suceso: Says army went one hundred leagues east [to bend?] and fifty 

south or southeast to final Ravine. Its only detail is that Cardenas fell 

two days before the halt of determination. Since Castaneda makes this 

happen two days after meeting the first Querechos, the final Ravine would 

be four days away, according to this. The Suceso is out of harmony with 

the others in having Cardenas fall only two days before, and is in probable 



From Teyas to Final Ravine. 

Jaramillo: One day. (589, tp.) 

Coronado: Does not speak of the army going beyond the Teya, or first 
Ravine. So, also, Mota Padilla. 

Suceso: Not over the two days noted in [G]. 

Castarieda: Is not clear. Has four days for Maldonado. Speaks much 
of the final Ravine. See Discussion. 


The Army's Entire March from the Ravine to Tiguex. 

Castafieda: Thirty-seven days coming out, and twenty-five going back 
by a more direct way, besides time consumed on latter route killing bisons. 
He gives two hundred and fifty leagues as the whole distance out, but does 
not say how many leagues it was by the shorter route home. (508, tp.) On 
return, he says the army struck the valley "more than thirty leagues be- 
low" the bridge. (509 tp.) 

Suceso: Also states it was necessary to hunt much on the way home 
(577, mid.), implying a slow rate. 

<J . 

From the Ravine North to River of Quivira. 

Castaneda: Forty-eight days (509, tp.) to [end of] Quivira. 

Jaramillo: More than thirty days on the way, and almost thirty days of 
travel (577, mid.). Reached St. Peter and St. Paul's river on day of these 
saints (which was June 29, 1541). [So. Herrera.] 

Suceso: "After proceeding many days by the needle, it pleased God that 

A Study of the Route of Coronado. 229 

after thirty days' march we found the River of Quivira, which is thirty 
leagues below the settlement." (577, mid.) 

Coronado: "I traveled forty- two days after I left the force 

Having journeyed across the deserts seventy-seven days, I arrived at the 
province they called Quivira." (581, 582.) 

Herrera: "Marching thirty days to the north, they began to see, on St. 
Peter and St. Paul's Day, a river," etc. 


From the First River to the End of Quivira. 

Jaramillo: Three days along the river to the hunters; three or four days 
to their camp, and four or five days past their settlements, of which there 
were six or seven. (589, 590.) 

Herrera: He does not note the distance to the villages, but says that 
they went five or six days through these, and came to the end of Quivira, 
where they found a river of more water and more population than the others. 
He adds that when asked what was beyond, the natives replied, "Nothing 
but Harahe. " (509, note.) 

Suceso: Thirty leagues to the "settlements" and twenty-five through 
them. (577.) 

Coronado: After deducting the thirty days, which the others name as the 
march from the Ravine to the river, from his forty-two, there would be left 
twelve days of travel beyond the river. (581, bot.) See Discussion. 

Castaneda: His forty-eight days for the whole journey would leave 
eighteen traveled beyond the river. It may easily be shown that he is in 
error here. (509, tp.) 


The Whole Distance to Quivira and Return. 

Castaneda: Thirty-seven days (507, bot.) to the Ravine plus forty-eight 
(509, tp.) equal eighty-five. It may be shown that both of these estimates 
are wrong. He states that Coronado was forty days returning (from 
Quivira) to Tiguex, "traveling lightly equipped." 

Coronado: Seventy-seven days. "Nine hundred and fifty leagues from 
Mexico. Where I reached it it is in the fortieth degree." (582, bot.) 
"After nine days' march I reached some plains so vast that I did not find 
their limit anywhere that I went, although I traveled over them more than 
three hundred leagues." (580.) 

Suceso: "We went back by a more direct route, because in going by 
the way we went we traveled three hundred and thirty leagues, and it is 
not more than two hundred by that by which we returned. Quivira is in 
the fortieth degree, and the river (the Rio Grande at Tiguex) in the thirty- 
si5cth. (578. tp.) 

Teya Indians: Coronado says (581, bot.) that the Teya Indians "made 
it out more than forty days" from their country to Quivira. 

Zarate-Salmeron: [Land of Sunshine for December, 1899, p. 45] states 
that in 1601 it was two hundred leagues from San Gabriel, in the same New 
Mexico region as Onate went from, to Quivira, at first "east northeast, 
[and] afterward they went up toward the northeast, . . . but not in a 
straight line." 

Benavides: [Memorial, p. 85] has a statement that the Quiviras were, 

230 " Kansas State Historical Society. 

in 1630, confederated with a tribe called the Aixaos, whose kingdom had its 
center thirty or forty leagues from them "in that same direction of the 
east" [i. e., as the Quiviras were from the Rio Grande missions]. 

The Dates. 
Castafieda says that the army left Tiguex the 5th of May. We shall see 
that this does not comport with the dates given by the other chroniclers, 
and that it is not correct. Coronado, whose entire data here may be trusted, 
says he left Tiguex on the 23d of April, and that the extent of his journey 
across "these deserts" was seventy-seven days, and that fo' ty-two of 
these were spent after he left "the force." It will be seen later that these 
seventy-seven days occupy the entire time that he was on his outgoing 
journey, and they take him to the end of Quivira; but that he does not 
mean that every day was actually traveled can be shown. His statements 
leave thirty-five days for the whole time consumed from Tiguex to the final 
camp of the army, known as the "Ravine," whence he departed north. 
This is more probably the number than was Castaneda's thirty-seven, as we 
shall see by considering another date. 

While the army was at the Teya ravine, Castafieda and Mota Padilla 
(506, text and note 3) each mention that a great hailstorm came. The lat- 
ter says that on "the day of this, which was the Day of Ascension, 1541," 
it was determined that the army should return. This Day of Ascension has 
been calculated for me by the astronomical department of the St. Louis 
University as having occurred on the 26th of May, which is doubtless cor- 
rect. This would make thirty- four days from Tiguex; and since Jaramillo 
also has the determination to go north made here at the Teya ravine, we 
may believe him when he states that (after this) "we all went forward one 
day, to a stream which was down in a ravine in the midst of good meadows, 
to agree on who should go ahead and how the rest should return." (589.) 
This would make it thirty-five days to the final Ravine, agreeing with the 
deduction from the statement of the general. 

Since these thirty-five days must lie behind his journey north, we infer 
that the general and squad left the camp the morning of the 28th of May; 
so that, according to them, there would be consumed thirty-three days from 
the Ravine, inclusive, when he sighted the timber on the Quivira river on St. 
Peter and St. Paul's Day, which was the 29th of June. Sixty-eight of his 
seventy seven having gone, he would have only nine days left for his 
journey from the crossing of the river "to the end of Quivira," where the 
extent of his investigations of the plains came to an end. (582, top; 580, bot.) 
The harmony of these dates and days of travel preclude that of Cas- 
tafieda from being correct. We shall see, however, that it was more probably 
thirty-one days across these plains, and that the general may have mis- 
counted slightly. 

The Days and Distances. 
Let us examine Castafieda's statement that the army was thirty-seven 
days of actual travel in going from Tiguex to the Ravine, and, in harmony 
with this, that the distance was two hundred and fifty leagues, at the rate 
of six or seven leagues per day. This rate of the army's going, when the 
army did go, was doubtless correct. It was De Soto's rate, and that of 

A Study of the Route of Coronado. 231 

large bodies of men in that day; but his other claims can be shown to be 
wrong. They have been sources of much error in the study of this route, 
and have led some students almost into Illinois. 

As we have seen, there were only thirty-five days consumed between the 
points, and, by the old soldier's own account, four days were lost at the 
bridge; at least one where Cardenas was hurt, the soldier was lost, and 
Lopez sent forward "toward the sunrise" two days, and where the army 
waited till the next [otra dia] to follow him. (505, tp.) 

This point was where the bend was made in the route, beyond the meet- 
ing of the first nomads called Querechos. Although Lopez went the two 
days or twenty leagues out, and the necessary time back till he met the 
army, there is no evidence that Coronado went more than one day forward 
in the meantime. This would make the trip of Lopez last three days till 
the army met him with its one day's journey, provided it went in his direc- 
tion. Hence there were at least two days lost here altogether by the army. 
From here Maldonado (505, bot.) was sent forward four days, till he found 
the ravine of the Teya Indians; and the army went on slowly after him, 
over plains on which no trail could be left. If the army started immedi- 
ately after Maldonado, as it seems it may have, it would take it at least 
five days at its rate of travel to go the distance; and this length of time is 
given by Coronado himself (581, tp.) and by Mota Padilla (504, note 3) as 
the time from the bend in the route to the Teya ravine. 

Coronado mentions no lost days anywhere, though his figures imply 
them. "After seventeen days' march" [from Tiguex] he finds the Quere- 
chos; and then he travels "five days more" to some wonderful plains, 
where the hunters find the Teyas. He does not mention any rest here, nor 
does he note Jaramillo's one-day journey farther to the final Ravine. In 
all, twenty-two days of actual travel to the Teya ravine, and Castaneda's 
six days lost, would make twenty-eight consumed since leaving Tiguex, by 
this calculation. 

Jaramillo is very indefinite, but at his largest estimate he does not confirm 
Castafieda. Thus he has only seven days from Tiguex to the Cicuye river, 
where he notes a slight change of direction to the left at first, but later a 
constant, gradual bearing to the right. In four or five days further he 
reaches "bulls"; in two or three days more, "cows, yearlings and bulls, all 
in together." "Among these first cows," by which he probably means the 
latter herd here, he finds the Querechos, six to eight days from the 
bridge. Then he says, "We went on for eight or ten days in the same 
direction along those streams which are among the cows." At the end of 
fourteen or eighteen days' journey he has the protest of Isopete occur; and 
he elsewhere adds that it was at the end of "twenty or more days in this 
direction" where they found the Teyas. His "twenty or more" days from 
the bridge, plus his seven back to Tiguex and his one to the Ravine from the 
Teya camp, would much more nearly approach Corona o's twenty-eight 
than Castaneda's thirty-seven. It is not probable that his "twenty or 
more" is to be estimated from Tiguex (as the general's twenty-two cer- 
tainly are), since he seems to think that their direction was always north- 
east. Castaneda has the protest of Isopete made at the "little river" 
among the last of the Querechos, twenty-one marches out, where Coronado 
waited for Lopez at a point five days before the Teyas were reached. This 
point, according to Jaramillo, could not have been more than eighteen days 

232 Kansas State Historical Society. 

from the Cicuye river, and may have been only fourteen. The average is 
sixteen, and in between the limits is a confirmation of Coronado's seventeen 
to the Querechos. 

While it would seem scarcely probable that the estimate of the Suceso, 
one hundred leagues east and fifty south, was made on the actual itinerary, 
but was a statement of attainment only, yet it may be more than an acci- 
dent that its one hundred and fifty leagues divided by Castaneda's average 
rate, six and a half, gives just twenty-three days for the whole extent 
actually traveled. 

In this connection it may be seen that the sum of all the days which 
Castaneda mentions as actually traveled by the army will not make thirty- 
seven minus the six he has it rest. Thus, according to him, it was twenty- 
five leagues, or four days, to Cicuye by the army; four to the bridge; ten 
to the Querechos; two through them to the bend where Lopez left; one to 
meet him at the "little river" ; and four by Maldonado to the Teya ravine 
—twenty-five in all— and Jaramillo's one more to the Ravine makes twenty- 
six. Castaneda has one or two more days in his journey from the river to 
the Querechos than the other narrators, and he notes two days through this 
tribe, which is not mentioned elsewhere at all. These taken from the 
twenty-five put him in approximation of the twenty-three days of the 

Castaneda is so at variance with the rest here that his account must be 
wholly discredited or in some way reconciled. He is so accurate generally 
in detail that it is with difficulty that he can be ignored. In what is usually 
considered a confused passage (507, tp. ), he states that while the army was 
at the Teya ravine and was sending out squads to explore the country, 
"they" found Cona four days distant; and with Teya guides "they" ex- 
plored it to the limits of its settlements, which extended three days more. 
This squad did not retrace its route out, for he says that the Teyas gave 
guides to these Spaniards "to pass onward" to a ravine, to which the main 
army had moved in the meantime, going, as we may be sure, Jaramillo's 
one day to reach this place. We know that this squad returned before the 
general left, and hence made its reconnoiter within the thirty-five days from 

Now if the army went Jaramillo's one day directly toward Cona, it 
would have taken the squad seven days out and six back to join it again; 
so that at least thirteen days would have been consumed in this side trip. 
These added to the twenty-eight which we have seen to have been con- 
sumed to the Teyas make the forty-two between the dates of leaving Tigeux 
and reaching the final Ravine. This is preposterous, in view of Coronado's 
and Mota Padilla's statements. Although Castaiieda says, just after the 
mention of the return of the Cona squad, that the whole army found that 
they had been out thirty- seven days of marching from Tiguex, and that "it 
was two hundred and fifty leagues to the settlements" (meaning Tiguex), it 
is easy to see that he included the trip to Cona and back, however long, as 
a part of the whole journey of the army. We may, therefore, conclude with 
Suceso that the whole distance marched by the main army did not exceed 
one hundred and fifty leagues, andwith the general and Jaramillo that only 
twenty-three days were actually traveled by the same. 

C astaneda (507, bot.) says that the army rested here also, and explored 
the country; but we may feel sure that this was after the general had gone. 

A Study of the Route of Coronado. 233 

Thus, if the general left behind him at the Ravine thirty-five days already 
consumed, he started north, as noted, on the morning of May 28; and since 
Mota Padilla says that it was at the Teya ravine on May 26 that the de- 
cision was made to go north, we can see that there remained only two days 
in which to move and start. This beautifully confirms Jaramillo when he 
says that the two ravines were only one day apart, and it makes Casta- 
neda's thirty- seven days impossible. The only theory on which the Cona 
squad could have reached the Ravine one day before the general started 
would be that it had struck the Cona settlement at its eastern end and ex- 
plored it backward to a point only one day from the camp on the final Ra- 
vine and two from that of the Teyas. This is very probable. At best, this 
would have taken eight days, four to the settlement, three through it, and 
one to the camp, which time added to the twenty-seven days from Tiguex 
to the Teyas would make thirty-five. The phrase in the original concerning 
the journey of this squad from Cona to the army is "to pass forward" — 
"para pasar adelante"— (442, mid.), and the necessity of the guides im- 
plies such a condition, and that they did not journey backward on their 
outgoing route. We shall see later that the topography may justify this 

The Distance Home as the Army Went. 
It may be readily shown that this last Ravine, according to Castaneda, 
was not more than twenty days from the bridge by the shorter route, on 
which this chronicler claims that the army went back to Tiguex. There, he 
says, they were twenty-five days going back and thirty-seven coming out, 
besides the delay on the latter trip, while stopping to kill bisons for their 
sole sustenance; and that they struck the Cicuye river "more than thirty 
leagues. . . below the bridge. " From his description of their progress, 
there is no reason to believe that their rate exceeded five leagues per day. 
His "more than thirty leagues" does not mean forty, and probably not 
thirty-five, as any one may know who has followed these old chroniclers and 
noted their fondness for figures ending in fives and round numbers. If we 
presume that it was the latter number, and that the rate back was the same 
as that out, even— six and a half leagues per day— then of this twenty-five 
days six were consumed going up the valley to the bridge, four from the 
bridge to Cicuye, and four more from Cicuye to Tiguex, leaving only eleven 
in which to pass from the Ravine to the Cicuye river valley. It was on 
these ten or eleven days that the bisons were killed, so that it is safe to 
presume along here a rate of six leagues per day was not exceeded. Thus 
the Ravine was not over sixty-six leagues from the Cicuye valley, a hundred 
from the bridge (along an elbow bend), one hundred and twenty-five from 
Cicuye (see C, or 526, bot.), and only one hundred and fifty (see A) from 
Tiguex; or about four hundred miles in all. Hence, we lift our hats to the 
author of the Suceso's estimate of one hundred and fifty leagues by the 
shorter route from Tiguex to the Ravine, and wonder how Judge Louis 
Houck, in his "History of Missouri," can get this army into southeast 
Missouri, or Shea carry it into Illinois. It may be shown by the topography 
and geography, as well as by the distances, that this route was very little 
shorter than the one out. 

234 Kansas State Historical Society. 

From the Ravine to Quivira. 

Let us glance first at the dates. Because Coronado says (582, tp.) that 
"after having journeyed across these deserts seventy-seven days I arrived 
at the province they call Quivira," many students have supposed that this 
time was to be taken from the edge of the plains, over which he says 
(580, hot.) he traveled more than three hundred leagues without finding 
"their limit anywhere. " But since he says that he was forty-two days going 
from "the force," at the Ravine, to the end of his journey north (581, hot.), 
we can see that the remaining thirty-five days before reaching the Ravine 
would push the start back to April 23 for the date of leaving Tiguex. As 
seen, the thirty-four days from that date to the date of the determination 
to go north. Ascension Day, May 26, and Jaramillo's one day to the final 
Ravine, where the decision was made, makes up this thirty-five. Hence 
the seventy-seven days must be reckoned from Tiguex. 

The introduction of Mota Padilla's Ascension Day date casts some doubt 
upon the accuracy of Jaramillo's St. Peter and St. Paul's Day, and intro- 
duces an inharmonious element into the next stages of the journey which is 
difficult to adjust. As seen, in order to have thirty- five days behind him, 
Coronado had to leave the Ravine on the morning of May 28. Between this 
and the 29th of June, when he reached the Quivira river, there are thirty- 
three days, inclusive; parts, at least, of both of these dates May 28 and June 
29, were used in travel. There is a hint in Jaramillo, in the original, 
that the distance south of the river consumed more than thirty days; but 
this is not at all consistent with his statement elsewhere, or those of others, 
concerning the itinerary north of that stream. '^ While there are left, by 
these dates, only nine of the forty-two days to be traveled north of the 
river, Jaramillo distinctly implies at least ten days, with possibly the twelve 
which forty-two minus thirty would give. The Suceso says that nofth of 
the river it was thirty leagues from the first river to, and twenty-five 
through, the settlements of the Quiviras. South of the river, Jaramillo 
says, the days' journeys were not long ones; and Herrera says that the 
stages were accommodated to the supplies of water, as they could find it. 
They had to kill all their meat on the way, also, as the general says. 

We may infer, therefore, that they scarcely made more than five leagues 
per day. If they went on at that rate north of the river, then to go Suceso's 
fifty-five leagues noted above would require eleven days. When we come 
to discuss the topography here we shall see that it demands a little more 
than nine days on the north side. But just where the error of inconsistency 
lies does not appear, unless Jaramillo has erred in keeping the record of the 
Day of the Saints, as we shall see that he probably did about the date of 
the departure homeward from Quivira. He is the only narrator along with 
Coronado who gives the Day of the Saints as the day of reaching the river. 
Herrera merely copies him, varying by the statement that on this day they 
^' began to approach" this stream. 

Note 13. — The Spanish quoted by Mr. Winship in footnote 2, page 396, Fourteenth 
Annual Report Bureau of Ethnology, has scarcely been fully interpreted. Jaramillo 
says, "Seguimos neustio vijije. . . . mas de trienta dias u casi trienta de camino." 
This may not be inconsistent. The clause "pursuing our way for more than thirty days" 
may refer to the time consumed, and the other, "or almost thirty of traveling (de 
camino)," to the days of actual going. Herrera says they "began" to approach this 
river on St. Peter and St. Paul's Day, after marching thirty days. The Suceso says, 
"After thirty days' march we found the River Quivira." Certain it is that there were 
thirty days of marching. 

. A Study of the Route of Coronado. 235 

Coronado's Return Dates and Distances. 

Coronado says that he stayed twenty-five days in Quivira, which would 
■make him start home on August the 4th, in accordance with his seventy- 
seven days from April 23. Castaheda, who was not present, says the gen- 
eral left Quivira "early in August" (512, tp.), and he would seem, therefore, 
to be correct here. Jaramillo, who was at Quivira, says it was after the 
middle of August (590, hot.) and- more, "jera media y mas de Agosto" 
(396, note 2), when they left; but he appears to be wrong. 

Castaneda says that the squad was forty days going home, "lightly 
equipped." He notes nothing about a shorter route. Jaramillo says they 
came back on the outgoing route as far as the crossing of the first river 
(Quivira), and then bore to the right and went home by a "good road, 
along by watering places and cows." The Suceso says, "We went back by 
a more direct route, because in going by the way we went we traveled 
three hundred and thirty leagues, and it is not more than two hundred by 
that by which we returned. " This, in connection with Castaheda's forty 
days, would give five leagues per day for their return rate, which we may 
infer was not exceeded by that out, since on the return they had some pre- 
pared food and did not have to zigzag for meat and water. This forty days, 
according to his dates and time, would put the general at home on Septem- 
ber 18, twenty-seven days before he wrote his letter to the king. 
The Date of the Army's Return. 

Castaneda says the army reached Tiguex "about the middle of July." 
In this he seems fairly correct. Thus, if Coronado left "the force" on 
May 28, and it remained fourteen days more in the Ravine, it would have 
started home on June 12, and twenty-five days more consumed on the way 
would have brought July 8 for the arrival at Tiguex. 

The Directions. 

Because of blind reliance in the directions given by most of the chroni- 
clers, without comparison with the topography, distances, time of return, 
etc., many students, especially the early ones, were wont to run this expe- 
dition anywhere from Nebraska to Arkansas. Shea thought Quivira might 
be in Illinois, and a recent writer in the daily press had Coronado flounder- 
ing in three colors among the mountains of Colorado. It can be readily 
shown, as Hodge has claimed, that these chroniclers knew little about di- 
rections when the sun was above the horizon, and there is no reliability to 
be placed in the statements concerning these in most of the narrators. 

Coronado in his account gives no directions. He merely went "as the 
guides wished to take" him, and implies confusion all the time, having 
such phrases as "where they (the guides) strayed about," "while we were 
lost on these plains," "fell in with some Indians who were hunting," etc, 

Castaneda mentions no directions from Tiguex to Cicuye, nor any from the 
latter to the bridge. When he is speaking of passing through the roamirg 
Querechos for two days, he says the direction was the same as that which 
the army had come "from the settlements," meaning plainly Tiguex. 
(504, bot.) This direction he gives as being here "between north and east, 
but more toward the north." He fails to note the necessary change of di- 
rection which was made at Cicuye in order to pass down any river near it. 
Mota Padilla (504, note 3) has the Spaniards going for three days "to the 

236 Kansas State Historical Society. 

east with much inclination toward the north," along the same place on the 
plains, and then they go two days directly east to the first ravine. 

Jaramillo had a great propensity for giving directions, as his notes of the 
route from Mexico to the Rio Grande show, but he was wrongly oriented, 
even at Tiguex, because he says (587, bot.) that the Rio Grande flows "about 
southeast" there, whereas it flows considerably west of south. He is cor- 
rect in saying that Cicuye was "toward the northeast" from Tiguex, but 
he never seems to have realized that any bend was made there in the route, 
nor later, except a gradual turning to the right after crossing the river be- 
low it, till they came to the Teyas. He appears to have thought that they 
went northeast to reach the river (Pecos) from Cicuye, and after cross- 
ing "turned more to the left hand (at first), which would be more to the 
northeast, and began to enter the plains." Doubtless the Turk did swerve 
to the left after passing the river (Pecos) to get away from its valley, but 
he could not go northeast from any possible crossing below the Canon of 
the Pecos or Cicuye and reach such plains as are described. Jaramillo's 
turning "more to the northeast" after crossing implies that even he thought 
they were going more east than north at first. "After going on in the same 
direction," he comes to bisons and Querechos; but later he adds, "From 
the time when, as I said, we entered the plains, and from this settlement 
of Querechos, he (the Turk) led us off more to the east," and after "twenty 
days or more" in this direction (bearing to the right all the time) they 
found the Teyas. In the meantime he notes that after they had reached 
the Querechos they "went, for eight or ten days in the same direction, along 
those streams which were among the cows." As Hodge has noted, this is 
a very significant statement, as we shall see later. There could be really 
no northeast direction in all this, as the topography of the region will show, 
and as the distance which the final Ravine camp was from the Cicuye, or 
Pecos, valley will confirm. 

Mota Padilla (528, note 2) says that after crossing the river, "having 
gone four days through those plains, with great mists" or fogs (con grandes 
nebilinas), the soldiers found the tracks of the poles (travois) on which the 
Querechos dragged their property from place to place with dogs, and that 
the army later overtook the Indians. These fogs would readily enable the 
Turk to mislead the Spaniards and get them so confused that they might 
never recover their ability to know directions, just as one, on being wrongly 
oriented when first entering a city, rarely recovers a proper perception of 
direction. There is ample evidence that such was the case with these Span- 
iards. Castafieda says that at midday even, with the sun shining, the hunt- 
ers were often lost, like crazy men, and wandered for days and could not 
find their way back to camp, the country was so level and unmarked, 
unless they struck the Ravine, which, he says, extended in both directions 
from the camp; and otherwise "the only thing to do is to stay near the game 
quietly until sunset, so as to see where it goes down, and even then they 
have to be men who are practiced to do it." (509, tp. ) He says the Teyas, 
even, when they went to guide the army home, had to shoot arrow after 
arrow in order to hold the direction determined at sunrise. (509, bot.) 

We have seen that the Suceso is very accurate on the general distances 
traveled, as a whole, and, from the foregoing conclusions, we may trust 
this narrative (when it says that Coronado went one hundred leagues east 
and fifty leagues south or southeast) in its accuracy concerning the direc- 

A Study of the Route of Coronado. 237 

tions also. Of course the statement is very general and has no reference 
to the meanderings, but everything conspires to show that it was mainly 
correct, though it was thought for a long while by students to be so prepos- 
terous as to be unworthy of grave consideration. When we recall that ac- 
cording to the statement of Castaneda— who speaks of "the great detour 
which they made toward Florida," understood to be south of east of them 
—concerning the number of days home, and the drop into the valley of the 
Cicuye, so far below the bridge that there remained only ten to twelve days, 
or between sixty and seventy leagues, from the final camp to the river, we 
can not fail to see that the final Ravine would have to be well down into the 
southeast part of the Llano Estacado to be only that distance from the val- 
ley. This fact alone— the form and dimensions of this triangle— bars any 
possibility of this camp being northeast or even directly east of any cross- 
ing of the Cicuye or Pecos river that was only four days below the town of 
that name. Castafieda was deceived when he thought that the route home 
was so much shorter than that outward as is the difference between thirty- 
seven and twenty-five days. They were very much of the same length— 
and there is no evidence that either would extend beyond the Staked Plains 
—from the bridge in the valley of the Pecos. We will next examine the 
topography, and note how it confirms this conclusion. 

The Topography and Geography of the Routes. 

It was by the topography that F. W. Hodge was able to prove that this 
Coronado expedition went down toward and out upon the Llano Estacado 
from Cicuye, and not north or northeast from that village to a river "which 
ran down toward Cicuye, " as Mr. Winship's translation then had it. In 
rendering the original, Mr. Winship inadvertently omitted a "de" in the 
phrase concerning the course of the Cicuye river— "de hacia Cicuye"— and, 
when courteously acknowledging the correction to the writer of this paper, 
added that Ternaux-Compans, in his rendering of the Spanish into French, 
had not given the direction of flow, but merely had said that the stream 
passed Cicuye. Owing to this omission of the "de" in the paper of Mr. 
Winship, 1^ many students were more firmly convinced than ever that the 
army went directly northeast from the village; but since the crossing of 
the river is shown by the revised translation to be below Cicuye, we know 
that Jaramillo is wrong in stating that they went northeast to reach the 
river from Cicuye, and we see that if this direction was traveled at all it 
was from the bridge. We have already seen how this also could not have 
been true,' as we may further note by comparing the other statements of 
these narrators with the topography. 

The crossing must have been at least as low as Anton Chico, for the 
river is canyoned down to this point. That the crossing was much lower is 
shown by the distance to it being seven or eight days' travel from Tiguex, 
or twenty-five leagues— sixty-five miles— from Cicuye. This would take 
them to a point between Santa Rosa and Puerto de Luna, where, at Agua 
Negra, Whipple, in his search for a passage for the Pacific railroad, men- 
tions a good crossing. Here the Rock Island railroad crosses now. It is just a 
little below the thirty-fifth parallel. When we recall that Mota Padilla says 
that they encountered no ravine, or "crack in the earth," of any import- 
ance till they reached the Teyas, we can see that the Pecos was not crossed 

Note 14. — See line 14, p. 504, and line 20, p. 440, Fourteenth Annual Report Bureau 
of Ethnology, part 1. 

238 Kansas State Historical Society: 

in its canyon. Castaneda (527, tp.) says that in going two hundred and 
fifty leagues (his estimate of the distance from Tiguex to the Ravine 
"the other mountain range was not seen, nor a hill nor a hillock which 
was three times as high as a man." Now, any one who may have read 
what Abert says concerning the region northeast of a crossing any- 
where along here will be convinced that this expedition could not have 
gone out on the expanse (between the Canadian river and the Llano Ests- 
cado) known as the "Plaza Larga" without violating the truth of the 
above statements. The "great Tucumcari mountains" would have been 
in plain sight, and the Canadian was fearfully canyoned in any northeast 
direction from the bridge here.i^ 

As this army mentions no river along here but the one which it crossed 
(the Pecos), and since it certainly did not go down either that or the Cana- 
dian, but went eastward, it follows that it went directly out onto the Llano 
Estacado, where may be found all the conditions described in the narratives. 
It seems quite probable that at first it went near the northern border of 
this great plain, and was deflected well into its center by the Turk contin- 
^ually bearing to the right. Along here would be found the small ditches 
into which Castaneda has the bisons heaped after Lopez left the army 
(505, mid.) . Along here, down the tributaries of the Brazos (that is, the 
forks of the Catfish creek, which push their tips to within a few miles of 
the western borders of the Llano and traverse it eastward), Jaramillo could 
go "along those streams which are among the cows," as he went to the 
Querechos; and, turning southeastward more yet from this point, they 
could finally find in the various branches of the Brazos, as it gathers for its 
escape from this riven plain, at least two broad, ravine-like, depressed 
meadows only one day apart. Such condition may be easily found about 
Dickens, Kent or Garza counties, Texas, from which region ten or twelve 
days of travel, or one hundred and fifty miles, as required by Castaheda's 
home-going conditions, would have easily put the army back into the Pecos 
valley, past the many salt lakes on the way. 

What these men say of this plain can apply to no other than that of the 
Llano. Coronado calls them "some plains with no more landmarks than as 
if we had been swallowed up in the sea, . . . because there is not a 
stone, nor a bit of rising ground, nor a tree nor a shrub, nor anything to 
go by" — just grass. 

The Postrera says that "four days from this village (Cicuye) they came 
to a country as level as the sea." (570, mid.) Where for days from Cicuye 
could there be found such plains elsewhere? Castaheda's expressions con- 
cerning the levelness and expanse of these plains seemed so extravagant to 

Note 15. — When Colonel Abert was well out on the high plateau north of the Canadian, 
at a point which he gives as slightly east of latitude 35° 50' and longitude 104° 10', at a 
place on his eastward journey twenty-two miles west of Utah creek (itself canyoned 
along here), he looked out over the broad bottom on the south side of the Canadian, and 
describes it thus: '"The eye plunged into an ocean of mist over a prairie of indefinite ex- 
tent far below, now and then pierced by the tops of seeming islands, whose summits, on a 
level with our feet, had once formed an integral part of this plain. Here the river 
escapes from the jaws of the canyon, where the rocks are piled to the height of 600 feet. 
The valley of the Canadian, four or five hundred feet below, lay spread out to the 
breadth of twelve or fifteen miles, roughened by isolated ledges of rock and curiously 
shaped buttes, being bounded on the other side by cliffs scarcely discernible." [Quoted by 
Whipple, Pacific Railroad Explorations and Surveys, volume III, p. 18, of "Description of 
the Country."] It is almost needless to say that these cliffs were the northern edge of 
the Llano Estacado ; and it may be easily seen that the expedition did not pass through 
this bottom, which it would have done had it gone at all north of east from the river, as 
asserted by the chroniclers. 

A Study of the Route of Coronado. 239 

the French translator of his narrative, says Mr. Winship, that he would not 
render them, omitting them altogether, yet every one of them may be cor- 
rect, if applied to the Llano. Besides his assertions concerning its levelness 
and lack of landmarks, he has statements, too numerous to quote, which 
show that the army did not get off of the Llano. ^^ To this old soldier 
the horizon came down in a "crossbow shot"; there was nothing but 
"cows and sky" seen by Lopez; the sky could be seen under the legs 
of the bisons; there were numerous salt lakes on these plains, with rock 
salt under the water (as may be seen there yet); away from these 
lakes the grass was only a span high, and nothing but grass;" and this 
grass was so resilient that no trail could be made upon it by the army's 
march; 18 Castaneda's description of the rivers on the Llano can scarcely fit 
any other region. When Mr. Winship was rendering this, he believed, with 
other students, that the army had camped north of the Canadian, and he 
was likely influenced by this impression. In his later studies he changed his 
views, but left the passage unchanged in his little book of the Trailmakers 
Series, as did Mr. Hodge in his "Spanish Explorers." As translated, the 
passage scarcely does the old soldiers involved and archaic Spanish justice, 
and is not so favorable to the Llano being the field of the expedition as it 
might be.i** 

In this connection a few quotations from the early American explorers 
when they first encountered this wonderful plain may not be out of place, 
since they are so strikingly similar to the description of the Spaniards made 
three hundred years earlier. Lieutenant Whipple describes his trip up the 
valley of the Canadian, after mounting to the Llano at Amarillo arroyo, 
near the 102d meridian, as follows: 

"Ascending about two hundred and fifty feet, in about a mile from camp 
we reached the top of the Llano. Here ... we saw what one might 
call an ocean prairie (he had seen the ordinary plains), so smooth, level, 
boundless, does it appear. It is covered with a carpet of closely cropped 

Note 16. — It may be well for the interested reader to consult all the matter in Mr. 
Winship's paper concerning these plains, found mainly at 504 (note 3), 505, 506 (note 2), 
508 (bot.), 509, 510, 527, 541-543, 570, 571, 580, 581, 588, 589 (tp.). 

Note 17. — Abert found both long grass and flowers on the north side of the Canadian. 

Note 18. — "Who could believe," says Castenada, "that 1000 horses and 500 of our 
cows, and more than 5000 rams and ewes, and more than 1500 friendly Indians and 
servants, in traveling over these plains would leave no more trace where they had passed 
than if nothing had been there — nothing — so that it was necessary to make piles of bones 
and cow dung now and then, so that the rear guard could follow the army." — Fourteenth 
Annual Report Bureau of Ethnology, part I, p. 542. 

Note 19. — The original [456, tp.] is as follows: "No tiene arboleda sino en los rios que 
ay en algunos barrancas que son tam encubiertas que hasta que estan a el bordo de ellas 
no son bistas son de tierra muerta tienan entradas que hacen las bacas para entra a el 
agua que esta honda por estos llanos," etc. 

Mr. Winship renders this : "There are no groves of trees except at the rivers, which 
flow at the bottom of some ravines where the trees grow so thick that they were not 
noticed until one was right on the edge of them. They are of dead earth. There are 
paths down into these, made by the cows when they go to the water, which is essential 
throughout these plains." [527, mid.] 

It may be seen from this translation that the trees may have been in sight "at" the 
rivers ; that they were so "thick" that they were not noticed, "encubiertas" being ren- 
dered "thick" and referring to the trees, whereas it means "concealed" and refers to 
ravines or "barrancas." "Honda" is rendered "essential," whereas it means here "deep 
down." Water is essential anywhere. The following gives the meaning more con- 
sistently with the text and conditions : 

"There are no groves except on the rivers, which are in certain ravines, which are so 
concealed that they are not seen till [one reaches] the border [or bank] of them. They 
are of dead [or bare] earth [not grassy down the banks]. There are paths which the 
cows make to enter to the water which is deep down [honda] in these plains." 

This is certainly an accurate description of the streams of the Llano. 

240 Kansas State Historical Society. 

buffalo grass, and no other green thing is seen. . . . Having traveled 
eight and a half miles, we arrived at a deep gorge with limestone cliffs, and 
a valley of grass and trees." Beyond this was again "the hard, smooth sur- 
face of the Llano." ^o 

Captain John Pope, in his report of his survey along the thirty-second 
parallel, states that he went from the Pecos to the Red river, noting the 
gentle slope of the Llano toward the Colorado valley; but here he found 
large patches of red sand, in which grew conspicuous clusters of bunch 
grass thirty inches high, and on the southern border there was a range of 
hills of white drift sand seventy feet above the level of the plain. -i 

Certainly Coronado's men never approached this region. Dr. W. P. 
Blake, the geologist of this expedition, says of the Llano north and west 
of this: "The Llano ... is not broken by a single peak, and there is 
nothing to break the monotonous desert character of its surface except an 
occasional river gorge or canyon, invisible from a distance, and often ap- 
parent only when the traveler stands on its brink. "2- Captain Marcy has 
a similar description: "Not a tree or a shrub; ... a vast, illimitable 
expanse of desert prairie, " and "trackless as the ocean," are his phrases. ^^ 

All this sounds wonderfully like the words of Coronado and Castaneda. 
In this connection it may be said that there can be no doubt that the river 
which ran down from Cicuye, which was bridged and crossed, and up which 
the army went home from the plains, was the Pecos. When the army 
reached it on its return the Indians said that it ran into the Rio Grande 
"more than twenty days from here, and that its course turned toward the 
east." If those students who have so stoutly maintained that it was the 
Canadian which was bridged (and they are too numerous to mention) had 
considered this passage, and had the proper respect for Indian geography, 
they might have blundered less. 

Topography jrom the Ravine to Quivira. 

On this route the topography is mostly a matter of geography. About 
all there is of the former is the statement of Castaneda (speaking cosmo- 
graphically about the two great ranges of mountams which he had heard were 
on each eage of the continent) that as the Spaniards approached Quivira 
they began to see mountains. (528, bot.) These were doubtless the 6moky 
Hills of the river of that name, which appear so mountainous at a distance. 
His statement here is: "Quivira is to the west of these ravines, in the midst 
of the country, somewhat nearer the mountains toward the sea, for the 
country is level as far as Quivira, and there they began to see some moun- 
tain chains." This has puzzled students, because they have always pre- 
sumed that these "ravines" here are the same as those of the Llano camps, 
as may be inferred from the foregoing rendering. The Spanish is, that 
Quivira is "a el poniente de aquellas barrancas pur el medio de la tierra" — 
literally, "those ravines through the midst of the land," with no comma 
after "ravines." The rendering of "por" as "in," and the placing of a 

Note 20. — Pacific Railroad Explorations and Surveys, vol. 3, Report of Lieut. A. W. 
Whipple, p. 36 of Itinerary. 

Note 21. — Ibid., vol. 2, Report by Capt. John Pope, p. 9. 

Note 22. — Ibid., vol. 2, Report of Geology of Route, by William P. Blake, p. 9. 

Note 23. — Report of Capt. R. B. Marcy on Reconnaissance of a Route from Ft. Smith 
to Santa Fe, 1849, 31st Cong., 1st Sess., Sen. Ex. Doc. 64, vol. 14, p. 185. 

A Study -of the Route of Coronado. 241 

comma after "ravines," is the main cause of the trouble. It is the ra- 
vines which are in the "midst of the country" and not Quivira. Castaneda, 
speaking cosmographically, as he much liked to do, refers to such ravines 
or valleys, like those of the Missouri and Mississippi rivers, as he supposed 
lay between the two great Atlantic and Pacific coast ranges; and since the 
way was all level to Quivira, he naturally inferred that Quivira was west of 
them all, which is the fact. So he says (504, mid.) that the plains were 
"all beyond the mountains" (in the original), referring to the western 
range. Again, at page 526 more of his cosmography about this may be 
seen. In this connection it may not be out of the way to say that where 
Castaneda speaks of the Missouri-Mississippi river flowing across all the 
level country and breaking "through the mountains of the North sea," and 
coming out "where the people with Don Fernando de Soto navigated it" 
(529, mid.), he must have reference (from the Indian hearsay purely) to its 
rupture through the tip of the Ozark range below St Louis. 

On the journey north no mention of topography is made, except that 
Coronado ( 82, tp.) says that there was no wood except at the "gullies 
and rivers, which are very few." He is the first white man who was 
compelled to use "buffalo chips" for fuel. Jaramillo, however, speaks as 
if the first "good appearance of the earth" (590, tp.) came in at the place 
where they met the hunting Quiviras, three days northeast of the crossing 
of the first river noted. We shall see that this was near Great Bend, Kan., 
and was a natural conclusion. He and others mention the beautiful rolling 
country from this on, well watered and wooded. 

Three rivers are mentioned here in Quivira by these narrators; but it is 
remarkable that behind these to "the Ravine" they had passed many 
streams, not one of which is noted specifically, as if the beginning and end 
only of the journey were important. If Coronado was far toward the east 
edge of the Llano when he started north, he had to swerve back well west- 
ward to pass around the canyon of the Red river, which is hundreds of feet 
deep for some distance into this plain. He had to cross the main Canadian, 
with its conspicuous bluffs, both going and coming; but he does not note it. 
So the Cimarron, down the tributaries of which he probably went, he omits, 
though it was up and along this that he must have found the well-watered 
way home. It was probably a drouthy time. 

On their approach to Quivira, the writers speak of two other rivers as 
each having more water than the first one noted. This combination alone 
fixes the stretch of fifty-five leagues along the region ranging from about 
Larned or Garfield, Kan., to the mouth of the Republican river. Within 
the reach of thirty days' travel from a point on the Llano, which is ten or 
twelve days from the Pecos valley, no other such combination or sequence of 
streams, with the distances and directions and topography given, can be 
found than those ranging from the Arkansas to the mouth of the Republican 
or Big Blue. First they cross a river, go up its north bank three days, 
meet some Quivira hunters, whose village "was about three or four dajs 
still farther away from us." The "Indians went to their houses, which 
were at the distance mentioned"; so that the Spaniards also must have 
gone there, in order to so confirm the statements of the Quiviras. (589 and 
590.) Then they found the settlements "along good river bottoms . . . 
and good streams, which flow into another (or second) larger than the one 

242 Kansas State Historical Society. 

I have mentioned"— that is, than the first. Here are at least six days to 
the settlements, which the Suceso says were thirty leagues from the first 
river. In like manner, Herrera (509, note) says that these streams ran into 
a "great river" ; so that all the Quivira villages were in the watershed of 
this second river— a fact of significance, as we shall see. Then they went 
on four or five days, according to Jaramillo, or five or six days, as Herrera 
says, through these villages— the number of which the former says was six 
or seven, and the distance through which the Suceso says was thirty leagues. 
Then they came to another or third river, with more water and more people 
than had any of the others. Any one who has seen the Arkansas, the 
Smoky Hill, the Republican and the Kansas, the latter formed by the junc- 
tion of the Smoky Hill and the Republican, will have no difficulty in recon- 
ciling the estimates of the size and situation of the three streams made by 
these writers, especially in early July, when a dry time prevails. 

From the fact that Herrera says they passed the second river— "Rio 
Grande, que pasaron"— the writer once thought that this squad went down 
the Smoky Hill on the north side; but Mr. W. E. Richey and other local 
students soon convinced him that the "good streams" and old village sites, 
so consistently arranged with the requirements of the chronicles, were on 
the south side. Herrera's "pasaron " must refer to a mere tangential pass- 
ing of the Smoky Hill near Lindsborg, and the bowstring cut across, farther 
out, to the mouth of the Repubhcan, along which the settlements were 

After this they came to the end of Quivira, and went no further north- 
eastward, but inquired and found that down the river the plains came to an 
end; that the people did not plant, but hunted; and that in that direction, 
especially, were other provinces, the most noticeable of which was Harahey. 
Coronado sent for the chief of this, and he came. The general stayed 
twenty-five days and made some explorations, but it would seem never 
farther eastward, simply hearing of the great river beyond. "This country 
(literally, 'to this country') was the last which was seen" (529, bot.), says 
Castaneda; and the information concerning the Missouri was obtained 
"there" — not "here," where Castaneda was writing, as one might infer 
from Mr. Winship's rendering of "alii." Then, returning two or three days 
into the midst of the settlements, the general had supplies prepared for the 
return journey, and went home over a route which was quite likely a close 
approach to what was later known as the Santa Fe trail. 

It has been usual for students to state that Coronado struck the Arkan- 
sas at the western end of its great trend northeastward, and to have him 
travel six days up this, or down it, rather. ^s Since both Jaramillo and 
Herrera say the Quiviras were all in the valley of the second river, and 
since the former implies that it took at least three days to go to them after 
meeting the hunters at the end of the first three days, we can see that the 
latter three days must be measured from the region of Great Bend, in order 
to reach into the watershed of the Smoku Hill— as any map of Kansas will 

Note 24. — See F. W. Hodge's paper, in Brewer's "Harahey," 1889, and that of W. E. 
Richey, in Kansas Historical Collections, vol. 6, page 477. 

Note 25. — The writers of this expedition used the term "up" in the sense of thither ; 
and the term "below" often in the sense of "on this side of" or "hither." Thus Suceso 
and Jaramillo say the Quivira river was below Quivira, and that they went up this stream, 
■whereas they were really going down it. Castaneda says of Acoma that it was below the 
Rio Grande. 

A Study of the Route of Coronado. 243 

show. Therefore, the crossing of the Arkansas can only be three days 
southwest of this town, or in the region of Larned or Garfield. Again, if 
we measure Suceso's fifty-five leagues back from any third river which they 
could reach after crossing the first, we can see that they will not extend 
back to the region near Fort Dodge, so frequently cited as the place of 
crossing. 26 

This question of Coronado's approach to the Arkansas has some difficul- 
ties in it, not because of water supply— which he says was always scant, 
though Jaramillo says they did not go without it any day— but because of 
the great eastward trend in the route which would be necessary in order 
for him to go to this crossing or bend on this river from any point which 
he could have attained toward the east before he started north. We have 
noted the great westward trend which he would have made to avoid the 
canyon of the Red river. He likely did not leave the Llano at any point 
east of the Amarillo arroyo, which furnished a very natural descent to the 
Canadian valley. Thence a line directly north would have struck the Ar- 
kansas one hundred and fifty miles west of Fort Dodge and two hundred 
west of Larned, roughly. The mention by the Suceso that the general 
went "by the needle" has led many students to infer that this journey was 
all directly north; but in the first place this may have been a mere phrase— 
as we say "bee line" or "as the crow flies." This army had certainly 
made poor use of the compass before this, if it had one; and then the 
Suceso does not say that they went by the needle all the way, but he almost 
implies a bend. Thus, "after proceeding many days by the needle it 
pleased God that after thirty days' march we found the river Quivira," is 
his statement. He does not say that all the thirty were marched by the 
needle, and after "many days" a bend could have been made, Jaramillo 
says "the direction all the time after this (the start) being toward the 

That Coronado did go north for a while may be seen from the fact that 
if he had s arted suflfiiciently east, or had borne eastward at once, so as to 
be directly south of the Arkansas bend, he would have encountered the 
Canon of the Red in the former case, and have run into the Western Cross, 
Timbers north of the Canadian, which Abort found at longitude 99° 11'. 
This, from his own statements, we are sure that he did not do. It is not 
improbable that these exact expressions of directions here out on the Kan- 
sas plains were on a par with those of Jaramillo concerning the Llano; and 
after getting well out beyond the Cimarron, when the Antelope hills and 
the Wichita mountains, as well as the Cross Timbers, could not be seen, 
Coronado likely bore eastward and crossed the north-side tributaries of this 
river and those of the Big Salt Fork of the Arkansas, where streams were 
frequent, and then he turned more directly into the Arkansas. His Teya 
guides must have known the best way thither, since they said that none 
was good; and Herrera implies that the route was varied to find water. ^'^ 

Note 26. — In discussing this matter with Mr. F. W. Hodge and Mr. W. E. Richey, I 
received acknowledgments from both that the crossing was certainly east of the western 
bend, though they had maintained otherwise. Mr. Richey feared that Coronado could not 
have found sufficient water had he come directly to the Arkansas at the points I have 
indicated ; so he made some personal, local investigations, and became convinced that he 
had been wrong. Mr. Hodge, however, in his "Spanish Explorers," published later, ad- 
heres to his first opinion. 

Note 27. — It seems a little remarkable that Judge Houck, in his "History of Mis- 
souri," should claim that Coronado must have gone north by a route far east of this, in 

244 Kansas State Historical Society. 

In this connection it may be well to say that the claims of some students 
that Coronado reached the Missouri is not justified by the narratives. He 
says that he did not reach the "limit" of the plains, and that the Quiviras 
said that down the river they ended. Nowhere is the mention of so great 
a stream made except in one passage; and in telling Coronado of what was 
beyond, no mention is made by the Indians of any tribes beyond a river, but 
all are noted as immediate neighbors just "beyond," which was eastward. 
The passage noted above has already been mentioned, but it had better be 

"The great river of the Holy Spirit, which Don Fernando de Soto dis- 
covered in the country of Florida, flows through this country (of Quivira). 
It passes through ("por") a province called Arache, according to reliable 
accounts obtained here ("alii"). The sources were not visited, because, 
.nccording to what they said, it comes from a very distant country in the 
mountains of the South sea, from the part that sheds its waters onto the 
plains. It flows across all the level country and breaks through the moun- 
tains of the North sea, and comes out where the people with Don Fernando 
de Soto navigated it." 

This is doubtless a combination of the information which the expedition 
obtained from the Indians there ("alii"), and from de Soto's men after 
their return, with whom Castafieda says he had communication. It exhibits 
the accuracy of Indian knowledge of geography. The original does not just 
say that this river flows through this country of Quivira. It says, "Hue 
sus corientes de aquesta tierra"; that is, "carries (or derives) its currents 
from this land," implying that it had tributaries there, which it certainly 
had. It passed through ("por") a country called Arache, but it will be 
shown that this was likely the land of the Arikaras, whose home was then 
far north of this. 

The Ethnology and Archaeology. 

The last sentence brings us to the ethnology of the expedition, and its 
archaeology. In the matter of the last, we have already seen that the vil- 
lage sites on the tributaries of the Smoky Hill river seem to confirm the 
location of the Quivira, or at least some ancient tribes, along these streams. "^ 

The ethnology of this region can scarcely be touched here, even though 
this writer were capable of discussing it extensively. Three narrators say 
the Quiviras built round houses of straw; from which we may infer, with 
Mr. Hodge, that since the Wichitas yet build almost exactly such houses, 
the Quiviras were their ancestors. According to Suceso, the neighboring 
tribe, called "Tareque, " used straw exclusively, and another, called 
"Arae," used part straw and part skins, in their houses. That tribes 
during the centuries change the style of their architecture is certain, as 
was the case with the Humanos, whom Cabeza de Vaca and Espejo found 

order for him to pass through woods and amidst good streams, when the general says 
that both were actually so scarce on his route that "it would have been impossible to 
prevent the loss of many men" had he taken the whole army with him. 

Note 28.- — See W. E. Richey's paper, vol. 6, Kansas Historical Collections, page 477, 
and Brower's "Harahey" and "Quivira." By examining the cuts in these last volumes, 
or by consulting the collections of Mr. Richey in the rooms of the Kansas Historical 
Society at Topeka, one may note quite a difference between the character of the flints 
found above the mouth of the Big Blue river and those found below it. Mr. Richey has 
called my attention to a kind of flint hoe which, polished and worn, is found above, and 
is not found below, this dividing line. He concludes, naturally, that this is in keeping 
•with the statement of the Quiviras that the people down the river did not cultivate the 

A Study of the Route of Coronado. 245' 

with houses having foundations, on the lower Rio Grande, but who aban- 
doned this form of structure when they moved. 

In Brower's "Harahey, " Mr. Hodge states that the Southern Quiviras 
have a tradition that they and some Pawnees were driven from the north 
by their enemies. That this was the case, and that these enemies were the 
Kaws and Aricaras, is almost a certainty. Thus Castaneda says (529, tp. ) 
that Father Padilla, who returned as a missionary to the Quiviras after 
Coronado went to Mexico, was killed by them because he wanted to go to 
their enemies, the Guaes. The Turk, in contrast with Quivira, associ- 
ates the names of "Arche" and the "Guaes "29 (503 mid.), the former, 
likely, meaning the Aricaras, as we shall see. Salmeron ("Land of Sun- 
shine," December, 1899, p. 45) says that when Onate went to Quivira in 
1601 he met the Escansaques, who were on their way to fight the Quiviras. 
Depriving this word of its Spanish flourishes, the word Cansa remains,''" 
The Turk and His Countries. 

Before attempting the discussion it may be well to mass all that the 
various chroniclers say of the home of the Turk and the names of the prov- 
inces which he gave. Castaneda (491, bot.) says the Turk was a "native of 
the country toward Florida, which is the region Don Fernando de Soto 
discovered." Mota Padilla (492, note 1) says he was "from a province distant 
thirty suns," called "Copala," on a "lake which they navigated with ca- 
noes," etc. What most of the de Soto narrators call "Pacaha" Garcilasso 
calls "Capaha," which, with the frequent interchange of r and 1 in Indian 
dialects, may appear as "Capala, " which "Copala" is much like. We 
know that the Pacaha chief was of the Kappa, Cappa, Quappa, or Quapaw 
Indians, which were the same as those later called "Arkansas" or "Alkan- 
sas ' ' by the early French. ' ' Capala ' ' is more like the true name ' ' Kappa ' ' 
than is "Pacaha. " When we consider that the name of the Turk's country, 
in Padilla, was "Copala," and that it was distant thirty suns, which is 
about three hundred leagues, as an Indian would go; and that Suceso says 
the Turk's country was that distance east of Tiguex (though it says at 
Harale), it could be possible that he was a native of Pacaha, where de Soto 
turned back down the Mississippi river, somewhere in the New Madrid, 
Mo., region, and that he was a Quapaw, or Arkansas Indian. This would 
harmonize with Castaiieda's having his home toward Florida, and with his 
other statement that the Turk said that "his country was in that direc- 
tion" (509, tp.) toward which he led the army astray; and with his bearing 
toward the east, and his trying to lead the army on east to Haxa, toward 
sunrise yet two days, when his case became desperate; and with Jaramillo's 
phrase, "it seems that as the said Indian wanted to go to his own country." 
(588, mid.) 

As to the names of the provinces mentioned by the Turk, besides Copala, 

Note 29. — In his paper, in Brower's "Harahey," Mr. Hodge suggested that in the word 
"Guaes," the G might be a misprint for Q, and hence "Quaes," pronounced "Kaws." 
This seemed very probable, but later he has repudiated this theory, since he has found 
that "Kaws" is a French abbreviation for Kansas — another very probable conclusion 
(see under "Guaes," Bulletin 30, part 1, Bureau of Ethnology), though the French and 
Spanish may have got the abbreviation from the same source. 

Note 30. — "Some have thought that the Escansaques were the Utes, but the greater 
weight of evidence, as I have shown, seems to establish the fact that they were none 
other than the Kansa — now so considered by the United States authorities and the Bureau 
of Ethnology at Washington." — History of the Kansa or Kaw Indians, by Geo. P. More- 
house, Kansas Historical Collections, vol. 10, p. 335. 

246 Kansas State Historical Society. 

there are six. In Castaneda there are "Quivira, " "Arche" and the "Guas" 
or "Quaes"; also the statement that the Quiviras said the Missouri river 
passed through "a province called 'Arache. ' " Jaramillo has "Quibira" or 
"Quevira" and "Arache" (588, 589), and speaks of the general writing to 
the "governor of Harahey and Quibira" (590, tp.). The Suceso always 
says "Quivira," and says the neighbors of these were at Tareque and Arae. 
It speaks of "Harale" only as the home of the Turk. Herrera says (507, 
note 1) that the Turk described "Harae" so that Coronado thought it [not?] 
impossible that some of de Narvaez's lost men might rule it; and Jaramillo 
says that the general, when he wrote the letter to this imaginary ruler, 
thought that he might be a "Christian from the lost army of Florida," i. e,, 
the army of de Narvaez. (590, tp.) Gomara brings in another country 
when he says "they had news [from the Turk] of Axa and Quiuira," where 
they worshiped the image of a woman (492, note 1). This is, doubtless, 
what put the idea in the general's head that the ruler of this land named 
Tatarrax was a Christian. But Gomara does not mention Harahey in any 
form in this connection. The Axa here mentioned is noted by Castaneda 
(504, bot.) when he says the first Querechos said that "Haxa" was a set- 
tlement on a river more than a league wide, and the Turk said it was only 
two days from there to "Haya." Hence Lopez went two days toward the 
rising sun to find it. This was a mere subterfuge, and the original Haxa is 
not a Texas province, as Mr. Hodge believes; but we shall see that it joins 
the Quiviras, as the narratives imply. 

The list of names of the countries in these chronicles therefore com- 
prises Quivira, Harahey, Tareque, Arche, the Guaes, and Axa— in their 
varied spellings— with Harahey and Guaes synonyms, as we shall probably 
see, since both of these are never associated with Quivira at the same time, 
as are Arche and Tareque. In fact, it is highly probable that only three 
tribes are comprised in all these terms, unless Copala be something non- 

In Brower's "Harahey," Mr. Hodge thought that the Haraheys were 
the Pawnees, because of Jaramillo's statement that they had "some sort of 
things on their heads" when they came to Coronado; but the Aricaras, 
whose name is derived from a word meaning "horn," wore similar "things"; 
and Judge Houck, in his "History of Missouri," says that Catlin found the 
Kaws wearing headpieces like horns. In a letter to the writer, written 
later, Mr. Hodge says: "The Kaws are called by the Caddos (who are of 
the same general stock to which the Wichitas, Pawnees, etc., belong) 
'Alahe' or 'Arahee'— 1 and r being interchangeable in many Indian lan- 
guages. The Pawnee name (for the Kaws) is 'Araho, ' which comes 
about as near to the Spanish form as possible." From this it is easily seen 
that the Haraheys were the Kaws, who lived east of the Quivira region, 
where they were found later. 

With regard to the Arche, in its various forms, one of which is the 
Suceso's "Tareque," they were undoubtedly the Aricaras, and not synony- 
mous with Harahe or Arae, as Mr. Hodge has thought; for it is against the 
latter of these that Tareque is contrasted by the Suceso (577, bot.). Arche 
was the stem of the name for the province, and the termination "ra" may 
have been either tribal or plural. This combined with the stem makes 
Archera. The tribe later has been called simply "Rees"; and among the 
synonymy of this tribe by Mrs. Fletcher, in Bulletin 30, Bureau of Ethnol- 

A Study of the Route of Coronado. 247 

ogy, occurs Archarees. The k sound, involved in "ch" or "que." is pres- 
ent in most of the names, because of "araki" or "uriki, " meaning a horn, 
from their kind of head ornamentation. For the same reason, Dr. George 
Bird Grinnell writes me that the Pawnees call themselves "Pa-ra-ki," thus 
indicating the same horn-wearing habit. 

With regard to the Turk having associated Axa with Quivira, Benavides' 
Memorial, p. 85, says that the Aixaos bordered closely on the Quiviras, and 
that in 1630 the two tribes formed what was known as the kingdom of 
Quivira-Aixaos, since he so heads his paper, with the center of the latter 
people thirty or forty leagues from the former, "in the same direction of 
the east." In this is the word "Aix. " Salmeron ("Land of Sunshine, " 
December, 1899, p. 46) says that when Onate went to the Quiviras in 1601 
they sent a delegation to meet him and ask him to go with them against 
their enemies, the Ayjaos. Since in archaic Spanish x and j, and also i and 
y are interchangeable, it may be readily seen that the two words are varied 
spellings of the name of the same tribe. In like manner, with x and y in- 
terchangeable in sound, Haxa, Axa and Haya are all the same neighbors 
and enemies of the Quiviras. 

The identification of these people with a modern tribe is not so easy. 
Since the Pawnees fled south with the Quiviras, and were of the same Cad- 
doan stock, we are justified in feeling sure of the intimate association of 
the tribes in 1630, so that it would be called the kingdom of "Quivira- 
Aixaos," and would imply that the Aixaos were some branch of the Paw- 
nees. Since the Pawnee name for Kaws is "Arahe, " and the Quiviras 
called the province of the Kaws (when asked about it) "Harahey, " (590, 
mid.), "Harae" (509, note), and since the Caddoan name for them is 
"Arahee," the Pawnee language of to-day shows its kinship to that of the 
Quiviras of 1541. Since, also (Hodge, and Brower's Harahey), the Paw- 
nees are known to the Wichitas to-day by the name of "Awahi, " the word 
"Ayjaos, " distorted by various spellings and pronounced in Spanish, may 
not be so far from a synonym of "Awahi." and "Awahi" may equal 
"Ayjaos" or "Aixaos." 

The deductions concerning the tribes about the end of Coronado's journey 
north, are, therefore, that the Quiviras were the Wichitas; the Haraheys 
and the Quaes were the same as the later Escansaques, and were the Kaws; 
the Axas, Aixaos, Haxas, Ayjaos or Hayas were the Pawnees; and the 
Turk resorted to a subterfuge among the Querechos when he said Haxa 
was two days east; and he may have been playing on words, because there 
was a tribe with a similar name far toward sunrise, which caused the 
Querechos to confirm him. Arche, Ararche and Tareque were evidently 
the Aricaras, more to the north, so that the Missouri could flow through or 
past "a province called Arache, " as Castaneda has it; for this Caddoan 
tribe was likely then beating its way northward to beard the Siouan lion in 
the great valley. Down the river below was the Kaw; northeastward, be- 
yond and on the Republican, was the Pawnee, while beyond, up the Missouri, 
was the Arikara. It is not improbable that the Pawnees and Quiviras may 
have been enemies at one time, and friends later, when they migrated. It 
is said that the have a tradition of visits of white men to them from 
the west long before they came from the east. 

248 Kansas State Historical Society. 

The Latitude of Quivira. 

Three narrators give the latitude of Quivira as 40°, Only the Suceso 
Rives that of another place in comparison, by which we may know how 
much here was the error which the Spaniards always made in this matter. 
Their estimate was usually about two degrees too great. In comparison, 
the Suceso says that the latitude of "the river" was 36°. (578, tp.) Some 
writers have erred in thinking the river referred to was the Quivira or Ar- 
kansas. It was evidently the Rio Grande at Tiguex. Just below this cita- 
tion the Suceso says of the Teyas and Querechos, that "they exchange 
some cloaks (made of skins) with the natives of the river for corn" — 
meaning, of course, with the Pueblo Indians, who obtained their skins 
wholly by trade with these nomads. (524, mid.) 

Now, Bernalillo is about 35° 20'. Four degrees, the difference between 
the Suceso's 40 and his 36, added to this would put Quivira in 39° 20', esti- 
mated from his figures for Tiguex. The error was not so great here, there- 
fore. The mouth of the Republican is about 39°, and the most northerly 
bend of the Kaw at Manhattan is about 39° 10'. There is not much hope 
for Nebraska in all this. 

The Routes of Coronado and Those of de Soto. 

It has been a favorite theory of many historians and popular writers 
that the routes of Coronado and de Soto almost intersected each other, and 
that the two explorers themselves nearly met in the Indian Territory. 
From this it has been claimed that Coronado went farther eastward, both 
in Texas and Kansas, than he actually did.-^i De Soto and Coronado each 
knew that the other was east or west of him, as the case may have been, 
and de Soto's men heard from Indians on the Mississippi that there were 
other white m^n, far west, conquering the country; but on the day that 
Coronado reached the Arkansas, June 29, 1541, De Soto reached Pacaha, the 
home then of the Quapaw or Arkansas Indians (according to ethnologists), 
at his highest point up the Mississippi, and in the swampy region of the 
Missouri Peninsula. While from here he went far west, well into Okla- 
homa, he did not reach this region till late fall, and turned back from it on 
October 19, to go still eighty leagues down the Arkansas, to spend the win- 
ter of 1541-'42. On October 20, 1541, the next day after de Soto's farthest 
west, Coronado wrote his letter at Tiguez, on the Rio Grande, to the king, 
having probably been there more than a month. 

When Moscoso later went west from the mouth of the Arkansas, ^^ he 
probably approached the Llano Estacado, or at least his advance squad got 
beyond the Western Cross Timbers. His river Daycao (Elvas) was li'kely 
the Colorado; but all this occurred a year later, after Coronado was safe on 
his hacienda in Mexico. ^^ 

Note 31. — As an instance, see J. G. Shea, Winsor's "Narrative and Critical History," 
vol. 11, page 292, where he says Coronado wrote a letter to De Soto, and quotes the 
incident in Jaramillo of Coronado's writing to the king of Harahey, already noted. This, 
we have seen, had nothing to do with de Soto. Coronado had in mind the men of de 
Narvaez, as the context shows. 

Note 32. — In my paper on the Route of Cabeza de Vaca, published in the Quarterlies 
of the Texas State Historical Association for January and April, 1897, volume 10, Nos. 
3 and 4, led astray by an erroneous rendering of the Spanish into French by Richelet, I 
claimed that de Soto died at the mouth of the Red river. Further investigation, especially 
into the ethnological connections, has convinced me that he died at the mouth of the 

Note 33. — Castaneda says that a Teya woman escaped from Coronado's army when it 
struck the Pecos valley, going home, and that de Soto's men said that they took a woman 

A Study of the Route of Coro7iado. 249 

Cabeza de Vaca and the Teya Ravine, 

Castaneda says Cabeza had passed through the settlement of the Teyas 
in the Ravine (five or six years before), and blessed their goods, which 
they piled out there again to Coronado, with the same hopes, only to have 
them appropriated. Jaramillo, however, says that an old Indian told him 
that "he had seen four others like us many days before . . . near there, 
and rather more toward New Spain (Mexico)." This casts doubt on Ca- 
beza ever having reached this place— Ravine of the Teyas— as does the nar- 
rative of Cabeza, especially since, in later times, ihe Teyas were identified 
with the Aisenis or Cenis [Mrs. L. C. Harby, Annual Report American His- 
torical Association, 1894] and associated with the Humanos of the lower Rio 
Grande. They were great wanderers, doubtless, and may have been with 
Cabeza when he records the Humanos as heaping their belongings in the 
midst of the floor for him to bless, away southward near the mouth of the 
Conchas. Now, in June they were probably following the bisons in their an- 
nual northward migration. 

It was late fall when Cabeza was wandering in the interior of Texas. 
The bison must have been migrating southward then. He notes that they 
were only a few days up the Pecos when he went up the Rio Grande in 
midwinter; and yet he never records having seen one in this region while 
wandering west on the plains, though he says they came at times, evidently 
in winter, to the region of Matagorda bay when he was there. While he 
had time to go as far as this Ravine, there is considerable to make us feel 
that he may have come to the Rio Grande from the south, because he ac- 
tually describes the country and his experiences while he was south of the 
permanent houses, at which latter place it was warm in winter. It is 
equally remarkable that Moscoso's party found no bison herds— only learned 
that they came to one place "in seasons"— and yet he was in Texas at the 
time when he might meet them on the southward migration, had he gone 
very far west.-^* 

The Teyas and the Conans and the Qiierechos. 

Castaneda says (588, tp.) the first nomads seen were called "Querechos" 
by those living in the flat-roofed houses, because they were found among 
the cows. Mr. Winship says (396, note 1) quoting Mr. James Mooney, 
that "Querecho is an old Comanche name of the Tonkawa." 

The Teyas, says Castafieda (524, tp.), seem to have been immigrant to 
the region years before in vast numbers, so that they had destroyed many 
pueblos (in the foothills of the Sandia range). But the Pueblos, Indians of 
the Rio Grande, were finally able to resist them. The latter pointed toward 
the north in speaking of the former home of these foes, but now allowed 
some of them to winter under the wings of the settlements, never admit- 
ting them to their homes. This narrator says the word "Teyas" means 
"brave men" in the Pueblan tongue, and is applied to any men so charac- 

who said she had run "away from other men like them nine days." A year later 
Moscoso's men, at about their farthest west, found a woman who said she had seen 
Christians near, but later denied it. She was probably the same in both cases, and the 
Teyas, in the fall of 1542, when Moscoso was west, may have been much farther east 
than in June, 1541, when Coroiiado's "force" was going up the valley of the Pecos to 

Note 34. — See the author's discussion of "The Route of Cabeza de Vaca," in the Quar- 
terly of the State Historica. Association of Texas, April, 1907, vol. X, No. 4, pages 320 to 
324, where these topics are discussed more fully. 

250 Kansas State Historical Society. 

terized. Later, among Texas tribes, it meant friends or allies. There may 
have been really many tribes to whom the term was applicable, as the sub- 
sequent history of this name would imply. Early Spanish writers concern- 
ing the history of Texas say that the Cenis, Aisenis and Teyas were the 

Castaheda (507) implies that the Conans were a different tribe from the 
Teyas. The extent of their permanent settlements, and the fact that they 
had "beans." would hint the same. Furthermore, he says that the settle- 
ment was "a manera de alixares. " Mr. Winship has not rendered the 
phrase; and since the margin gives "Alexeres," he felt, very plausibly, 
that it was like some town which the old Spaniard had seen elsewhere. He 
says that "alixeres" means threshing floor; and the roads through so ex- 
tensive a settlement might well resemble this. Ternaux-Compans renders 
it "bruyeres," or heaths, which is what a meadow bottom might seem like 
to a European. But if we remember Castaiieda's fondness for x where j is 
usual, the word may become "alijares," which is found in the dictionaries 
as "uncultivated ground," and which, Mr. James Mooney informs me, has 
long been applied in Mexico to old, worn-out fields. Since the Conans were 
a planting people, this does not seem an improbable meaning, and implies 
an old, settled rancheria. It seems, therefore, that some broad meadow on 
one of the forks of the Brazos may have held Cona. 

The writer has never been in this region, but he is going to make a 
guess, based on the records, at the location of all these places— a hypothesis 
at harmonizing the especially inconsistent statements of Castaneda about 
the trip to Cona and back being made in about nine days, and one in keep- 
ing with the suggestion that the squad struck Cona at its farthest end. It 
seems that the main army went to the Teya Ravine from the direct west, 
and yet intersected it; and Mota Padilla says they passed it. This was 
likely the Canyon Blanco branch of the Salt Fork of the Brazos, at some 
point near the line between Crosby and Dickens counties, Texas, where the 
stream runs directly south, as the conditions demand. Thence the Cona 
squad went easterly across Dickens, King and perhaps part of Stonewall 
counties, to Cona, on the Salt Fork, where this stream also runs north for 
fifteen miles. It would thus lie directly across their path. Four days, or 
sixty or seventy miles, from the army camp would about reach this. Thence 
the squad followed the settlement up the Salt to the junction of the Double 
Mountain branch, and on up that for three days in all, through the rancheria 
of Cona, to within a short distance of where the army was camped on the 
same stream— it having moved one day south or easterly, which distance 
anywhere along here would bring it to the second Ravine. This would, 
from the topography, ^s likely be in the southwest corner of Crosby or the 
northwest corner of Garza county. Thence west, the Pecos river, at a 
point near Roswell and at the proper distance below the site of the bridge, 
is distant about one hundred and seventy-five miles in a direct line; and 

Note 35. — See Hill's Topographical Map of Texas — a government publication. 

Since writing the above I have become convinced that this squad, in going four days 
east, or from eighty to one hundred miles at least, must have left the Llano behind and 
encountered some very rough country. If Castanedo had intended to include this trip in 
the two hundred and fifty leagues which he says the army went, in the whole of which 
they did not see a hill higher than a man, he may be inconsistent with the facts ; but he 
was not with this party, and doubtless his statements had reference only to the experience 
•of the main army. 

A Study of the Route of Coronado. 251 

over such route the Teyas could lead the army home by shooting arrow 
over arrow. 

To pass the many lakes of salt on the road home from here, if this road 
were straight, rhe position of the two camps should have been farther 
south— that of the Teyas about the northwest corner of Kent county, and 
the final camp in the middle of eastern Garza county, which would suit the 
presumed position of Cona almost as well; and then the road from the 
Teya Ravine westward to the Pecos would pass the many lakes in Lynn 
and Terry counties which are noted in the records. 

Placing the Querechos back five days, or eighty-five miles, from this 
Teya Ravine would locate their camp about the northern edge of Lamb 
county, Texas, where the southern kink and bend of this same Canyon 
Blanco, or Catfish creek, would form the "little river" which one day fur- 
ther back Lopez could intersect as he returned westward from his search 
for Haxa. West of this, as noted, this stream is one of those "among the 
cows," along which Jaramillo says they came to the Querechos. It is 
highly probable that the Turk led them southeastward, down between Cat- 
fish creek and Double Mountain fork, till he reached the region where these 
streams were in one day's march of each other. 

It would be interesting to know if there are any indications of village 
sites along the bottoms of the Salt and lower Double Mountain forks of the 

In a straight line, the Querechos camp, as located, would have been 
about one hundred and forty miles from the bridge at Puerto de Luna, 
which distance, without meandering, would have consumed about eight days 
at their rate of an average of six and a half leagues, or seventeen miles, 
per day, which is Coronado 's time to the Querechos. From this point it 
may easily be seen that Lopez could go toward sunrise twenty leagues, or 
about fifty miles, and see nothing then but cows and sky, still being on the 

All this, which is plausible, puts the locating of these ravines on the Col- 
orado river out of the discussion. Most students have held this, because 
they have presumed that the great number of days which Castafieda gives 
were actually marched; and, under this impression, the inference of great 
distance toward the southeast was natural. But it is certain that Coro- 
nado's army never got eastward of the Llano, and that he never reached the 
Missouri river. 

In like manner, there is no possibility for Coronado to have reached Ne- 
braska, since thirty or more days from these ravines on the Llano, at the 
rate of five leagues per day, the "not long" jornadas of Jaramillo, could 
be all easily spent between this and the Arkansas river. 

This brief study is but preliminary. Doubtless, with a personal journey 
over the ground, much more will be done by others. I have simply at- 
tempted to mass the present material, so that others may think on the sub- 
ject without much investigation in the lines which are so apparent on a 
little research. 

I wish to confess my indebtedness to the generous aid I have received 
from Mr. W. E. Richey, of Harvey ville, Kan.— now deceased— and to Mr. 
George Parker Winship, for pergonal help and special courtesies and large ap- 
propriations from his work. To Frederick Webb Hodge I acknowledge the 

252 Kansas State Historical Society. 

inspiration of this effort. Before I had read his paper in Brower's "Hara- 
hey, " I had, from my discovery that the river "ran down from toward 
Cicuye, " determined that the "Ravine" was on the Llano; and an exten- 
sive correspondence with this great student of all things pertaining to the 
Spanish expeditions in the Southwest has confirmed this. I owe him an 
apology for having, in my amateurish way, differed from him so often; but 
had he never written on this topic I should never have ventured to. 



Written by E. D. Smith," of Meade, for the Kansas State Historical Society. 

"DEGINNING with the dawn of its history and continuing to the present, 
-•-' the Teutonic races have been emigrant races. Whether their longing 
for the West is an inborn instinct or the result of heredity, which began by 
the pressure of some compelling necessity, the wise men have not decided. 
Born with this migratory desire as a ruling passion, yet, paradoxical as it may 
seem, these men have been preeminently home builders. Their westward 
progress always grew out of the hope of finding a fruitful land, where they 
could conquer and hold for their children a home surrounded by broad acres, 
richly productive; a land which they and their families after them should 
occupy and rule— by themselves their own particular holding, and with their 
kin the country at large. Having accomplished, as they supposed, their 
desire, and, with their families around them, seemingly firmly fixed in the 
soil, their sons were no sooner grown to manhood than they buckled on their 
slaughter weapons and took their departure for the promised land of the 
race, which always beckoned from the West. 

This lure of the West, which seems to be as strong as the instinct of the 
homing pigeon for its native cote, is not peculiar to the fragments of the 
races settled in America, although it is considered an American habit. It 
existed before the earliest settlement of the tribes in the west of Europe, 
and compelled them, in frail boats, without compass or knowledge of geog- 
raphy, to launch boldly out into the uncharted ^'orth Atlantic, with no idea 
of where they were going or what they would encounter, except that they 
were headed west, and could hold that course while life lasted. Could they 
return? If successful, possibly; if unsuccessful, return was not desirable. 

Note 1. — Ezra Delos Smith was born in Grant county, Wisconsin, November 9, 1854, 
the son of Ira A. and Maria (Isbell) Smith. His grandfather, Ralph Smith, married a 
Miss Simons, granddaughter of a niece of Charles Stuart of England. The Smiths 
came to the Plymouth colony soon after the Mayflower. They went into the wilderness, 
settling in New Hampshire. His gi-eat-grandfather, Jedediah Smith, moved to western 
New York while the Mohawks were still there ; from there he moved to Ashtabula, Ohio, 
about 1805, but had lived a while near Erie. Jedediah Strong Smith, the great explorer, 
was a brother of Ralph Smith. The great-grandfather, Jedediah Smith, had fourteen 
children, of whom nine lived to old age. They were pioneers in Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, 
Nebraska, Utah and California. E. D. Smith's mother's people left France the morning 
after the St. Bartholomew massacre (it closed September 17, 1572), i-eaching St. Augus- 
tine, Fla., but soon after going to Canada. They next settled in western New York, 
then drifted through Ohio into Indiana. Young Smith's grandfather, Ezra T. Isbell, built 
the first business house in Kendallville, Ind. The next move of the Ira A. Smith family 
was to Dekalb county, Missouri, in 1868. Ezra D. was self-educated. He spent several 
years as a farm hand in Iowa. In 1882 he married Miss Clara V. Haas. He moved to 
Meade Center, Kan., January 6, 1886, where he found the people celebrating the location 
of the county seat. Later he was elected justice of the peace, read law, and was admitted 
to the bar. He has two sons and one daughter. The story of his great-uncle, Jedediah S. 
Smith, is one of the most interesting in the development of the midcontinent, mountain 
and Pacific slope sections of the counti-y. 

Jedediah S. Smith and the Settlement of Kansas. 253 

They found Iceland, Greenland and North America centuries before sci- 
ence and study revealed to the Spanish and Portuguese navigators that the 
earth was round and India lay to the west. 

When in later years these peoples reached America, with larger vessels 
and surer knowledge of navigation, their habits were not changed. Having 
conquered the east coast, with its inhabitants, their westward way was 
again taken and their sailboats and canoes pressed ever upstre